Cysticercosis in rabbits
Cysticercosis in rabbits: what it is, symptoms, treatment
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Parasitizing in the intestines of the rabbit, the chain can reach five meters in length, laying up to 100 thousand larvae daily. Flowing clinically unnoticed, over time, cysticercosis in rabbits causes irreparable harm to the health of the animal: rabbits begin to lose weight, languish and eventually die.
Symptoms of cysticercosis in rabbits
Rabbits infected with cysticercosis show strong weakness, their appetite decreases dramatically, rabbits start to lose weight quickly and wither right before their eyes. With a strong lesion of the body of rabbits with cysticercosis, animals may have diarrhea, which does not go away for several days.
Symptoms of cysticercosis in rabbits
Also, diarrhea in rabbits (see website krolikovody.ru), may be associated with a number of other diseases.
As a rule, in the absence of any actions by the rabbit breeder, the animals die in a short time. At the same time, the meat of a sick rabbit with cysticercosis is dangerous and unsuitable for human consumption.
Treatment of cysticercosis in rabbits
As a rule, cysticercosis in rabbits proceeds very unnoticed. And when the larvae in the animal's body becomes too much, it is no longer possible to cure cysticercosis.
Cysticercosis is treated in rabbits with the help of such veterinary preparations as:
- Tiabendazole (10 mg per 1 kg of rabbit live weight),
- Fenbendazol (once in a volume of 10 mg per 1 kg of animal weight),
- Praziquantel is an effective remedy against tapeworms. The dosage of the drug is the same, 10 mg of this drug per kilogram of rabbit weight,
- Vermox - should be given to sick rabbits for at least five days at a dosage of 5 ml per 1 kg of live weight.
For the prevention of cysticercosis in rabbits, it is very important to find the source of their infection.
Treatment of cysticercosis in rabbits
Animals themselves can not transmit this disease, therefore, most likely, the sources of their infection are factors such as poor quality food or dirty water and cages, as well as wild animals that have contact with domestic rabbits.
What is cysticercosis in rabbits
Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by a tapeworm (cestode), depending on the location of the pathogen, affecting soft tissues, internal organs and muscles, central nervous system organs and bones. Cysticercosis is not caused by tapeworms themselves, but their larvae are Finns or Cysticercus (Cysticercus pisiformis), which is why this ailment is also called Finnoz. Rabbits, and in the wild, hares, are only intermediate hosts for tapeworms, the final owners are dogs, in rare cases - other carnivores. In rabbits, this disease is called pysiform cysticercosis, as they are intermediate hosts of the parasite.
The causative agent and the development cycle of the disease
The causative agent of the disease is the larva of the pork tapeworm - cysticercus. Infected animals along with faeces release into the environment segments of the parasite containing hundreds of eggs. An intermediate host enters the body through infected grass (hay) and water. Once in the rabbit's stomach, the parasites are released from the egg membranes and migrate through the stomach walls to the liver, some can reach the lungs, heart, brain and other organs with blood. After the cysticercus is attached to the tissues, its larval development ends after 75 days. Then, when eating rabbit flesh, the larvae enter the organism of their final host, where they turn into adult individuals of the pork tape in 45–65 days. According to the results of the autopsy, the main places of cysticercus attachment are the following organs:
- big gland
- space in the peritoneum,
- lungs and pleura of the diaphragm.
How to recognize the symptoms
The illness can proceed chronically and acutely, if at the same time a large number of eggs are ingested into the body. In most cases, it is the chronic course of the disease, in which the symptoms are lubricated. The clinical picture will depend on the intensity of the invasion, the age of the animals and the general state of health, the stage of larval development of cysticerci.
Typically, the infection is detected when the carcass is killed and the carcass is opened. In infected individuals, there are peculiar bubbles on the liver and digestive organs that are filled with a clear liquid, their size can reach from 3 to 15 mm (like a pea or walnut), a hooked head can be seen on the surface and suckers. These vesicles are the larvae of the bovine tapeworm, which cause cysticercosis.
With the simultaneous ingestion of a large number of eggs, the following clinical picture may appear in rabbits:
- strong weakness, lethargy, inactivity,
- When massaging the abdomen, pain may occur, especially in the liver, which is noticeable by the disturbed behavior of the rabbit,
- weight loss, wasting,
- refusal to eat and intense thirst
- pallor of mucous membranes,
- abortions in sukrolnykh rabbits.
Diagnosis and pathological changes
In life, cysticercosis can be detected through a special CSC analysis with a cysticercotic antigen. This substance is injected subcutaneously between the shoulder blades, the reaction is studied after only a few hours. In infected individuals, there is a significant thickening at the injection site (from 3 to 7 mm), in healthy rabbits there is no visible reaction at the injection site. However, due to the nonspecific clinical picture, no in vivo diagnostic measures for rabbits have been developed. In most cases, the diagnosis is established already at the opening. In infected individuals, the liver is destroyed, healthy liver tissue is filled with connective tissue, and white cords can be observed in the organ. The liver is enlarged, it can be a dark maroon color. In acute invasion, bleeding can occur inside the abdominal cavity, peritonitis. Autopsy reveals clots in the abdominal cavity, signs of liver cirrhosis, and an abundance of cysticerci attached to internal organs.
Today there is no effective treatment for this helminthiasis. However, you can meet the recommendations of veterinarians regarding the treatment of livestock with anthelmintics from the group of benzimidazoles: "Mebendazole", "Fenbendazol":
- Mebendazole used for group deworming for 3–5 days with a break of 2 days, mixed with the morning portion of the feed in the amount of 25 mg per 1 kg of live weight.
- "Fenbendazol" (may be sold under the trade names "Tsestal", "Panakur", "Febtal") is also used for group deworming from a ratio of 7.5 mg per 1 kg of live weight. The drug should be mixed with morning food, the course of treatment is 3-5 days.
Is it possible to eat the meat of an infected rabbit
It is believed that after careful hours of heat treatment of the carcass of infected animals can be eaten, the insides are subject to mandatory disposal. However, many breeders refuse to eat the meat of infected animals, because it contains toxins and waste products of cysticerci, which even after heat treatment may not disintegrate. After a thorough examination and heat treatment, the flesh can be fed to domestic animals, the affected insides are subject to mandatory disposal.
Since dogs are the main source of spreading the disease, it is necessary to carry out a set of preventive measures to reduce the risk of cysticercus infection:
- To conduct regular deworming of domestic dogs on the farm (at least 4 times a year).
- After this, animal feces must be burned or buried in special manure depots.
- Do not allow feces to fall on the grass and soil in the place where the rabbits are kept.
- Do not allow dogs and cats to enter the area where crops are raised for rabbits, in places where feed is stored and animals are slaughtered.
- Keep guard dogs on a leash.
- Reduce the population of stray dogs.
- The corpses of rabbits affected by cysticercus, disposed of by burning or burying in special cattle graves.
For deworming use hydrobromic arecoline at the rate of 0.01–0.03 g per 1 kg of animal weight. The drug is added to the minced meat and fed after 18 hours of fasting. You can also use any other, more modern, deworming preparations, the use of which does not require a prior starvation diet: Azinox, Piradek, Pratel and others.
It is also possible to give a population of rabbits the drug "Mobenvet" 10% (granulate) for 1–1.5 months, mixing it into the morning portion of feed at the rate of 20 mg per 1 kg of weight. Obviously, the rabbits need to be fed only with high-quality feeds, kept clean, and strictly comply with sanitary and preventive measures.
Since the disease has no treatment, every effort should be made to prevent cysticercosis. It is necessary to carefully observe the sanitary and hygienic norms when keeping rabbits, timely and regularly carry out de-worming of domestic animals, properly process carcasses before eating.
Features of the disease
Coccidia parasites function in the liver or intestines of rabbits. Therefore, veterinarians distinguish two types of the disease: intestinal coccidiosis and hepatic coccidiosis. But in practice, there is often a simultaneous damage to two organs. This disease is a scourge for rabbit farms. This infection is very common, quickly transmitted by contact of animals with each other. Unfortunately, coccidia are very persistent parasites. Only the temperature above 80 ° C kills them. And disinfection has virtually no effect on this parasite.
What you need to know about coccidiosis in rabbits:
- It affects only young animals - animals under the age of 4 months. Coccidiosis in adult rabbits is rare isolated cases.
- Disinfectants do not kill the parasites.
- Rabbit coccidiosis is dangerous only to rabbits - it is not transmitted to humans, as well as to other inhabitants of the farm (poultry, cattle).
- The risk of disease year-round.
- Rabbits infect 8 species of coccidia.
- Depending on the species, the life cycle of these unicellular parasites is 4-14 days.
Attention! The peak of coccidiosis is recorded in the warm period of the year - this is from mid-spring to the end of summer.
How does the infection occur?
Sources of infection are food, water, mother's milk. The main problem on rabbit farms is unsanitary conditions. If the cells or the enclosures are cleaned irregularly, the carriers of the infection secrete dangerous feces that are infested with parasites. Rabbits are active animals, so the feces quickly spread through the feed, into the water. And very quickly infected has all the livestock. The mother, who gave birth to babies, in uncontaminated aviaries pollutes the nipple surface with feces. And babies, from the first days of birth, are infected through sucking mother's milk.
Preventive measures on farms:
- We must not allow crowding of animals. Divide them into age groups. If animals get sick from one enclosure, they will be easy to isolate - and you will not lose all the livestock.
- Strictly monitor the conditions of the rabbits. Regular replacements of bedding, water and feed are necessary.
- Especially often occur outbreaks of coccidiosis in poorly ventilated aviaries, in rooms with high humidity.
Signs of coccidiosis
You should always pay attention to the state of feces in animals. Young animals under the age of 2 months have diarrhea and bloating. If you take the animal in your arms, then the stomach will be drooping and visually increased in size. Infected rabbits are lagging behind, very skinny, poorly eaten. Wool is also modified. She becomes dull, without gloss, constantly disheveled.
Attention! If the rabbit treatment is not started on time, they die after 2 weeks due to severe exhaustion and also intoxication. If not only the intestine is infected, but also the liver, then in the animal the eyelids and mouth cavity become yellowish.
Atypical manifestations of this disease in rabbits:
- Uncoordinated movements.
- The sudden fall of the animal, coups on the back, drooping back head.
The first and important stage is quarantine. The sick rabbit must be urgently removed from other animals and a replacement of water, feed, bedding should be made. For the treatment used iodine-containing drugs. Young animals iodine is given in the form of a solution, pouring instead of ordinary water. Prepare the solution you need according to this scheme and dosage: for 1 liter of water add 2 ml of 5% iodine. Please note that iodized solution should not be mixed in tanks or served in metal drinkers.
Additional remedies for the treatment of coccidiosis:
- Sulfanilamide drugs.
- Nitrofuran preparations.
- Adding to the diet of sick animals lactic acid products and drugs: natural yogurt, lactic acid, ABA.
- Probiotic "Olin".
- Brovadez Plus is a specific preparation for disinfecting surfaces from coccidia.
Eating sick rabbit meat
Frequently asked question: is it possible to eat meat of a rabbit that has been infected with coccidiosis? Yes you can. As already mentioned, the parasite that causes the disease is not dangerous to people and other animals. It only provokes coccidiosis in rabbits. During heat treatment from 80 ° C, the parasite dies in 5-10 seconds.
Taking into account the percentage of mortality from coccidiosis, it is very important to keep the rabbit enclosures clean, regularly conduct a routine inspection of animals and promptly start the treatment of infected animals.
Currently, there are a variety of rabbit diseases. Myxomatosis (whether it is possible to eat meat in this case, it will be discussed further) is one of the most dangerous ailments. If time does not isolate the sick animal, then it will infect all the livestock. Myxomatosis is a viral disease that can be transmitted not only from animal to animal through contact, but also through food and through insects.
The disease proceeds quickly and in an acute form, as a result of which the animal loses its appetite, blisters appear on its head, the rabbit constantly lies and moves little. The first signs of the disease appear several weeks after infection. It all depends on the strain of the virus. There are two types of this disease - nodular and edematous. Each of them proceeds and manifests itself in its own way.
Symptoms of myxomatosis
Regardless of the form of the disease and the virus strain, myxomatosis in rabbits is accompanied by the following general symptoms:
- inflammation and purulent discharge from the eyes, as well as conjunctivitis,
- the rabbit moves very little, and prefers to lie most of the time,
- significant increase in body temperature
- hair loss
- swelling of the eyelids and lips, lowering the ears,
- the formation of fibromyomas in the ears, nose and extremities,
- rapid and heavy breathing, accompanied by wheezing.
As mentioned earlier, the nodular and edematous forms of the disease manifest themselves in different ways, so let's take a closer look at each of them.
Can I eat a rabbit patient with myxomatosis of edematous form? The answer is simple: no! This form of the disease is the most severe and transient. If the rabbit gets sick with swollen myxomatosis, then it will die, because this form is not treatable. The clinical manifestations of this disease are bumps all over the body, filled with fluid, wheeze, puffiness and purulent discharge from the nose. The animal stops eating completely, and as a result dies in about a week and a half due to complete exhaustion. Eating the meat of an infected animal is strictly prohibited, and its body must be burned. To prevent contamination of the entire population, the rabbits are removed to quarantine and inoculated with special antiviral vaccines.
This form is less transient and treatable. Statistics show that about half of the sick rabbits survive. Is it possible to eat rabbit meat that has had a nodular myxomatosis? It is possible because people are not susceptible to the disease of this viral disease.
Determine the presence of this form of the disease in rabbits by the characteristic nodules that are formed throughout the body of the animal. They are especially pronounced on the ears and in the eye area. The next manifestation that occurs after the nodules are characteristic discharge from the nose, which may contain impurities of pus, and conjunctivitis.
In the later stages, myxomatosis in rabbits is accompanied by a partial or complete loss of appetite, a runny nose, and characteristic wheeze. При отсутствии лечения животное умирает приблизительно через полтора месяца. Здесь важно понимать, что чем быстрее будут предприняты меры по борьбе с недугом, тем больше вероятность побороть его.After recovery, the nodules disappear on the body of the rabbit, but after them there may be scars.
The average incubation period is 11 days, after which the first manifestations of the disease appear. At the same time, the sick animal stops eating and drinking, and also does not react to everything that happens around it. The percentage of survival depends on how well the rabbit has developed protective functions of the body. With proper care and therapy, the animal fully recovers, and the manifestations of the disease disappear.
Is it possible to eat the meat of a rabbit that gets sick with myxomatosis? This question interests all people involved in livestock. To date, the controversy on this topic still does not subside among many farmers. The fact is that this virus is not perceived by humans, and therefore does not pose any danger. It affects only rabbits. Therefore, eating meat from rabbits with myxomatosis is allowed if it is properly cooked. Before the start of heat treatment, the meat should be thoroughly washed.
But there is a downside. There is a popular belief among people that the meat of sick animals, even those that were cured, is forbidden to be eaten. Rather, you can eat it from a theoretical point of view, but in practice it is not entirely aesthetic and hygienic. The thing is that even if rabbits get myxomatosis cured (it’s possible to eat meat in animals that have recovered - later in the article), they lose their attractiveness and scare away their appearance.
According to the third common opinion, it is not recommended to eat meat of any animals that have had any disease. Most experienced breeders advise to burn the bodies of dead rabbits, as well as to treat the barn with special disinfectants.
So, is it possible to eat the meat of a rabbit suffering from myxomatosis? It is inappropriate to give any advice on this matter, since everyone must make such decisions himself. It is increasingly dependent on disgust man.
If myxomatosis was found in rabbits (if we can eat meat in this case, we have already figured out), then treatment should be started as soon as possible. If time does not take any action, the animal can not only die, but also infect all the livestock. In addition, if the treatment was not carried out in full or started too late, the likelihood of re-development of the disease increases. In this case, the death of the animal can occur only a few days after the relapse. Sometimes even qualified veterinarians with extensive experience refuse to take up the treatment of rabbits for myxomatosis, if the farmer turns to them too late and the probability of curing the animal is very low. Therefore, the chances of self-overcome illness in the home are extremely small.
How is the treatment?
If you suspect that myxomatosis develops in rabbits (whether it is possible to eat meat for this ailment is a controversial issue), then you should immediately contact a veterinarian for help. The doctor will perform an examination of the animal, determine the stage of the disease and draw up a treatment program. An infected rabbit should be placed in a separate room, isolated from the rest of the rabbits, in which sanitation and warm, comfortable conditions should be maintained. This will slightly slow down the course of the disease.
If the rabbit has no appetite and he practically does not eat, then make special injections that supply the body of the sick animal with all the necessary substances for vital activity.
The most effective treatment will be in the early stages, when the disease has not yet begun to progress strongly.
In this case, the treatment is carried out using the following drugs:
- potent antibiotics
If the body of the animal began to appear wounds, they must be treated with iodine on a alcohol basis. Such procedures should be performed until the complete disappearance of wounds.
What drugs are used to treat myxomatosis
Veterinarians use a variety of subcutaneous injections to combat myxomatosis. In most cases, “Gamavit” is used, and if the rabbit has not eaten or drank for a long time, then it is used in conjunction with “Ringer”, designed to combat dehydration. The drugs are administered until the sick animal is completely cured. In some cases, Fosprenil is prescribed instead of Gamavit.
The following medications are also very effective for this infectious disease:
- "Baytril" - poured into water in accordance with the recommendations specified in the instructions. The drug is given several times a day for two weeks.
- Various nasal drops - appointed in case the animal has purulent discharge from the nose. They can improve breathing and reduce wheezing.
In no case should you give the sick rabbit any medications without a preliminary examination of the animal by a veterinarian.
If it was possible to completely defeat myxomatosis in rabbits (whether it is possible to eat the meat of an infected animal, it makes sense to ask the vet), then they should be quarantined for 3 months in order to fully ensure recovery. During this time, the weakened animal organism will have time to get stronger and gain strength, which significantly reduces the likelihood of the disease returning.
Disease Prevention Activities
To reduce the likelihood of rabbits myxomatosis, preventive vaccination of animals is necessary. To do this, it is better to contact a qualified veterinarian, since vaccination is carried out taking into account the physiological characteristics of the rabbit and its immunity. It is also important to understand that no vaccination gives a 100% guarantee that the rabbits will not get sick with this dangerous disease. In addition, myxomatosis can be detected only after an incubation period, which can be from 3 to 20 days.
You can vaccinate the crawl age of at least 40 days and weighing at least 500 grams. Re-vaccination is performed three months after the first, and then every 7 months.
Traditional methods of treatment
Some experienced farmers practice traditional medicine in the treatment of myxomatosis. Wounds on the body of the animal should be treated with refried or fresh sunflower oil.
Very effective in this disease are injections of a solution from a camel's thorn. For its preparation, a liter jar is filled to the top with this plant, filled with hot boiled water, covered with a lid and left for 3 hours. Then it is passed through gauze to separate the plant from the solution, and it is injected into the sick animal in the form of injections in the lower leg area twice a day, 2 ml for two weeks. As for the answer to the question of whether it is possible to eat the meat of a rabbit suffering from myxomatosis, then each person decides it at his own peril and risk.
To prevent infection of the entire population of rabbits, it is recommended to perform disinfection of the cells and the entire rabbit.
To do this, use the following products that can be purchased in many veterinary pharmacies:
- "Ecocide C"
- 5% alcohol-based iodine solution.
In addition to the tools listed above, burnt lime, whiteness or lye will be very effective. Every corner should be treated, as myxomatosis is a very contagious viral disease, and it is difficult to protect rabbits from it.
There is no consensus about whether you can eat a rabbit with myxomatosis or not. Every farmer treats this differently. Some people prefer not to risk it once more and simply burn the bodies of dead animals, while others do not disdain to eat meat after pretreatment. It should be noted that the myxomatosis virus dies at a temperature of about 60 degrees, so after frying or stewing, the meat will be sterile and can be safely eaten without fear for your health. In any case, the choice to make you!
Causes of cysticercosis
Cysticercosis - Invasive disease of many species of animals, including rabbits, caused by cestode larvae and characterized by signs of hepatitis and peritonitis.
The causative agent is Cysticercus pisiformis, the larva of the cestode Taeniarhynchus pisiformis, parasitic in the intestines of dogs, foxes, cats, jackals, cysticercus 6–12 mm long in the form of bubbles filled with a clear liquid, are found on the serous covers of the abdominal and thoracic cavities in the brain.
The development cycle of the causative agent of cysticercosis
Carnivorous animals with cysticercosis secrete mature segments of feces with feces containing tens of thousands of eggs that pollute grass, land, water and other objects. Eggs retain invasive properties in the environment for up to 18 months. After swallowing eggs with food or water in the digestive tract of rabbits, embryos (oncospheres) are released, which penetrate into the blood vessels, and are carried by the bloodstream throughout the body, where they grow and turn into invasive cysticercus that can infect healthy animals.
Epizootological data on cysticercosis
Cysticercosis affects rabbits and hares, which are intermediate hosts of the pathogen. The most sensitive rabbits 1-3 months of age. The source of the pathogen are definitive (main) owners - dogs that contaminate the food and water with the eggs of the pathogen. Infection occurs by alimentary. In the dog's body, after eating the viscera of the rabbit affected by cysticercus, the larvae turn into sexually mature parasites.
Symptoms and diagnosis of finnoza in rabbits
Symptoms of the disease are not characteristic and are expressed only with an intensive degree of invasion. They note depression, refusal of feed, lethargy, diarrhea, then emaciation, anemia, yellowness of mucous membranes, some of the rabbits die on the 6-7th day.
The diagnosis is made if serous integument of the abdominal and thoracic cavities affected by cysticerci are detected.
Prevention and measures against cysticercosis
Upon detection of organs affected by cysticercus, the corpses are disposed of. It is forbidden to keep dogs, except for the guard, on farms, feed depots, in places of slaughter. Stray dogs on farms and on farms must be destroyed. The corpses of dead animals are cleaned and disposed of in a timely manner.
For the purpose of chemoprophylaxis of cysticercosis, the whole population of rabbits is recommended to introduce 10% mebenvet granules into mixed feed.
For the prevention of disease, all guard dogs must be kept on a leash and quarterly subjected to deworming using hydrobromic arecoline, droncyte, fenasal, panacur (fencur), fenbentazole.