With the right approach to business, breeding ducks can become a fairly profitable business. However, the farmer who decided to start such an economic bird should take care to choose the most suitable breed. Most often, the owners of household farms contain broiler ducks. A characteristic feature of such a bird is precocity. The weight of the roiler ducks is very fast and significant. However, unfortunately, in comparison with the bird of ordinary breeds, they are even more demanding in their care.
What is cross?
So, how does a broiler duck differ from a normal one? To begin with, practically all the birds in this direction of productivity have been artificially obtained relatively recently. Only some hybrids were bred at the end of the year before last - the beginning of the last century. In this case, all modern broilers in most cases were obtained on the basis of only two highly productive ducks - Peking and Musk.
Hybrids differ from breeds primarily because they are unable to produce good offspring. Sometimes such ducks cannot even carry fertilized eggs. This is primarily due to the large weight of the drakes. It is simply difficult for such males to coat females. But even if fertilized eggs appear in the broiler nests, it will not be possible to get good productive young stock from them. In the second generation, hybrids have a splitting of pedigree traits into initial ones. As a result, young animals are significantly inferior to their parents in terms of weight gain. The exception in this case are only some hybrids.
Weight broilers gain significant. At the same time, the bones of such ducks are quite thin. As a result, their meat output is very large. Broiler duck feeds usually consume more than a simple bird. However, especially fatty their meat is almost never. When developing new crosses, experts pay a lot of attention to this indicator.
The best breeds
So, as can be judged from the description given above, a broiler duck is a bird in terms of weight gain and highly productive. Excellent growth performance is characterized by the majority of modern crosses. For example, a farmer can start in his plot:
All these breeds of broiler ducks are relatively unpretentious and beneficial in breeding.
This cross was created by French breeders in the 60s of the last century on the basis of Peking and musk ducks. The advantages of mulard farmers include not only the ability to quickly gain weight, but also unpretentiousness in relation to care. This bird reaches the slaughter mass at the age of 2-3 months. Individual individuals by this time are gaining weight already in 3.5-4 kg.
The advantages of broiler mulardov, many farmers also include very good taste of meat. Even with generous feeding too fat it never happens.
This high-performance duck was obtained by crossing super hybrids of M and the bosom and the Indian runner. Works on its removal were carried out in Bashkortostan at the beginning of the millennium. At the moment there are two main lines agidel - 34th and 345th.
At the age of 60 days, this bird can reach a weight of 3 kg. At the same time, duck meat agidel, as well as mulard, is not too fat. It is perfect for both soups, and for fried or stewed dishes.
As can be judged by the name, this breed of broiler ducks was bred in the Moscow region. Experts of the Progress state farm carried out selection work with it in the 40-60s of the last century. The Peking duck became the parent breed for the Moscow white, as well as for many others. Adults of this hybrid at the age of 60-70 days are capable of reaching a weight of 3.5-4 kg.
The meat of these ducks is very tender and tasty. The advantages of this breed also include a good immunity, and therefore resistance to all sorts of diseases. Also, the Moscow white broiler duck is characterized by very thick plumage. And therefore she is not afraid of cold at all.
Hybrid blue favorite
These ducks, popularly also called the pharaohs, are distinguished by a very fast weight gain. Received cross favorite was quite by accident. Bashkortostan breeders tried to bring a new highly productive hybrid based on Peking duck. The intermediate result - the blue favorite - turned out to be so precocious and hardy that it was decided to register it as a separate cross.
In 2-3 months, ducks blue favorite gain weight in 3.5 kg. The meat of this bird is slightly fatty. Therefore, many farmers advise to feed these ducks smaller. In this case, by 2 months they will gain a weight of about 2.5 kg. But their meat will be very tasty, juicy and home-flavored.
Growing broiler ducks is a matter that requires compliance with certain technologies. But this is mainly just feeding. In terms of "amenities" of living, most modern cross-country tracks are characterized by unpretentiousness. They contain such a bird more often only in the warm season. Therefore, some owners of homesteads do not even build a shed for her. Sturdy modern cross country in summer can feel great and just under a canopy - in the aviary. Sometimes such a bird is kept in cages. In this case, some breeds of broiler ducks gain weight even faster.
The diet of such ducks, of course, should be as balanced as possible. At the same time it is necessary to feed the bird at least three times a day. Morning and lunch broilers are usually offered wet mash. In the evening, the bird is fed concentrates - grain or shredded. Such a feeding scheme is used if there is no reservoir nearby. If there is a pond nearby, you can chase the bird in the morning to graze on natural food. At lunch in this case they also give mash, and in the evening - grain. In addition to vegetable, ducks must receive and feed of animal origin. Most often, farmers include junk fish in the diet of such a bird.
Can be used in broiler broiler breeding and a “dry” feeding scheme. In this case, only special feed is included in the poultry diet. When using this diet, the maintenance of ducks will cost more. But the weight, of course, they will gain faster.
How to increase livestock
So, what to feed the broiler ducks, we found out. But how can you increase the flock of such a bird in the area? As already mentioned, most crosses are highly productive offspring can not give. For example, from the above described breeds “in oneself” one can breed only Moscow white. Farmers sometimes also get good offspring from blue pharaohs. However, in this case, even when choosing the best producers, the weight of the young will still gain slightly slower than their parents.
In order to get good productive ducklings, the farmer should purchase either a broiler hatching egg or the young itself. In the first case, the costs will be minimal. When buying the same young farmer will have to spend a little more. But in this case, the content of broilers with the right approach to business will be beneficial.
Breeding broiler ducks: incubation technology
It will be relatively easy to bring chicks of this direction from the purchased egg. In order to get ducklings, you can use a regular chicken incubator. Chickens of broilers hatch on 26-28 days after laying eggs in the apparatus. When performing their incubation, of course, one must adhere to a certain technology.
A feature of broiler duck eggs is that they contain a lot of fat. Therefore, in the process of incubation, they can overheat. And this, in turn, often leads to the death of the embryo. To prevent this from happening, from the second week after egg laying, it should be aired twice a day - at 8:00 and at 20:00. To do this, turn off the heating in the device and open the door.
Of course, it should be observed during incubation and temperature conditions. From 1 to 14 days, the air temperature in the apparatus should remain at 37.5-38 C. On days 14-21, this figure increases to 38-38.5 C. On the last days before hatching, the temperature is increased to 38.5-39 C. Humidity air in the apparatus throughout the incubation period should be maintained at 65-68%. In any case, the eggs themselves should be sprayed from time to time.
How to care for little ducklings
Chicks of modern crosses are usually characterized by unpretentiousness and endurance. However, in terms of lunge ducklings common breeds, they, unfortunately, are inferior. Care for such young should be properly. Otherwise, lunge in the herd can be quite large.
Just hatched ducklings need to be left for some time in an incubator. Chicks should dry in their usual conditions. Next ducklings transferred to a brooder or box. The first two days they are kept at a temperature of 30 ° C. By two weeks of age, this figure is reduced to 26-28 C. Three-week-old ducklings broilers are already allowed to be kept at a temperature of 18-20 C. Observe such a regime necessarily. Otherwise, the chicks may catch a cold and die.
The lighting of the house in the early days should be around the clock. The fact is that little duckling broilers are very afraid of the dark. When frightened of something, they can simply pass each other in a panic. By the second week of life of young stockings, daylight hours in the house can be reduced to 16-18 hours. In the third week, this figure should be equal to 10 hours already.
Care for broiler ducks: how to feed hatched chicks
In the early days, youngsters are usually offered cottage cheese and boiled chopped egg. You can also give kids kashka. But at the same time, it is necessary to make sure that after the “dinner” they do not have noses clogged up. After a few days, chopped greens can be added to the diet of babies. After some time, ducklings offer finely grated root vegetables.
If the crosses are decided to be raised on compound feeds, in the first days chicks are kept on a special starting mixture. Use it in the future for three weeks. Next, the ducks are transferred to the finishing feed.
In terms of endurance, crosses to ordinary birds, unfortunately, are inferior. Broilers are ill more often than simple ducks. Therefore, owners of cross-country will have to take particular care about hygiene in the house or aviary. Most often, broiler ducks develop diseases such as:
colds and conjunctivitis,
Little broilers ducklings sometimes suffer from cuticle. At the same time, chicks develop diarrhea and their appetite decreases. For treatment in this case, the poultry diet is enriched with vitamins PP and A.
Popular breeds of broiler ducks
Such breeds of broiler ducks are especially popular in domestic poultry farming:
- Cherry Valley,
- Super M4,
- Indian runner
Egg-duck with English roots, one of the most popular broiler breeds of ducks. It has snow-white plumage, a large body of fat. It features a fast weight gain and up to three months of life is already gaining 3 kilograms of mass. Her meat is red, tougher than white, but very tasty.
The egg production period begins at 7 months. The average egg weight ranges from 70 to 90 g. The mother line Cherry Valley is more productive - they carry from 130 to 150 eggs per year. In terms of weight, they also exceed the paternal line - the weight of an adult reaches 4 kg.
- fast growth,
- high productivity in meat and egg indicators
- good chick survival,
- good adaptation to any conditions of care and feeding,
- beautiful appearance.
The only disadvantage of this breed is their troublesome breeding. It is necessary to maintain the temperature conditions in the place where the chicks are housed, to feed them correctly. But with any other breeds in the first months of their life, too, need to bother to grow healthy and strong birds.
To obtain this breed, the breeders crossed the Indo-duck with Peking ducks or other domestic breeds. Mulard is a meat breed, a bird weighs 4 kilograms in just two to three months of life. Her meat with high taste. This breed is suitable for forced fattening and obtaining a fatty liver for foie gras. The colors can be varied: the whole body is white or dark in color with a fuzzy black speck on the head.
Pluses of ducks Mulard:
- give a lot of tasty meat,
- unpretentious to the conditions of life and nutrition,
- do not require the presence of reservoirs
- There is a small percentage of body fat.
The disadvantage of this breed is that they are barren, so it is not suitable for those poultry farmers who are going to breed them.
Medeo ducks bred by Russian breeders. Appearance and productivity of the breed is similar to Cherry Valley - Medeo's ancestors. Carries from 140 to 150 eggs per year, which weigh about 85 g. The weight of a two-month-old duckling reaches 3.5 kg. Juveniles survive in 70% of cases.
The positive aspects of the breed can be considered:
- low feed consumption
- high egg production rates
- adaptability to life in all conditions.
Negative sides are not noticed.
The breed Medeo took part in breeding Blagovarsky cross. A distinctive feature of this breed is low-fat tasty meat.
Blagovarskaya breed is famous for its meat indicators - by the age of two months they already gain 5 kg of weight. On average, 240 eggs are carried throughout the entire productive period.
Pluses of Blagovarsky cross-country:
- give a large amount of tasty, lean meat,
- grow rapidly
- carry a lot of eggs.
Breed minuses - the need for a rich diet with a high content of calcium and other trace elements, it is desirable to have a reservoir.
Little is known about this breed - they quickly build up weight and have very tasty, lean meat. Birds are unpretentious to the living conditions, food consumption is small.
A special feature of Indian runners is a high egg production rate. They give up to 350 eggs per year, which weigh about 50 g. Their meat indicators are low - adults of both sexes gain no more than 2 kilograms of weight. They have an interesting body shape, it looks like an elongated bottle. As the name of the breed says, these birds run fast even in the snow and swim well. Their character is calm, but they like to move a lot. They have no requirements for nutrition.
Advantages of Indian runners:
- carry a lot of eggs
- look beautiful and unusual
- quiet and calm, although quite mobile,
- adapt well to living conditions, tolerate frost well,
- Chicks already in 4 weeks weigh as parents,
- give tasty and healthy meat.
Chernobiloobrudka, she is a white-breasted black duck - the result of the work of Ukrainian breeders. It is characterized by long maturation. Its maximum weight - 4 kg reaches only by the 6th month of life. But they slaughtered it earlier - at 3 months, when its meat has the highest palatability. This cross is more meat than egg. The body of white-breasted black ducks weighs an impressive 4 kilograms, and they give only 130 eggs per year.
- gives a lot of meat
- unpretentious to climatic conditions
- characterized by high survival,
- has a beautiful plumage.
- requires constant monitoring of power,
- birds need a reservoir
- long ripen.
Agidel - Bashkir mixed meat and egg breed.
Already at the age of 7 weeks the birds gain 3 kilograms, and in a year they give up to 240 eggs. Eggs are large, their weight is more than 90 g.
- give high-quality, tasty meat,
- unpretentious in nutrition,
- grow rapidly in both industrial environments and households,
- resistant to diseases.
Description of the best breeds of broiler ducks
To keep the bird profitable, it must pay for itself. In this case, from the duck you can get healthy meat in considerable quantities. But which broiler breed for breeding ducks to choose so that it was not unprofitable?
The best breeds of broiler ducks
- Mulard (Mullard) were bred in France. This breed of ducks differ in dietary meat with a low rate of fat. Mass gain quickly when feeding even the most simple, cheap food. But there is one drawback - they breed Mullards ducks only by artificial means.
- Cherry Valley - very popular look. With proper feeding by 2 months, ducks and drakes can reach 3.5 kg! At the same time, the bird has a high survival rate, and after 6 months of life, the female gives up to 150 eggs / year.
- Blagovarsky - a very popular cross due to the early ripening of the ducks. By week 7, females reach 3.4 kg, males - 3.7 kg! Per kilogram weight gain, on average, 2.8 kg of good feed. The meat is tasty, tender. The survival rate of young stock is up to 98%.
- Medeo - able to reach 2 kg in 2 months, but only with proper care. They also need good food, then besides meat the breeder will be able to receive up to 150 eggs a year from one layer.
The basic principles of growing broiler ducks are the same as the cultivation of any other mall. It is only necessary to ensure that broiler ducks receive a sufficient amount of feed in general and protein in particular. Так как из-за быстрого роста бройлерные утки нуждаются в большом количестве протеина.
Питание и кормление
Первое кормление утят — вкрутую сваренное яйцо. Потом маленьких птиц кормят влажными мешанками, в которые добавляют свежую зелень и крупы. Мешанку можно заменить качественным комбикормом. In the first few days, weak chicks are fed with a raw yolk from a syringe.
The diet of the first month of life consists of:
- wholemeal flour and fine cereal grains - 30-40%,
- bran - 10%,
- crushed greens - 30-35%,
- hay flour - 5%,
- ground chalk, shell or shell - 1%,
- grated carrots - 3-5%,
- beer or baker's yeast - 3-5%,
- fish oil - 1.5%.
The diet is maintained for 10 days, then add more greens. After the 16th day, they transfer to adult food, where corn makes up half the grain part.
You can not give a duck bread at any age. This disrupts digestion, causes bloating and inhibits growth.
More ducklings can not eat:
- any dairy products, except cottage cheese,
- cooked porridge, excluding oatmeal,
- any berry, grapes,
- fresh nettle,
- onions and cabbage,
- feed for chickens
- sunflower seeds and maple leaves.
Fresh water is necessary for chicks and adult ducks. However, you need to make sure that the water tank is not deep - the birds can choke. It is useful in the first week of life to add some sugar to the water.
Broiler ducks need constant access to the paddock in the fresh air. In the perimeter of the place of walking you need to install a feeder and drinker. Already at the age of 3 weeks they can swim in a pond where they can find additional natural food. Up to two weeks of age, broiler ducklings are protected from infections by maternal antibodies, but they can still be infected with various pathogens. Ducklings need to do a two-time vaccination against Newcastle disease at the age of 10-15 days and 20-25 days.
Also needed vaccinations against infectious bursal disease, infectious bronchitis.
The litter litter should be regularly cleaned from litter, so as not to increase the humidity level in the house and not to provoke the development of pathogenic bacteria.
Conditions of detention
In domestic and industrial scale broiler birds are grown on the floor. For this you need a spacious, dry, pre-disinfected room. It should be adjusted ventilation system, in the summer it is especially important. It is important to monitor the humidity in the room, lighting and temperature. In the first week of life in the room should be light day and night. Then you can reduce the daylight hours to 10 hours. The humidity level in the house should not exceed 65-70%, and the temperature should not fall below +23 ° C.
If the density of individuals in the house is too large, the ducks will slowly grow and develop, add weight poorly. Up to a month, 16 birds can be placed on one square meter, and then up to 8 ducks on the same square meter.
The floor is disinfected, covered with bedding of straw, shavings, peat, hay. Layer layer should be 15-20 centimeters. Litter periodically updated. In the first two weeks, chicks are best caged in small groups. It's easier to care for birds. Ducklings in a cage are restricted in movement, their mass is growing rapidly.
Broiler ducks are highly productive and unpretentious birds. If you feed them properly, create the necessary conditions for them and take care of them with love - all efforts will quickly be rewarded with a large number of healthy eggs and delicious meat.