With the onset of the first spring days, gardeners begin to think about their new crop. And do not just think, they are already beginning to act. Indeed, in this matter the main thing - do not miss the moment.
At the first stages they start to take care of the preparation of seedlings. At the same time, many wonder: how to improve the germination of seeds? Not everyone knows the ways that will help achieve this. But to answer this question, you must first understand what germination is.
Concept of germination
Under the germination of seeds understand their ability to germinate and ensure the future harvest. In fact, it can be compared with health. This concept implies the general condition of each seed, its integrity and intact, strength and time required for germination.
Seed germination is usually expressed as a percentage. It is calculated as the ratio of the number of germinated seeds to the total number. Do not expect germination to be 100%. Shoots never give such a result. There is always up to 10% of seeds that do not germinate. This figure is considered very good.
Factors affecting germination
The percentage of seed germination depends on some factors. Among them are the following:
- Seed age. These two concepts are inversely related. The greater the age of the seed, the lower the germination. Therefore, the seeds that have lain for some time, you need to check especially carefully.
- Shelf life. Different cultures have different shelf life. In some, it does not exceed a year, in others it can reach 5 years. The least stored seeds are greens (parsley, celery, dill, and so on). But the seeds of tomatoes, cucumbers show good germination even after 4-5 years.
- The rate of germination of culture. In plants of different species, the established germination rate is different. For example, seeds of cereals, legumes, turnips show a germination rate of 90-95%. At the same time, the middle position of germination (60-70%) is typical for beets, cabbage, and tomatoes. A very low percentage of germination is in the seeds of dill, parsley. He is 35-55%.
- Storage conditions. Seed germination will be higher if they are properly stored. This should be done in a dry room, where the temperature is within 10 degrees (not above room temperature). It is recommended to store seeds in linen bags.
In addition to the conditions described above, it was noted that seeds collected personally are stored better than purchased ones. And accordingly, it is better to germinate. At the same time you can be sure of the age of the seeds, their variety and safety.
How to check the seeds?
Check the germination of vegetable seeds can be from February. At this time, usually check the seeds of vegetables. As for flowers, their check can last until the end of spring. This will depend on the planting time of the crop.
Seed preparation is the first step towards a good harvest. And it is necessary to carry out this stage in accordance with the rules:
- Laboratory germination is always indicated on the package. This value characterizes seed germination under ideal conditions. But in real life this value is unattainable. To obtain a value that corresponds to field conditions, it is necessary to subtract up to 15 units.
- Check the packaging date, which is also indicated on the packaging. If the seeds were stored in a plastic bag with foil, then the shelf life can be slightly extended.
- Take a close look at the encryption that is on the package. Mark "F1" means that the seeds have a high yield, resistance. The designation in the form of the letter "B" says that the seeds were subjected to oxygen treatment in order to increase the percentage of germination.
These tips will help to get the seeds with the best performance.
Germination test at home
This stage of preparation for planting consider an example. Let's see how to check the seeds of pepper germination. First you need to calibrate them. Seeds in the package will not be the same. Of them choose the largest, heaviest. Empty, damaged, speckled can be thrown away.
Next, you need to prepare a salt solution with a concentration of 4-5%. To do this, a teaspoon of salt is diluted in 1 liter of water. Selected pepper seeds are dropped into this solution and left there for about 2 hours. During this time, bad seeds will float, and suitable for use will settle to the bottom. Those that have surfaced can be thrown away. The rest is washed with salt and dried.
A more accurate picture can be learned in another way. To do this, wet a piece of gauze and fold it in half. Lay the seeds between the layers. Many seeds are not needed, it will be enough just stuff 10. Leave them for up to two weeks. The main thing is to ensure that the fabric does not dry out. At the end of the term, calculate the germination percentage. Good result - 80%. If the value is less than 30% of the seeds, it makes no sense to use them.
Having considered an example of how to check the seeds of pepper germination, you can proceed to action. Based on the example, you can check the seeds and other crops.
Seed germination conditions
The following factors affect seed germination:
- Temperature. The higher this figure, the faster the seeds will grow. This is due to the large consumption of moisture.
- The amount of water. The amount of moisture required depends on the culture. Sugar beets, legumes, and flax seeds need the most water.
- Oxygen. During seedlings, seed nutrition is enhanced.
- Shine. This indicator affects not all plants. There are cultures that do not grow in the sun. For the growth of other sunshine light is required.
The correct choice of conditions will help to get ready seedlings in a timely manner seed germination.
When to expect shoots?
The emergence of the first shoots - exciting process. Waiting for him a few days, and sometimes weeks. The waiting time will depend on the landing conditions. The timing of seed germination of various crops can be seen in the table below.
As can be seen, the seeds of individual plants are able to germinate within a few days. Cabbage, radish, radish, and tomato sprout the fastest. They need only 4 to 7 days when planted outdoors and from 3 to 6 days when grown indoors. The longest will have to wait for the appearance of carrots, onions, celery.
Germination acceleration treatment
Experienced gardeners know that there are several ways to accelerate the germination of seeds. They consist in performing a few simple procedures:
- Namachivanie. A napkin moistened with water is placed in a saucer. On it are laid a thin layer of seeds. On top, everything is covered with a second layer of moistened cloth. Water should be at room temperature. After some time, the seeds nourish the moisture, the roots come through. When transplanting into the soil, it is important not to break sprouts that are very fragile. This method is perfect for eggplant seeds, beans, peas, beans, cucumbers, tomatoes, and so on.
- Warming up This method not only accelerates germination, but also disinfects. Seeds are heated at a temperature of 60 degrees in ovens or dryers. Used for growing tomatoes, cucumbers.
- Bubbling. The seeds placed in a fabric bag are dipped in water. There is placed the compressor from the aquarium in order to saturate the water with oxygen. Seeds with this method germinate in a day or two. Suitable method for carrots, onions, parsley, dill.
Other important points
Germination conditions for all crops are different. Most often, the seeds sprout in a warm room with a temperature of 22-28 degrees. But there are cold-loving plants that germinate at 18 degrees (lettuce, cabbage).
Another factor affecting the germination is the quality of the soil. Already ready soil can be purchased at the store. In this case, it does not need to fertilize.
Sowing depth also affects. Small seeds are sown on the surface of the soil and pressed. With an increase in seed size, the depth also increases. For example, celery is sown to a depth of 0.5 cm, onions - 1 cm, cucumbers and watermelons - 1.5-2 cm.
It is not necessary to apply all these methods. But some of them are required. Their implementation will provide a high percentage of germination and friendly shoots.
Types of processing seeds of peppers before planting seedlings
It is better to find out what types of pepper seed treatment are available in advance, as some operations are performed with seed just before planting, but there are also those that take place several days before being placed in the soil.
Consider the main pepper seed treatments:
- aging in saline solution
- growth stimulant treatment
- disinfection (dressing).
Salt solution is an optional procedure. According to many experienced gardeners, it allows you to select weak seeds that can not sprout later.
Soak carried out for the germination of pepper seeds before planting. With the same purpose, they are treated with a growth stimulator. Such an unusual procedure as bubbling helps to germinate faster than seeds.
Quenching it is necessary to carry out in order that they were more adapted further to the harsh and changeable weather conditions in our climate. Etching will never be superfluous, as it prevents the development of various diseases in future seedlings.
30 g of salt are dissolved in a liter of warm waterafter which the seed is placed there. Floated seeds can be thrown away, whereas containers that are at the bottom are considered strong and should give good shoots. They are thoroughly washed with clean water and dried, after which you can continue to prepare for planting.
Growth stimulator treatment and soaking
How to soak pepper seeds for seedlings? It is quite realistic to combine these two operations, so they will benefit more from future seedlings.
Soak with stimulant treatment two days before landing, it should be borne in mind that immediately after they are processed and swell, they will need to be planted immediately into the soil.
For soaking, as a rule, use raw defended water room temperature. As a growth promoter epin, zircon or humate. Any of these drugs diluted with water in accordance with the instructions and poured into a wide shallow container.
Seeds can be placed immediately in the selected dish, or gently spread on cosmetic cotton pads, previously absorbed the resulting solution.
In some cases, it is justified to soak the seed in ordinary distilled water. For example, if it is not possible to purchase a stimulant, and the time of planting has already arrived, and urgent need to germinate seeds. Then they are kept in water for two days, after which they can be placed in the soil.
The main condition after placing the seeds in the solution is to maintain the humidity in the environment in which the seed is. They are kept in the resulting solution for two days, after which they can be planted in previously prepared soil.
Hardening pepper seeds is carried out in two stages that are repeated several times. Most often, this operation is carried out already with seedlings. Seeds are alternately placed in room temperature conditions and in a cold store.
The temperature in the latter should not be below 2 degrees. Each period ends after 12 hours. After another overexposure in the refrigerator, the seeds are planted in warm, moist soil.
Hardening allows future saplings to be made more adapted to various weather changes, but the cultivation of sweet pepper in our climate is still carried out mainly in greenhouses. This point should be considered with further cultivation of the culture.
Seed bubbling has become popular recently. The essence of the procedure is to enrich the seed with oxygen.. Such an operation can significantly reduce the period of germination. It is quite simple to carry out bubbling at home if there is an aquarium at home.
The seeds are placed in a tank with separated water, after which the hose from the aquarium compressor is lowered. In this state, the seeds are from 1 to 1.5 days, after which they are removed and planted in the ground.
Video instruction on the process of bubbling:
Why do you need germination?
Some novice gardeners do not understand why it is necessary to prepare seed, if the seeds can be sown immediately into the ground. In fact, there are several answers to this question, and we will consider every reason for the need for germination.
- Bacteria or fungal spores can be found on the surface of seeds of pepper or other vegetable crops, which will eventually lead to damage to the seedlings. For disinfection can be used potassium permanganate or store drugs.
Micronutrient Processing and Sprouting
Preparing pepper seeds for sowing
Sowing germinated seeds
Despite the large number of seed preparation methods before planting, only a few of them should be chosen, not all at once. Otherwise, you will destroy the plant before planting, finally spoiling the seed. Sprouting is probably the best way to accelerate plant growth and strengthen its defense mechanisms. But when buying seeds of pepper, try to give preference to proven manufacturers and sellers, in order not to waste your time and energy. Store products, as a rule, do not need preliminary preparation (so say the manufacturers), but it is better to be safe. So let's get started.
When buying seeds of pepper, try to give preference to proven manufacturers.
Seed preparation for sowing
Regardless of the variety of pepper, the seeds very quickly lose their freshness, and there is no guarantee for good germination. Fortunately, there are ways to fix this. We are talking about germination, disinfection, as well as hardening of seeds. The combination of these methods will accelerate the growth of seedlings and, as a result, get rich harvests of pepper.
Hand picking pepper seeds
First you need to select high-quality seeds. To do this, they fall for 6-7 minutes in a special solution of table salt. To prepare such a solution is very simple - pour 1 l of water with 35 g of salt. After mixing, the pepper seeds will behave differently: the weak ones will float to the surface, and the strong ones will fall to the bottom. The emerged seed must be thrown away, because it is unsuitable for planting, and those seeds that remain will need to be dried well on a paper napkin. Only after that you can proceed to the next stage.
Pepper seed test for germination
What is the need for disinfection of seeds? First of all, it is protection against various infections that may end up in your greenhouse. This procedure does not require special skills or equipment, so you can disinfect the inoculum yourself. Prepare a solution of potassium permanganate, pour 1⁄2 glasses of water and 1 g potassium permanganate. Then put the seeds of pepper there for 15-20 minutes. But before the solution, the seeds must be kept in warm water (+ 40-45 ° C), having previously wrapped each variety separately in a piece of soft cloth. A chintz, gauze or batiste will do.
Disinfection of seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate
On a note! Keep the seeds in water should be no more than 2 hours, after which they are squeezed and placed in the prepared solution of potassium permanganate. Some summer residents do not want to use a solution of such a strong concentration, fearing that the seeds will spoil or turn black. But no need to worry, because the seeds will germinate well as a result, which will not happen when using a weak solution.
The final stage - hardening seeds
After pepper seeds have germinated, they must be placed in a refrigerator for 1 week for hardening. Not all gardeners resort to this method, but this is an excellent solution to facilitate the process of planting seeds in open soil. Hardening also helps the culture to adapt to changing weather conditions. At this stage, the preparatory work is completed. Then you can start sowing.
Hardening of seeds in the refrigerator
Growing pepper seedlings
The process of growing seedlings of pepper is almost the same as growing other garden crops, with the exception of some features. The plant may die if conditions are unsuitable for the growth of seedlings. For example, an unsuccessful transplant, sudden temperature fluctuations, or too little watering can lead to lower yields. This can happen even after you pre-process pepper seeds before planting and germinate them, so it’s best to follow some guidelines.
Pepper seedlings in cups
Optimal sowing time
От появления всходов до полного созревания плодов перца проходит в среднем 130 дней (этот срок может меняться в зависимости от выбранного сорта или климатических особенностей региона). Planting of seedlings takes place after 70-80 days from the time of sowing, therefore, sowing pepper seeds is desirable in the second half of February - early March. After reading the information from the manufacturer of your variety, you will be able to independently calculate the time of sowing, and this can be done more accurately.
It is important to choose the optimal planting time.
Soil mix preparation
While seed germination occurs, you can proceed to the preparation of the soil mixture. For this purpose, there is a special ground for pepper, which can be purchased at the store. Just before sowing, the soil mix should be mixed with a small amount of washed sand in a 3: 1 ratio. But experienced gardeners are not looking for easy ways - they prepare the soil mixture for sowing with their own hands.
Soil for seedlings of tomatoes, peppers and eggplants
To prepare, mix the washed sand (1 part), peat (2 parts) and humus (2 parts). Instead of humus, you can use rotted compost. Stir all ingredients thoroughly, steaming the mixture in a double boiler for 40-60 minutes. This will protect the seedlings from weeds and fungal diseases. It is also necessary to sift the mixture through a fine sieve to separate large particles. Now you can sow.
The soil for seedlings of peppers should be loose and light.
Getting started on sowing
As practice shows, germinated seeds are much more difficult to sow than ordinary ones, therefore, wet seed should first be dried well. Only after that start sowing. When drying, do not overdo it, otherwise the seeds may be damaged, which will worsen germination. Next you just need to follow the step by step instructions below.
Table. Instructions for planting pepper seeds.
The timing of sowing pepper depends strictly on which group of varieties the seed belongs to. Therefore, before sowing seeds, it is necessary to familiarize themselves with their agronomic characteristics. In modern truck farming there are the following types of varieties:
- superearrow (less than 100 days for ripe fruits),
- early (bear an average of 120 days),
- mid-season (give ripe fruits in 120-130 days),
- late (for ripening the fruit takes more than 130 days).
The optimal period for planting seedlings in the temperate zone is the end of May or the beginning of June. Therefore, when sowing, it is necessary to proceed from the fact that by this time the plants should have passed at least half of the growing season and be 100% ready for full-bloom. Based on the above, the optimal time for sowing pepper to seedlings are:
- for superearly varieties - the first half of April (10-15 number), the favorable period for the early ones will be the end of March - the beginning of April, the mid-season is sown no later than mid-March,
- well and late varieties taken to sow in early March. With strict observance of the above, in the second half of July your table will be full of fragrant and bright fruits, and the harvest period will last until the first half of August. The described periods are approximate, since besides the growing season you must take into account how long it takes for the seeds to begin to germinate.
For colder or hotter climate zones, these periods will be slightly different. In this case, you should use the following rule: superearly varieties are sown on seedlings 50 days before planting in open ground, early ones - for 60-65, middle-ripening - for 65-70 and late - for 75-80 days. It should be borne in mind that the average air temperature during the light period of the day should not fall below +19 ° C, otherwise the pepper may die in the open ground. Therefore, depending on the variety and climatic region, the seeds of sweet pepper for seedlings can be sown from early February to early May.
Sowing rules [than bad without preparation]
Most of the gardeners at the stage of receiving seedlings make many fatal mistakes, since it is rather difficult to germinate pepper from seeds and achieve healthy plants. This leads to the fact that the seed and the effort spent in vain, and the resulting plants in most cases die before transplanting into open soil.
That is why many gardeners refuse to self-germinate seeds and spend significant funds on ready seedlings. Today we will describe in detail the process of sprouting pepper from seeds, which will help many people not only save their strength, but also save money.
So, after you have decided on a variety, you need to find out what type it belongs to (regarding the time of fruit ripening). After that, it is necessary to determine the exact calendar period for sowing. Next comes the process of preliminary preparation of seed. It mainly consists in the disinfection of seeds.
The process is carried out in several ways:
- seeds are kept for 20 minutes in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), after which they are soaked for 18 hours in a special plant growth stimulator ("Zircon", "Epin", etc.),
- seeds are disinfected for 20 minutes in a 2% solution of potassium permanganate, and then kept for 6 hours in melted snow water or in an aqueous solution prepared from aloe juice.
When using purchased pickled seeds, sharpened in a capsule, they are not retrained, as the seed is decontaminated and processed by special growth stimulants under industrial conditions.
How to speed up the process?
In order to improve the efficiency of germination and the quality of seedlings, in modern agricultural practice they use many ways. But most of them cannot be made at home, because no matter how much you try to do it, you will not be able to reach the professional level of the material and technical base. In this case, experienced gardeners use several secrets that help in a few days to see how the long-awaited pepper begins to sprout. Consider the most popular ones.
Calibration is a preliminary screening of non-viable seeds. This method of increasing the efficiency of germination is resorted to by both large companies and amateurs. The method is quite effective, simple and straightforward. Its essence lies in the fact that viable and damaged seeds differ in different weights. Therefore, in order to identify deviations in the mass of seeds, they are poured into a container with water. For 10 minutes, a viable seed material settles to the bottom of the pot, but everything that emerges is rejected. This method is quite effective and popular among domestic gardeners.
Stimulation seed germination using special solutions is one of the most effective ways to accelerate seed germination. The essence of the method lies in the fact that the seeds are soaked in special solutions that intensify the processes of cell division in the seed itself. As a result, seed germination can be accelerated several times. In addition, growth promoters make it possible to get a healthy and strong plant. The method has been known for quite some time; in the modern world, special chemicals are used for this, synthesized on the basis of natural components of the environment. At home, for more than a decade, people have been using traditional methods of preparing solutions-stimulants, which are based on derivatives of living organisms (willow juice, aloe juice, chicken eggs, etc.).
The best conditions for seedlings
Pepper is a rather capricious plant, therefore, in order to provide it with the best conditions for germination and active growth, it is necessary to possess a set of knowledge regarding optimal environmental parameters. Based on many professional agronomic literary sources, it can be stated that in order to accelerate the development of pepper seedlings, it is necessary:
- High soil moisture. The germination substrate must be constantly wet, but without excess water. To do this, sprouts must be watered abundantly at least 2 times a day.
- Enough heat. Pepper is a heat-loving plant, for growing seedlings it is necessary to adhere to the temperature regime of +26. +28 ° C.
- Great lighting. In order for the sprouts to show the maximum growth force, after the first shoots appear, the capacity with the plants must be placed on the brightest place, or artificial light should be provided for at least 12 hours a day.
Sweet pepper is a rather whimsical and difficult plant to grow. In addition, obtaining seedlings of this vegetable culture is complicated by many varietal and species characteristics. But with full observance of all the secrets described above, sprouting pepper seeds at home can become an easy task, which will result in fresh and fragrant fruits.