Almond belongs to the genus Plum. It is often called a nut, but in the biological sense it is a stone fruit, a close relative of the apricot, the seeds of which are also edible. It is a native almond from the Middle East and South Asia, therefore it is a heat-loving plant.
It is possible to cultivate many varieties of almonds only in regions where winter weather is characterized by a short-term decrease in temperature to 17-22 degrees, but frosts of 25 degrees or more can destroy flower buds.
Characteristics of almonds and its varieties
Almond is a shrub or small tree with developed roots. The aboveground part of the plant can grow up to 11 meters, and the underground part can go five meters deep. The crown may have a rounded, pyramidal, sprawling shape, and sometimes - the form of a weeping willow.
During flowering, the almond tree is thickly dotted with white or pinkish flowers, in some varieties the petals are painted in bright pink and bordered with a white stripe.
Each flower is represented by five petals surrounding numerous stamens with a pistil. Almond blossom occurs in the middle of spring and is ahead of leaf blooming. Flowering trees are endowed with a pronounced pleasant aroma, for which they are valued as early honey plants, capable of producing up to 38 kg of honey per hectare. Green leaves have an elongated shape and resemble the leaves of an olive tree, but exceed them in size. Almost all varieties need pollinators to harvest, so several trees should be planted on the site.
Unlike apricots and plums, the flesh surrounding the stone is a coarse green, trimmed skin and is unsuitable for human consumption. The darkening and cracking of this peel indicates the maturity of edible seeds, which are elongated and covered with grooves and grooves. But the inside of the seed is not edible in all varieties. In the wild almonds - they have a bitter taste and contain toxic substances. From such stones receive valuable almond oil and milk, which are actively used in cosmetology.
The collection of sweet almond "nuts" comes at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn, when the pericarp cracks. They are removed from the fruit and dried, and then packed tightly and sent for storage in a dry place. Almond trees come into fruition in the third or fourth year of life and produce a crop for 40-50 years, and the tree itself can live to 85 years. The nutritional value of the almond kernel is equal to bread, milk and meat. "Nuts" contain 55-63% of fatty oils, 23-35% of proteins, up to 8% of sugars, and vitamins of group B. Almond nuts can persist for a long time without losing their qualities, and almond oil does not burn at all.
Garden almond tree varieties
To obtain a crop of edible nuts cultivated almonds and its varietal varieties. The choice of variety is influenced by the climatic conditions of the region and the possibility of self-pollination, which is inherent in very few varieties, for example, Nikitsky 62.
Also, varietal characteristics affect the shape and size of trees, as well as their resistance to cold, diseases and harmful insects. The size of the seed, the thickness of the pericarp and the amount of the crop depend on the variety.
Almonds resistant to frost:
- Seaside - has good immunity to diseases, needs pollinators and is capable of producing up to 15 kg of "nuts" from one tree.
- Nikitsky 62 - capable of self-pollination and gives up to 13 kg of crop.
- Dessert - blooms in mid-spring and needs pollinators.
Varieties with medium frost resistance:
- Milos - has an average immunity to diseases and gives about six kilograms of "nuts".
- Alushta - ripens early and gives large nuts, but needs pollinators.
- Steppe - different average yield and good taste.
Varieties of heat-loving and drought-resistant minadal:
- Jubilee - late ripening, with yields above average indicators
- Sevastopol - late ripening with high yields, needs pollinators.
- Foros is a medium-ripe large-fruited variety, resistant to pests and diseases, it needs pollinators.
Almond trees feel well on a lighted place, they do not put forward special requirements to the ground, they like liming, they tolerate urban conditions and grow very quickly.
How to grow a tree from the stone
Almond trees can be propagated in several ways: by seeds, seedlings, layering and cuttings. The first method is the most laborious, but allows you to feel the whole process. When growing an almond tree from a stone, one should remember that the culture does not always preserve the varietal quality of the fruit.
The site for planting seeds should be protected from strong winds, the soil needs to be fertile and well drained. In arid climate, irrigation is required:
- sowing seeds produced in the spring, with the autumn planting increases the risk of destruction of seeds by rodents
- the ground should be dug deep or tilled
- bones buried by 11-16 cm
Seed material must be stratified before planting. To do this, the bones are placed in the sand and kept for about a month, maintaining the temperature at a level of from 1 to 10 degrees. The best time for this event is the first half of winter. But it should be carried out 20-25 days before sowing. If the roots of the seeds have grown strongly, they should be pinched in order to stimulate the development of lateral roots. When the seedlings reach 15 cm, their root system should be shortened with a sharp spade. After which the plants are abundantly watered.
About six nuts will be stirred at one meter, and if the place is chosen permanent and the budding is carried out without subsequent transplanting, then two nuts should be placed in one well.
Budding is carried out at the end of the summer to prevent premature germination of the eyes.
The procedure is performed near the root collar. For the winter, the seedlings are crooked and spud, which helps to avoid early germination of the death of the plant from the cold. When the oculant grows 12-15 cm, it is rolled up for the purpose of fixation. With the growth of the oculant, the procedure is repeated, and the stock itself is freed from new shoots. In the first year, the crown form is not formed. Young trees are dug and transplanted to a permanent place, if necessary.
Rules for planting seedlings
The most common method of propagating almonds is planting grafted seedlings. But you should purchase planting material from a trusted seller or in a nursery to get the tree of the desired grade.
It is also worth considering that for most varieties pollinators are needed, therefore several different varieties should be planted.
Planting seedlings produced according to a certain scheme, observing simple rules:
- Prepare planting holes, the size of which should be twice the root. The drainage layer is laid on the bottom using crushed stone, broken brick and sand.
- Pits are dug at intervals of at least three meters so that future plants do not interfere with each other’s development.
- Soil for planting seedlings should be fertilized using superphosphate (about 500 grams per tree), matured manure (4-5 kg), and also add lime.
- The roots are evenly distributed on the bottom of the planting pit and a support is installed in the center.
- The vaccination site should not be immersed in the soil.
- After planting, each seedling should be well nourished with water. As you grow in time, clear the soil around the trees from weeds and loosen.
In the first year of life, seedlings will grow slowly, because the plant directs all its forces to the development of the root system. But in subsequent years, almonds will actively move in growth and in four years will delight the first flowering.
Proper care of the almond tree
Almonds require special care immediately after disembarkation, but in subsequent years regular watering, timely pruning and fertilization will be needed:
- In the absence of precipitation, watering trees should be at least once a week. Older individuals are able to do with less irrigation. You need to make sure that the root neck does not get wet, because it can quickly rot and the plant will die. It is reasonable to irrigate with drip irrigation, which will eliminate many problems.
- Almonds need to be fed regularly. In the period of active growth, young trees are fertilized with nitrogen and potassium. For adult trees, manure and ammonium nitrate are suitable as solutions (a kilogram of manure and 0.2 kg of saltpeter per bucket of water). In the beginning of spring, they once bring in honey-containing fertilizers. Any fertilizer needs to be poured with water to avoid burns of the plant and to ensure an even spread of dressings.
- It is necessary to carry out the forming and improving pruning of almonds. They are carried out after flowering. First you need to thin the crown and remove damaged and dried branches.
- Also, grafted almonds need shelter for the winter, which allows to avoid the freezing of the culture.
On the fourth and fifth gud of life, almond trees produce the first harvest. After flowering, medium-sized hard fruits are formed, sour to the taste. In some countries, they are used in food. As they mature, the fruits begin to harden, become dark and crack. The drying of the shell serves as a signal for the collection of "nuts".
Planting and caring for almonds (briefly)
- Landing: in early March or in the last days of September.
- Bloom: in March or April, before the leaves appear.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: drained and breathable chernozem, loam, sandy soils with a high content of lime and pH 7.7. Groundwater in the area should lie deep.
- Watering: regular: one bucket of water when the soil dries out in the near-stem circle to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Saplings are watered more often than mature trees. In case of difficulties with the delivery of water in a season with the usual amount of precipitation, two abundant irrigations per season are enough: spring and autumn water recharge.
- Top dressing: At the end of April or at the beginning of May, a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water is introduced into the near-stem circle. In the autumn, 1 kg of manure and 20 g of double superphosphate and potassium sulphide are added to the near-barking circle during digging.
- Trimming: in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, after leaf fall, sanitary pruning is carried out. Formative pruning done after flowering.
- Reproduction: budding, overgrowing, layering, sometimes - seeds (stones).
- Pests: spider mites, almond seed-eaters, plum moths, aphids, plum bark beetles, saplings and leafworms.
- Diseases: chalcosporosis, rust, monilioz, gray rot (botrytis), scab, blusterosporiosis (perforated spotting).
Almond Tree Description
The almond tree is 4–6 m high, and the almond shrub is 2–3 m. The almond rhizome has no more than five skeletal roots that penetrate to a sufficient depth so that the plant does not suffer from drought. The shoots of this branched plant are of two types: shortened generative and elongated vegetative. The leaves of almond are lanceolate, with a pointed tip, petiolate.
How does the almond blossom? Light pink or white almond flowers up to 2.5 cm in diameter are composed of five petals. Almond blossoms begin in March or April - before its leaves bloom. The fruit of the almond is a dry, velvety to the touch oval drupe with a leathery green pericarp, which, after drying, is easily separated from the stone 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, having the same shape as the fruit, but often notched with grooves.
Almond begins to give fruit from four to five years, full fruiting begins in the tenth or twelfth year, and the tree bears fruit from 30 to 50 years. With good care, an almond tree can grow in your garden from 50 to 80, and some specimens can live up to 130 years.
Almond has two varieties - bitter almonds, growing in nature, and sweet almonds, grown in culture. Almond is a plant that requires cross-pollination, and in order for it to start producing, in its immediate vicinity at least three more almond pollinating varieties should grow, the period of flowering of which coincides. In addition to the remarkably tasty fruit, the value of almond is its decorative qualities. Almond is a wonderful melliferous plant that exudes a magical aroma during flowering. Since almonds are mainly pollinated by bees, it is best fruited if there are 3-4 beehives in the area or somewhere close to it.
Walnut almond is a relative of such fruit trees as apple, pear, plum, apricot, cherry plum, peach, chokeberry, rowan, briar, hawthorn, quince and other cultured representatives of the rose family. From our article, you will learn how almonds grow in the middle zone, how almonds are planted and cared for, what kinds of almonds exist, what kinds of almonds are more adapted to our climatic conditions, what are the benefits of almonds, and for whom and in what be harm to almonds.
When planting almonds.
Almonds can be grown from the stone, and we will tell you about this in the section on plant reproduction, but it is best to grow almonds from an annual sapling. Seedlings are planted in the soil in early spring - in early March - or in the autumn, in the last days of November. They choose a sunny lot for almond trees, although they grow well in partial shade, however, seedlings must be protected from drafts and strong winds.
The best almond soil - water and breathable chernozem, sandy or loamy soil with a high content of lime - the optimum pH of 7.7. Sour, chloride or saline soils for the cultivation of almonds are unsuitable, as well as areas with high standing of groundwater.
Planting almond in the fall.
Almond seedlings planted in the fall, take root much better than those planted in the spring. Two weeks before planting, pits with a diameter of 50–70 cm and a depth of 60 cm at a distance of 3-4 m from each other in a row and 5.5–6.5 m between the rows are dug out in the area allotted for almonds. A layer of crushed stone or broken bricks with sand is laid in each pit for bleeding and mixed with fertile soil consisting of sand, humus and leaf earth in a ratio of 1: 2: 3, 5-6 kg of decomposed manure and a pound of superphosphate. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to add dolomite flour or lime in the amount of 200-300 g. In two weeks, when the soil settles in the pit, you can start planting almonds.
How to plant almonds? Planting an almond tree is not much different from planting a plum or apricot. Dig a support into the center of the pit - a pole of such a height that it would rise half a meter above the level of the site. Pour a hill out of the ground into the center of the pit. Dip the seedlings' roots in a clay mash with the density of sour cream and place the tree on a hill so that the root neck is just above the surface. Fill the pit with fertile soil, compact it and pour the tree 10-15 liters of water. When water is absorbed, tie the seedling to the support and grumble the tree trunk with a layer of peat or dry soil 3-5 cm thick so that the mulch does not come into contact with the root neck of the tree.
How to plant almonds in the spring.
If for any reason you had to move the planting of almonds in the spring, you still need to dig holes for it in the fall. Lay in them a drainage layer of sand and rubble, pour a layer of fertile soil mixed with fertilizer and leave the pits until spring. In early March, before the trees begin to ferment the sap, they plant almonds in the same manner as they are done in the fall.
Almond planting and care are carried out in accordance with the agrotechnical culture. You will have to perform procedures such as watering, loosening and weeding the tree circle, pruning and feeding the plant, as well as prevention against diseases and pests. And if you do everything right, then you have to collect a good harvest.
How to care for almonds? At the end of March, it is necessary to make the first loosening of the tree circle to a depth of 10-12 cm, and then, during the growing season, carry out another 3-4 loosening to a depth of 8-10 cm. Maintain the purity of the tree circle, promptly remove weeds.
Almonds are harvested when its outer green shell turns dark and begins to easily separate from the core. Collected fruits are peeled and laid out in a single layer to dry, and then stored in fabric bags.
Despite the fact that almond culture is drought-resistant, it grows better and bears fruit under conditions of timely and sufficient irrigation. Almonds growing in sandy soil need more frequent and abundant watering than those grown in clay and loamy soils. When you find that the soil under the almonds has dried to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, pour a bucket of water into the tree trunk circle. Waterlogging can lead to rotting of the plant root.
Саженцы нуждаются в более частых поливах, чем взрослые деревья: поддерживающие поливы следует проводить один раз в 10-14 дней.
Как вырастить миндаль в условиях отсутствия воды? Если у вас нет возможности орошать миндаль в течение всего вегетационного периода, проведите хотя бы осенний и весенний влагозарядковые поливы растения.
Almonds in the garden are in need of nitrogen, so in late April or early May, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate diluted in a bucket of water is added to the near-stem circle of each adult tree. Under the autumn digging of the site, 1 kg of manure and 20 g of potassium sulphide and double superphosphate are introduced into the tree trunk circle of each tree. In the row spacing of young plants, it is desirable to grow siderats for the first 5-7 years of life.
The cultivation of almonds requires preventive treatment of trees from pests and diseases. In order to destroy pathogens circulating in the soil and cracks of the tree bark of pathogens and harmful insects, in early spring, before budding begins, treat almond trees with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid. And at the end of the growing season, after the end of leaf fall, spend an autumn spraying of almonds with Bordeaux liquid or its analogs in order to destroy the pests and pathogens arranged for wintering.
Almonds in Siberia.
Despite the fact that the almond without shelter does not hibernate in the middle zone, there are frost-resistant species and plant varieties that are successfully cultivated not only in Vologda and St. Petersburg, but also in the forest-steppe and steppe parts of Siberia. The frost-resistant species include steppe almonds, or low, or Russian, or bogovnik, or almond. It is a shrub up to 1.5 m in height with brown or reddish-gray bark, lanceolate, leathery, shiny, serrate on the edges of dark green leaves up to 8 in length and 3 cm wide. Almond steppe is unpretentious, gas-smoke and drought-resistant, completely undemanding to the composition of the soil and easily propagated.
There are two garden forms of steppe almonds: belotsvetkovaya and Gessler - with flowers of bright pink hue. In spring, flowering branches of almond steppe are striking in their beauty. On the basis of bobovnik breeders bred such highly decorative varieties as Annie, Pink Flamingo, Dream, White Sail, Pink Mist.
Almond kernels of the steppe are edible and tasty. Another advantage of this species is that it is quickly restored, even in cases when it freezes into the harsh, snowless winter.
Almonds in Moscow and Moscow region.
In the conditions of Moscow and the Moscow region, besides bovovnik, a three-blade almond grows well, which normally hibernates without shelter and quickly recovers in case of slight frosting. The most stable in the conditions of the Moscow winters were the forms of the plant grafted on the turn root. Nevertheless, it is desirable to protect even trees of cold-resistant varieties from frost - to cover their shafts with lutrasil. And in order to prevent freezing of the shoots, it is necessary to remove the apical buds at the end of July or the beginning of August - this procedure stimulates the rapid lignification of the shoots, after which the frost will not be terrible for the almonds.
How to prune almonds.
Form the crown of almond-type plum, apricot, peach or nectarine - deduce three tiers of skeletal branches. Immediately after planting, the seedling is cut at a height of 120 cm, while the stem at the tree is 50-70 cm high.
When pruning pruning fruit trees remove thickening crown and improperly growing branches. When flower buds freeze, annual shoots are shortened.
Where to plant almonds
Although almonds are able to tolerate drought, dehydration can greatly harm the plant - it slows growth and begins to shed leaves, as a result, the harvest is reduced, not only this year, but the subsequent one. Also, productivity falls in low light, when almonds grow in areas shaded by other plants or buildings.
These features must be considered when making a decision on the breeding of almonds.
What types and varieties are best to plantBefore growing almonds, it is necessary to determine the purpose of planting and, depending on this, choose the most suitable variety.
There are more than forty kinds of almonds, but the most common is almond. Its height can reach six meters, but in dry places it grows with a low bush. Depending on the taste of the fruit, they emit bitter, sweet and brittle almonds, all of which are related to the plant species under consideration.
Almond varieties such as Pink Fog and Anyuta are very popular, but fruit growers prefer to grow White Sail.
If the purpose of growing almond is the decor of the plot, you should pay attention to varieties such as three-lobed almonds (it has a very beautiful one and a half meter crown and falling leaves, blooms with bright pink or crimson flowers), “Ledebura” (it has a special aroma, large dark leaves and large light pink flowers) and "Petunnikova" (decorative dwarf shrubs with beautiful flowers of pink hue).
What soil is suitable for cultivationThe almond tree does not make too high demands on the soil, it may well grow on rubble, in sand and stones. Optimally, the soil is light, fertile and has good drainage.
For this plant, acidic clay, saline, especially chlorine-containing soils are contraindicated, its root system does not tolerate the effects of high groundwater, as well as the absence of air and water permeability.
How and when to plant almonds
Deciding how to grow an almond tree begins with choosing a place. In addition to the requirements for the composition of the soil and the abundance of light, it is necessary to provide the seedling with good protection from the wind. It is best to place the plant on the south side of the plot.
Planting almonds optimally in late autumn, planted in the spring the plant takes root worse.The technology of planting an almond tree is as follows. Pits a little more than half a meter deep are dug two to three meters apart from one another (this can be reduced for shrubs and dwarf varieties). Fine gravel or crushed stone is poured at the bottom of the pit, up to 10 cm of sand from the top, then top dressing, ideally phosphate fertilizers and manure.
The trees are carefully placed in the hole (the root neck should be 10-15 cm underground), after which the hole is filled with fertile soil and is well packed.
Near-root circle with a radius of one and a half meters should be mulched. Peat is best used for this purpose. A support is driven in near the sapling, with which the young tree is tied to protect it from the wind.
Each seedling must be watered plentifully.
Almonds are propagated by seeds, cuttings, and root division of the plant.
Growing almonds from pits
Almonds can be grown from the stone, but in this case, the biological and product characteristics of the almond can be lost. In order to germinate the almond seed as best as possible, it should be soaked in a strengthening solution and planted at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other in a previously prepared, well-digged place in late autumn or at the beginning of winter to a depth of 10-15 cm. In one hole can be laid on two bones, in this case, after germination leave a stronger seedling. Bones can be planted in early spring, but before that, from the end of January to the beginning of February, they must be stratified (germinated in conditions similar to those of natural wintering) in the sand. The process lasts up to one and a half months at temperatures from zero to ten degrees above zero.
When the seedlings reach 10-15 cm, the roots of the plant at the same depth must be trimmed with a shovel, after which water abundantly.
Budding of seedlings is carried out at the end of summer in the area of the root collar, after which the oculant is spud. Annual seedlings need to be transplanted, otherwise they will not form a crown.
Propagation of almond cuttingsTo propagate the almond tree in this way, at the beginning of summer, cuttings of 15–20 cm in length (two nodes) are cut from the top of the plant and placed in a stimulating solution for several hours. After that, the cuttings are planted in the prepared mixture of sand and peat (1: 2 ratio) and placed in a cold greenhouse for 20-30 days. During this time, the cuttings must be fully rooted, after which the young almond tree continues its cultivation in the training bed.
If the almond tree is very pruned, it gives abundant growth. In the second year after the onset, such sprouts can be separated, preserving the roots, and transplanted into a separate place.
Almond reproduction by layering
Almond seedlings can also be used for propagation by layering. To do this, it must be bent to the ground, pinned with a metal or wooden stud and lightly sprinkled with earth. Own root system of such shoots is formed in about a year, all this time they need to be watered regularly, weed around them and weed the soil. Subsequently, the seedlings are separated from the mother tree and planted in a permanent place.
How to water almondsAlmonds need abundant watering only if it grows on sandy soil. The abundance of moisture is very harmful for the plant, but with a lack of water, the tree does not bloom well and does not bear fruit. Almonds should be watered when the soil around the plant has dried to a depth of about one and a half centimeters. The rate of watering is from seven to ten liters of water per bush.
Fertilizer and almond feeding
Almonds need a lot of strength to properly form and fill the fruits, this feature of the plant determines the agronomy of its cultivation. In the spring, the adult tree is fertilized with organic matter and ammonium nitrate (20 g per bucket of water). In autumn, the soil must be fed with double superphosphate and potassium sulfate - 20 g of each and another per square meter.
Cutting and cutting almonds is very beneficial for the plant. Even flowering branches cut for decorative purposes will not damage the tree. Be sure to remove damaged and dried branches. It is necessary to form a tree as soon as it fades. Pruning is necessary for the almond nut, as it grows very quickly and without a proper hairstyle, it becomes untidy. In order for the plant to be pleasing to the eye, annual shoots should be pruned.
Almonds can be grafted not only on the plant of the same variety, but also on other varieties of almond, as well as plum, cherry plum or sloe. It is best to do this in the middle of spring or at the end of summer, when sap flow is especially active. The weather should not be too hot.A couple of days before the procedure, the stock must be poured very well (the bark should be easily separated) so that during the budding the bark is well separated from the wood. A graft is taken as a straight stalk with a formed bud, from which it is necessary to carefully cut the leaves, leaving, in order not to damage the bud, the cuttings of a few millimeters.
In the area of the root collar of the graft (first it must be cleaned of dirt), an incision in the shape of the letter “T” is made with a sharp knife, and in the place where the incision lines converge, the bark is gently bent. From the prepared cutting, the flap with the bud is cut from such a calculation so that it fits into the prepared cut. When trimming the shield you need to capture, in addition to the bark, a little woody fabric. The cutting is inserted into the incision, covered by the bark and fixed with a tight bandage of adhesive tape or tape (the kidney must remain on the surface).
After 2-3 weeks, a control check is carried out: with a successful vaccination, the eye must be green and the petiole will disappear. After that the bandage can be loosened. If budding was carried out at the end of summer, the peephole should not be removed before spring. Eyes that have not taken root need to be re-counted.In the spring, after the appearance of foliage, the strapping can be removed, the stock with a dried eye can be grafted with the help of a stalk prepared in advance.When the height of the oculant reaches 10 cm, it is necessary to additionally pile it up, the procedure is repeated at least twice, as it grows up. Shoots, which gives the stock, should be removed, as well as side shoots that appear on the oculant.
Almonds belong to frost-resistant plants, however if frosts in winter fall below -15 ° С, the tips of young branches and buds of flowers may freeze near the tree. To avoid this, at the end of the summer, it is recommended to pinch the ends of the almond shoots. In this case, the plant suspends growth, its wood, on the contrary, matures better, in connection with which the almond acquires additional resistance to frost.
Description and flowering ornamental shrubs
Almond tree reaches a height of 4-6 meters, and a bush 2-3 meters. The rhizome consists of 3-5 skeletal roots that are able to penetrate deep into the ground, thereby protecting themselves from drying out.
The plant is quite branchy, while it consists of two types of shoots, which include shorter generative and elongated vegetative.
Dark green leaves mounted on brown petioles and have a lanceolate form with a pointed tip.
Flowers This plant consists of 5 petals painted in white or light pink color. On average, the diameter of a single flower is 2.5 centimeters.
Almond fruit - this is a drupe, dry and velvety to the touch, with a leathery and fleshy green pericarp.
After drying, the flesh is very easily separated from the edible oval bone and long, equal to 2.5 - 4 centimeters. It is characterized by a large number of furrows.
The first fruiting occurs at 4-5 year of tree life, but in full force it appears only for 10-12 years. With good care, the shrub bears fruit for 30-50 years.
In addition to receiving fruits Almonds are also grown for ornamental purposes.. Pink or white foam of flowers of such a tree not only decorate the garden in early spring, but also exude a unique scent.Almond blossoms in March-April with white or light pink flowers.
Almond is a plant whose pollination needs to be taken care of in advance. There are two types of trees:
- first need cross pollination, therefore, at least 3 pollinators are planted next to the fruiting almond, the flowering time of which should be the same,
- the latter are pollinated by beestherefore, it is desirable that 2-3 hives stand next to the plant.
Initially, it was thought that it was possible to grow almonds only in the southern regions, but with the development of scientific technology, breeders have bred varieties that, with adequate shelter, can survive even the most severe winter.
In the culture of grown sweet varieties of almonds, the following types are very popular:
- Anniversary - the variety blooms rather late, has good drought resistance. The skin is of medium thickness, and the core is sweet, dense and dry,
- Ayudagsky - this variety is late-ripening and skoroplodny, the first fruiting comes already at 3 year of the tree's life. Fruits covered with soft shells are light brown, dense, slightly flattened oval core,
- Sevastopol - this almond boasts excellent resistance to heat and drought, besides, it brings a huge amount of harvest. The fruit shell is soft, and the kernels themselves are dense, sweet, painted white Uvt,
- Mangul - this late ripening variety is not afraid of drought. Solid and dense kernels with increased lubricity are covered with a soft shell. A distinctive feature is good immunity to most diseases and pests,
- Dessert - this self-infertile almond is well suited for growing in central Russia, because it is not afraid of recurrent frosts and frostbite of flower buds. The shell is soft and rough. The oval-shaped kernels are very sweet and oily. As a pollinator for this variety are usually used almond seaside or spicy.
Rules for planting almond tree in open ground
It is best to grow almonds from annual seedlingswhich are placed in open ground in early March or at the end of November.
As a place to plant a plant choose a sunny plot, protected from drafts and gusting winds, also almonds can grow well in partial shade.
Before planting the plant, it is necessary to prepare the pit. In the autumn, two weeks before planting, they dig out pits, the diameter and depth of which will be 50-70 centimeters.
If almonds are planted in groups, then the distance between individual trees should be 3-4 meters, and between rows of 5-6 meters.It is best to grow almonds from annual seedlings, plant in March or November
A drainage layer is laid on the bottom of each pit.consisting of rubble or gravel. Then they are placed fertile soil consisting of the following elements:
- 1 part of sand,
- 2 pieces of humus,
- 3 pieces of leafy ground
- 5-6 pounds of rotted manure or humus,
- 500 grams of superphosphate,
- in the presence of acidic soil, 200-300 grams of dolomite flour or lime are added to it.
After the pit is infused enough you can start planting a tree:
- initially in the center of the pit they instill support with a height of 1-1.5 meters,
- then around it they build a hill of earth,
- the seedling is placed on the knoll so that the root neck is 3-5 centimeters higher than the ground,
- на следующем этапе яму засыпают плодородным грунтом, утрамбовывают и тщательно поливают,
- как только вода полностью впитается, саженец привязывают к опоре и мульчируют почву 3-5 сантиметровым слоем торфа или сухих листьев.
При проведении весенней посадки яму также подготавливают в осенний период.
Как правильно посадить миндаль: