Blooming forsythia, covered with hundreds of bright yellow flowers, it is impossible not to notice! If the summer resident wants his forsition to decorate his plot every spring, planting and leaving in the open field are the key stages on the path to success.
In Europe, perennial shrubs, one of the first to break the monochrome of early spring, came from Asia and were named after the botanist who brought the first seedlings to the Old World. Today, forsythia is the most popular species for landscaping and creating hedges.
How and when to organize planting and caring for forsythia in the open field at the dacha? What does a bush need for friendly growth?
Conditions for planting forsythia in open ground
Forsythia is an amazing plant that changes its appearance every season. In the spring - it is devoid of leaves, but densely covered with flowers branches. In summer, the bush covers the greens, which in the fall changes color to golden or purple. Looking for a place for Forsythia, you should pay attention to areas where the shrub will be clearly visible and lit.
Although Forsythia tolerate staying in the shade, in the sun the bush forms more dense and even. The plant is undemanding to soil fertility, but it develops better on the soil with an alkaline reaction, good drainage. Culture:
- it is undemanding to leaving
- has excellent frost resistance, simplifying the wintering of forsythia in the open field,
- tolerates drought well
- responds well to a haircut and can be used for growing hedges.
There are two options for planting forsythia in the ground: in spring and autumn. In the first case, the young shrubs immediately begin to grow after acclimatization, giving new shoots. Shrubs transferred to the garden in the fall only take root, and come into growth after wintering.
Terms of planting forsythia in the ground
Time for transfer of seedlings to the garden is chosen depending on the region and the quality of planting material. Many nurseries today offer young plants with a closed root system. Saplings grown in containers are transplanted along with an earthy clod, so the roots do not suffer, the shrub easily and quickly adapts to the new place of residence. And the summer resident is guaranteed easy maintenance of forsythia in the open field after planting, whenever it happens: in spring, summer or autumn.
For seedlings with an open root system, planting is better in the spring months, when the threat of sudden frosts is gone, or in the fall, about a month before the onset of seasonal cold weather. During this period, the shrub is acclimatized and will be able to prepare for the winter.
Since the climatic conditions in the regions of the country are seriously different, there is a significant difference in the time of planting and caring for Forsythia in the open field, in the Moscow region and, for example, in central and northern Siberia, where the heat comes later and the summer is much shorter:
- If you delay with the planting of plants in the garden, their adaptation and rooting will be delayed, and the shoots devoted to the summer will not have time to get stronger before the onset of frost.
- Early spring planting threatens to freeze the buds, the tops of the shoots, and in case of severe frosts on the ground - the defeat of growth points and roots.
In the fall, planting forsythia in the ground also depends on weather and climatic conditions and can vary even within one region, for example, as large as the Urals. If in the south gardeners live according to a calendar similar to that used by summer residents of the middle lane, in the north the weather is much more severe and changeable.
Planting forsythia in open ground
Forsythias prefer dry, drained soil and do not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil. Therefore, at the bottom of the planting pits with a depth of 60 and a width of 50 cm, powerful drainage is made of broken brick, expanded clay or gravel. It is especially important not to neglect this measure in areas with dense, water-retaining soil and where groundwater is too close. An example would be the landing and care of forsythia in the Leningrad region.
On top of the drainage layer poured sand and pre-prepared soil mixture based on:
200 grams of sifted wood ash are mixed into each hole in the ground. Substrate poured a mound, which sides straighten the roots of the shrub. After filling the pit, the soil is compacted and watered abundantly at the rate of 10–15 liters per plant. In the autumn after planting forsythia, care for the shrub is in the thick mulching of the trunk circle. This will help save water in the soil and protect the roots from overcooling.
Mulch will help in the spring, especially where summer is coming rapidly, and the soil dries quickly, becoming covered with a dense impermeable crust.
Forsythia care after planting in the open field
An important advantage of forzition is the lack of standard and the absence of any special care. In the warm season shrubs, rapidly growing with minimal care, need:
- in irrigation, if there is no natural precipitation, and the soil under the plants is completely dry,
- in maintaining the cleanliness and looseness of pristvolny circles,
- in triple feeding,
- in a haircut that helps maintain the health and shape of the crown.
In hot, dry time, the plants are watered once or twice a month, which is loosened, weeded and mulched. Low-lying peat mixed with humus and wood ash can be used as mulch. This composition is the protection of the roots from overheating and an excellent fertilizer of prolonged action. In addition, shrubs respond well to the introduction of full mineral fertilizers before and after flowering.
In the second half of the summer, shrubs should not be fertilized with nitrogen. It will cause active growth of young shoots, which even with proper planting and care for forzition in the Urals, in Siberia and in the middle lane do not have time to mature and die with the onset of frost.
An important part of the care of forsythia is trimming of the bush. For sanitary purposes, the removal of dead, old or damaged branches is carried out in the spring, and the haircut to maintain shape - in early summer, when the mass flowering is completed. More recently, shoots yellow from flowers can be shortened to half the length, and old branches are cut above the ground so that several buds remain at the base.
Once in 3 - 4 years forzition rejuvenate, evenly cutting all the shoots in half or two-thirds of the length. Over the summer, the plant will restore the crown, which will be thick, uniform and young, so that next spring to please the friendly bright blooms.
In most regions, the plant winters excellently without shelter. If winters are not snowy, before wintering, forsythia in the open ground is gently inclined to the ground, secured and covered with spruce leaves or dense nonwoven fabric. At the earliest opportunity shrubs throw snow.
Reproduction of forsythia in open ground
The parts of the branches that remained after pruning are an excellent material for obtaining cuttings that will serve to reproduce forsythia. Green shoots are cut into pieces with a length of 10-15 cm so that each has several healthy buds. The lower leaves are torn off, and the resulting stalk after treatment with a root formation stimulator is planted in a greenhouse.
In autumn, another method of forsythia breeding in open ground is possible. In a small school, organized in a quiet place, protected from the wind and flooding, lignified cuttings are planted. For the remainder of the cold season, the seedling will give roots, and 2–3 buds left above the ground will wake up in the spring and form a young shrub crown. Next fall, these plants can be planted in a permanent place.
Forsythia shrub description
Forsythia is a small shrub or tree, the height of which, depending on growing conditions and variety, can reach 1-3 meters. In most species, the leaves are simple, but there are varieties with trifoliate leaves.Figure 1. Exterior features of the shrub
Forsythia flowers are shaped like a bell, and the color of the petals is bright yellow (Figure 1). Flowering begins in early spring and can last for three weeks or more, depending on the climatic characteristics of the region and the thoroughness of care. After completion of flowering in place of wilted buds formed a box with seeds.
Forsythia is found almost all over the world, but most often in the wild it can be found in Japan, China and some European countries, although in the culture this shrub can be grown in almost any climate.
Types and varieties
In temperate climates, the most common variety is considered to be European. The height of the shrub rarely exceeds two meters, and its upright shoots are covered with oblong leaves. During the flowering period is covered with bright single flowers of yellow color (Figure 2).
Among other popular varieties are the following:
- Forsythia Giralda It looks like a European one, but is very sensitive to low temperatures. In addition, this variety has longer leaves, and light yellow petals have a curved shape.
- Hanging (drooping) grade cultures differ much higher: adult specimens can reach three meters in height. Another distinctive feature - the shape of the leaves, depending on age. On old shoots, the leaves are simple, and on the young - trifoliate. The inflorescences are large and gathered in buds of several pieces. This species includes several varieties at once, but purpure, deceptive, variegated and Forsyun Forsyun are considered the most popular for cultivation.
- Dark green variety also quite high, about three meters, and its distinctive feature is in the green color of the shoots (in other types of flowers, the bark varies from brown to reddish). The branches are densely covered with green leaves, and during the flowering period they are covered with yellow-green buds, collected in small bunches.
- Snowy or white forsythia differs from other species in the color of buds: unlike other species, they are not yellow, but white.
Almost all of these varieties are quite suitable for growing in the garden, but, apart from choosing the right type, you should learn about the basic rules of planting and caring for the crop.
Choose a place and time for landing
Forsythia is very sensitive to sunlight, so for its cultivation you should choose well-lit areas. If there are no similar sites in your garden, you can plant a shrub in partial shade. In these conditions, forsythia will also develop, but flowering will be less luxuriant and long, although in general the decorativeness of the culture will remain.
Despite good illumination, it is desirable that the site be protected from strong winds and drafts. The branches of the plant are quite large, and the flowers appear early, so the sharp gusts of the spring wind can easily break them off.
What soil is suitable for planting
The best soil for the plant is considered to be a mixture of sand, humus and leafy earth in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. It should also be borne in mind that the calcareous soils are much more suitable for the plant than the heavy and waterlogged: in such areas the seedling simply does not take root.
Before planting in the wells, it is desirable to place a handful of slaked lime and wood ash. You should also take care of the removal of excess moisture from the site, equipping the drainage, without which the roots of the shrub can begin to rot and the plant will die
How to plant seedlings
Unlike other crops, it is better to plant forsythia in early autumn, although in some cases spring planting is also suitable (if the summer in your area is not too hot). The procedure for planting shrubs is shown in Figure 3.
Planting forsythia seedlings is as follows:
- On the area selected and previously cleared of weeds, dig holes measuring 60x60 cm. If you plant several seedlings at once, take care that the distance between them is at least 2-3 meters,
- At the bottom of each hole lay a layer of drainage and pour 200 grams of wood ash and slaked lime,
- The seedling is immersed in the hole, deepening 70-80 cm,
- Each hole for a quarter is filled with any drainage material (broken brick, expanded clay, etc.) and the rest of the hole is filled with fertile soil.
At the final stage of planting, the soil around the seedling is compacted and watered abundantly.
Preparing for the winter
So that in winter the shrub does not become extinct, it must be properly prepared for the cold season. To do this, sprinkle the tree trunk with dry leaves, and bend the branches to the ground and secure. The bush is also covered from above, using spruce or pine branches for this purpose.
Young bushes need to be covered completely, but if the winters in your region are snowy, forsythia can not provide additional shelter
Diseases and pests
Another advantage of forsythia is resistance to diseases and pests. In rare cases, signs of bacterial wilt or bacteriosis may appear on the shrub. In the first case, the plant needs to be sprayed with a two-percent solution of foundationol, but it is useless to fight bacteriosis. The infected plant is simply excavated and burned along with the roots.Figure 6. Using forsythia to decorate the garden
Sometimes the root system of a shrub is affected by nematodes. To combat these pests, it is sufficient to disinfect the soil with a carbonation.
Forsythia in landscape design
Forsythia is considered to be one of the best ornamental plants for the garden. It can be successfully grown on any soil and in any climate, as well as used as a central element of floral arrangements and in single plantings (Figure 6).
The only requirement is that the shrub should not be placed on an elevation, as in this case it will be exposed to strong winds.
Features care forsythia and its use in landscape design describes in detail the author of the video.
Features of growing forsythia
Today it is impossible to imagine the city streets, squares and private gardens in Europe without Forsythia, and primarily because it is the symbol of the coming of spring. On the gray, still winter streets, the yellow flame of forsythia flowers suddenly begins to blaze, and the townspeople who are longing for the warmth and greenery, perk up, begin to prepare for spring. Such early flowering of forsythia is a property that distinguishes it from other shrubs. Popularity adds to her lack of care and location. What features in the care and cultivation of this popular among flower growers shrub?
- - Forsythians are light-requiring, but grow in the shade.
- - The soil for the plant is necessary limy.
- - The most spectacular forsythia looks on the background of dark green coniferous plants.
- “In autumn, the green leaves of forsythia turn golden or purple-violet, and it again attracts attention with its bright motley flame.
When to plant forsythia.
Planting and transplanting forsythia is carried out in spring or early autumn, before the start of frost, so that the plant has time to settle down before winter. For this purpose, a site protected from the wind is chosen in the sun or in partial shade - the forsythia is shade-tolerant, but loves the light. The composition of the soil plant is undemanding, but it grows best on slightly alkaline dry soils. If at the site the pH value is shifted to the acid side, it is better to dig up the soil with wood ash in advance.
How to plant forsythia.
Forsythia pits should be 50x50x60 in size so that the root ball after planting is at a depth of 30-40 cm. If you plant several bushes, then dig holes for them at a distance of one and a half meters from each other. Before planting, it is necessary to fill the pit with a layer of drainage from broken brick or crushed stone with a thickness of 15-20 cm, then a ten-centimeter layer of sand, then a mixture of leaf earth, sand and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 and 200 g of wood ash. Forsythia saplings are lowered into the pit, they are added dropwise with earth, which then must be compacted, and watered abundantly. If the forsythia is planted by you in the spring, then in the future it will require your usual care. Autumn planting and caring for forzia is somewhat more complicated: they require mandatory mulching of the site, regardless of the variety of the plant you planted. Covering material should be breathable so that in the winter, during the short thaws, the flower buds are not stunned under it.
How to care forzitsii.
Care forsythia is not much different from the care of any garden bush. With sufficient rainfall in the summer, the plant does not need watering, but if summer is dry, then forsythia will have to be watered at least once or twice a month at the rate of 10-12 liters for each bush. After watering, you need to loosen the soil and remove weeds, and you need to loosen it to the depth of the spade bayonet to ensure air access to the roots of the plant. After loosening, the trunk circle is mulched with compost or dry soil. They fertilize forsythia three times per season: in early spring, a thick layer of rotted manure is laid out around the tree trunk, but not close to the branches and trunk, then it is plentifully watered. Manure will be for the plant at the same time and mulch, and organic nutrition. In April, full mineral fertilizer is applied to the soil at the rate of 60-70 g per 1 m². После цветения, когда растение закладывает цветочные почки для следующего года, форзицию подкармливают кемирой-универсалом из расчета 100-120 г на 1 м².
Размножают форзицию чаще всего вегетативно. Например, зелеными черенками длиной около 15 см, которые лучше всего срезать в июне. Нижние листочки удаляют, а черенки, предварительно обработав стимулятором корнеобразования (корневином, эпином или гетероауксином) высаживают под парник в перлит или песок. You can root lignified cuttings, cut in October, and planted them directly into the ground in the garden, leaving above the surface two or three buds. It is only necessary to cover the cuttings for the winter with dry leaves. In the spring, when you remove the cover, the cuttings taken will go to growth, and by the fall you will receive beautiful seedlings. Forsythia is also propagated by layering: in the summer or autumn, lower the lower young shoot to the ground, first drag it at the base with wire and cut the bark on the side that lies on the ground, fix it, sprinkle it with fertile soil, and the shoot will soon form roots. In the spring, cut off this branch from the bush, and the next year the young plant will bloom.
Forsythia propagates in a generative way, that is, by seeds, but this is already a conversation for specialists.
Young forsythia bushes subject only to sanitary pruning - they remove frozen, dried or broken shoots. In adult plants, in the spring the frozen ends of the branches are cut, the main pruning is carried out in the summer, when flowering is over: the withered branches are shortened by half, the old and dried ones are cut at a height of 4-6 cm from the soil level, and then side shoots will flow from them. Pruning also helps to regulate the thickness, height and shape of the bush - cupped or spherical. If you need to rejuvenate your mature forsythia, it is best to cut all branches to a height of 4-6 cm, or at least 2/3, in order to increase the growth of young shoots. But do not abuse such haircuts, because as a result the bush will grow stronger, but it will stop blooming. It is necessary to rejuvenate forsythia so that it does not lose its decorative qualities no more than once every 3-4 years.
Pests and diseases forsythia.
This shrub is resistant to pests and diseases, but is sometimes affected by wilting, moniliosis and bacteriosis. Wilting is treated by spraying with a two-five percent solution of basezol, but there is no salvation from bacteriosis, and the bush will have to be dug up along with its roots and destroyed. Moniliasis is expressed by the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. In the event of illness, you need to cut and clean out all the affected areas to healthy tissue. There are troubles in forsythia due to nematodes, then it is necessary to disinfect the soil with a carbonation.
Forsythia after flowering and wilting
To protect the forsythia from the winter frosts, the near-stem circle is covered with a ten-centimeter layer of dry foliage, the branches are bent to the ground and pinned, and they are thrown from above by lapniknik. In early spring, the shelter is removed, the branches unfasten, dry leaves are removed from the trunk. Young plants for the winter entirely covered with fir branches. In snowy winters, forsythia hibernates well without shelter, but who knows in advance what kind of winter will come out?
very similar to the European, but more sensitive to low temperatures. It is of the same height, its stems are also mostly straight, but tetrahedral, yellow-brown. The leaves are elliptical, dark green, up to 10 cm long. It blooms in May with large, delicate, light yellow flowers with twisted petals.
Forsythia hanging, or drooping, or drooping (Forsythia suspensa)
shorter shrub - up to three meters tall, with a sprawling crown, arcuate, drooping, thin tetrahedral branches of reddish-brown or olive color. The leaves on old shoots are simple, on growths are trifoliate. The flowers are large, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, golden yellow, clustered in several pieces. Several forms of forsythia are grown in culture:
- – variegated (forsythia variegata) - bright yellow flowers, yellowish motley leaves,
- – Forchuna (forsythia fortunei) with narrow trifoliate leaves, dark yellow flowers in bunches,
- – purplish (forsythia artocaulis) - with dark red shoots and leaves at the time of disclosure,
- - and others: Zimbold's forsythia, deceptive forsythia, Forchuna's hanging forsythia.
Forsythia viridissima forsythia dark green
- tall, up to three meters high, shrub with upwards directed green branches. Leaves densely growing, simple, oblong-lanceolate, serrated in the upper part, very dark green, up to 15 cm long, up to 4 cm wide. Bright flowers of a greenish-yellow shade are collected in small bunches. Drought resistant.
Forsythia intermediate (Forsythia x intermedia)
is a hybrid of drooping forsythia and dark green forsythia. It grows to three meters in height, blooms in the fourth year of life. Its leaves are oblong with a serrated edge, but there are also trifoliate, up to 10 cm long. The dark green color of the leaves persists until late autumn. Bright yellow flowers are collected in bunches of several pieces. Blossoms in April and May. Hardy, drought-resistant, very fast growing. Grades:
- – Beatrix Farrand - the height of the bush is up to 4 m, the flowers are bright yellow with dark yellow stripes at the base,
- – Denziflora - low shrub up to one and a half meters tall and about the same in volume, the flowers are pale yellow, twisted. Blossoms in May from two to three weeks. Afraid of frost
- – Spectabilis - one of the most beautiful varieties: a bush of only a meter height, but a crown in diameter reaches 120 cm. The leaves are green during the warm season, in the autumn - purple and bright yellow. The flowers are dark yellow to 4.5 cm in diameter bloom in late April.
Snow forsythia, or white (Forsythia abeliophyllum)
reaches a height of 1.5-2 m. The leaves are oval, up to 8 cm long, in summer the underside of the leaves acquires a purple tint. The flowers, as the name implies, are white, with a yellow throat, pale pinkish in buds.
Forsythia ovata forsythia
low shrub - from one and a half to two meters tall. The branches are spreading, grayish-yellow color. Leaves up to 7 cm long, bright green in the summer, acquire a purple hue in autumn. Single bright yellow flowers up to two centimeters in diameter. It blooms before all other species of forsythia, grows rapidly, hardy and drought-resistant. Popular varieties:
Adding an article to a new collection
Do you want your flower garden to play bright colors in early spring? Plant an attractive shrub - forsythia, which blooms one of the first.
In the spring, as soon as the sun warms slightly, in gardens and parks one of the most beautiful plants wakes up - forsythia. On the leafless shoots of this Asian beauty appear golden flowers, bells. After flowering, the shrub "dresses" in light green foliage, which in autumn becomes golden or purple-purple. Is not it a miracle when the flowers on the plant bloom earlier than the leaves?
Forsythia belongs to the Olive family. In the genus, according to various sources, only 7-10 species, but in Europe there is only one - European forsythia. The ornamental shrub got its name in honor of the botanist William Forsyth, so this plant is often called Forsythia.
Bright forsythia loves light, so it’s best to plant it in a well-lit area. In the penumbra, it can also develop, but in this case, the flowering will not be as spectacular.
Also note that the place must be well protected from the wind. Therefore, it is not recommended to settle forsythia on the hills: the gusty spring wind can break off fragile flowers and branches.
The most suitable soil for forsythia is a mixture of humus, leaf soil and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 2. In addition, it is necessary to take into account that the plant grows well on light and slightly calcareous soil, and does not tolerate acidic, heavy and moist soils.
In the planting pit (size 60x60) it is recommended to add 300-400 g of hydrated lime or 200 g of wood ash. Also do not forget about the drainage. Its layer should be about 20 cm.
If you plant forsythia groups, maintain a distance between plants of at least 1.5 m. Otherwise, the bushes will soon begin to interfere with each other.
Fertilizer for forzition
The sunny shrub responds well to fertilizing with mineral fertilizers (70 g per square meter). They are carried out at the beginning of flowering plants and combined with loosening the soil. And at the very beginning of spring, before the forsythia bloom, a thick layer of rotted manure (approximately 50-100 g per bush) should be placed in the near-circle wheel and watered abundantly with warm water.
After the end of flowering (usually at the end of May - beginning of June, in areas with a cooler climate - later), the forsythia should be fed with complex fertilizer (100-120 g per square meter). And in August-September - to introduce phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, due to which the frost resistance of the plant will increase.
Main principles of forsythia care
In the spring, it is necessary to remove the frozen, dry and old shoots, as well as half of the flowered inflorescences. Old branches can be safely shortened: the plant quickly restores the crown, so next season you will again have a lush bush.
For the winter, forsythia branches should be bent to the ground and covered with dry foliage, sunbond or fir branches. This will protect the bush from freezing even in a harsh winter.
Forsythia tolerates drought better than high humidity. Therefore, the plant is watered only in dry time: approximately once a month, 10-12 liters of water per adult plant. At the same time, the soil needs to be loosened and mulched. Also, as necessary, weeding is carried out.
Admire the charming flowering of forsythia is possible not only in spring. In the cold season to create a spring mood in your home, with the first snow (but before the onset of frost), you should cut off annual twigs 50 cm long, wrap them in a plastic bag and put them in the refrigerator.
When in long winter evenings you will be overcome by longing in the spring, awaken the forsythia twigs, dropping them for 4-5 hours in water with a temperature of 30-35 ° C. Then pour water into the vase at room temperature, dissolve the sugar in the liquid (50 g per 1 l) and place the branches there. After 9-11 days they will turn into a lush golden bouquet.
It may not be very easy to care for forzia, but this elegant plant is worth a little time devoted to it. Plant a magnificent forsythia in your garden - and, thanks to sunny flowers, it will create a good mood and wake you up from winter hibernation.