Among people who have no experience in the cultivation of grapes, there is an opinion that it is easier to engage in its reproduction in the spring. The main argument is that there is no need to fear that during the winter the cutting will wither or rot (which often happens during the cultivation of grapes). In fact, with such an approach, time can be wasted: the spring cut off and the chubuk planted in the poorly warmed land is likely to wither and not having time to take roots. Another disadvantage in this situation is that a fresh wound will remain on the “revived” vine, and the plant will be “sick” for a long time. Thus, storage of grapes in the winter is more efficient.
How to prepare future seedlings?
The main question asked by experienced growers about grapes cuttings: “How do you keep planting material for a long winter in order to get a healthy escape in the spring?”
Here you need to consider a few points. It is best to carry out harvesting Chubuk in late September or early October (adjustments are made depending on the weather). At this time, the vital activity of plants is reduced, and pruning will cause less damage to the grapes. Since the winter sprigs lose most of their moisture, it is necessary to partially replenish its reserves before storage. This is done quite simply: all the leaves and antennae are removed from the cut stalk, a fresh slice is made in its lower part, and the shell is placed in water (preferably rain or thawed, but always clean) for about a day. This procedure will protect the sprig from drying out, and it will safely survive the winter. You can additionally dip the slices on both sides in the warm paraffin - this will prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture from the trunk.
Someone additionally makes several light longitudinal grooves up to 3 cm long on the bottom of the chubukov to provide additional development of the roots in the spring.
It is recommended to moisten the prepared cuttings in iron sulphate (a few seconds is enough), and in its absence - in a weakly colored solution of potassium permanganate, chinosol or foundationol, and then dry it well. Such treatment will help fight mold and various diseases.
Where can I keep chubukov?
There are three ways to save grape cuttings in winter. At home it is a refrigerator, a trench, a basement. The choice of location depends on the amount of material. It is quite possible to put several cuttings in the refrigerator, but when preparing them for sale or for planting over a large area, the second option will be more successful. The storage method affects the care of cuttings during the winter.
Ordinary plastic bottles without a bottom volume of one and a half liters are suitable for several seedlings. In the first, some sand is poured in and two cuttings are installed, the second plays the role of a lid: in order to make it easier to put on, small cuts are made on the walls. The cork on the bottle-cap periodically opens to ventilate the cubs.
It is better to use the camera for vegetables and fruits, as there is the most favorable temperature for the Chubuk. In its absence, it is possible to provide winter storage of cuttings (of course, in small quantities) on the lower shelf of the refrigerator. To establish the required level of humidity, experienced people advise to wrap the lower part of the piping moistened with water and wrung out with a cloth, then put them in a plastic bag and tie them well with a rope. The only caveat is that you cannot wrap the seedling completely, as this will lead to its decay. Next, it will be necessary to check the condition of the cuttings monthly and, if necessary, to treat them: wipe the place where the mold appears moistened in a pink solution of manganese with cotton wool. Before you put the pipe in the refrigerator again, you will need to dry it.
Creating conditions for seedlings in the basement
More common storage of grapes in the winter in the cellar. The first option: pour into a suitable-sized container (box, old bath, with a small number of cuttings - a bucket) lightly moistened with clean water in sand to a layer of 10 cm. Then install prepared chubuki so that they do not touch each other, and slightly deepen. The advantages of such storage is that the upper part of the chubukov remains free from sand, and this allows you to visually determine their condition in winter. Seedlings should be located in accordance with their natural growth, i.e. the basal part of the stem should be below. Then - mandatory regular inspection of planting material and maintaining the required level of moisture.
The second method: put the grapes cuttings in a container with sand (as you store, for example, carrots) and fall asleep (the layer between them should be about 4-5 cm). During the winter, it is necessary to constantly moisten the contents of the box, as well as to inspect the chubukov and change the lower and upper rows in places. If necessary, ventilate the basement, which will avoid temperature increases, especially when approaching spring.
Instead of sand, sawdust and moss are suitable, as long as they are always wet. An aid in this case can be polyethylene, which cover the container.
Using a trench or pit
This method is more suitable when you need to save a lot of seedlings, or there is no cellar. A trench about a meter deep and 5–10 cm wide more than the length of the cuttings (if they are arranged vertically) is being dug at an elevated position. After processing the bottom and walls with lime mortar, sand is poured into it - up to 10 cm. Chubuki are stacked horizontally or vertically, you can beams, the space between them is filled with sand, and the soil is poured from above. With proper equipment, the ground should somewhat rise above the trench, which will protect the storage location from waterlogging, especially in spring. With the same purpose it can be covered with a film. Next to the elevation, additional grooves are made for draining water.
Unfortunately, such storage of grapes in the winter does not allow monitoring their condition; moreover, an unsuccessfully prepared trench may be flooded. And for rodents such storage is open.
When harvesting chubukov several grape varieties, each batch must be placed separately from the others.
How to grow grapes from cuttings: rooting methods
Overwintered Chubuk in February begin to prepare for landing. The best option is to put foam rubber dipped in water in a package, install cuttings on it, roll it well and put it in a dark place. Ten days to check them for the appearance of root buds. “Revived” cuttings need to be planted in a glass from under a plastic bottle, filled with a mixture of soil and humus, covered with the top of the bottle without a lid and put on the window sill or in another illuminated place. When the roots fill the bottle and 4-5 leaves appear, the bottle can be removed.
Compliance with simple recommendations on how to prepare the cuttings (chubuk) of grapes in the fall and keep them in the winter will help in the near future to get a strong, well-developed vine.
When you need to cut the chubuki
The most suitable time for harvesting planting material is late autumn. In different regions - their own terms. It all depends on when the winter cold comes. It is necessary to make the harvesting after the leaves fall, but before the first frosts come.
In the middle lane, these terms fall on the second half of October - the beginning of November. In other regions - other terms: in the south - the end of November and the beginning of December, in the north - much earlier.
Chubuk harvesting is carried out in the autumn for the reason that in winter, part of the kidney freezes, and in the fall all eyes are productive.
What cuttings are suitable for storage
Not every stalk is suitable for germination. First of all, you need to harvest chubuki from a strong and healthy plant, which gives high yields. On the shoots are not allowed any flaws or scratches. Also, the branches that you plan to cut should be fully mature, and their core should be dense.
Maturity can be determined by the color of the shoot - it will be dark straw, while the unripe vine has a green color. They also determine whether the escape has matured or not by touch. If you touch a fully ripe shoot, you can feel that it is warm.
If you still have doubts whether this branch has matured or not, you can resort to the following method of determining its maturity - put the cut chubuk in an aqueous solution of iodine (1% is suitable) and see if the cutting changes color.
If the color has not changed, the escape is immature, and if the color of the cutting has become dark purple or black, this is what we need.
How to cut cuttings correctly:
- It is very important what size will be Chubuk. Its diameter should be no more than 10 cm, but not less than 6, and the length - no more than 70 cm,
- branches free from all superfluous, leaving only 4 active kidneys,
- cuttings are made using sharply honed, treated in a disinfectant solution pruner or knife,
- the lower cut is done directly under the eye, and the upper between the kidneys in the middle. As a cutting, as a rule, the middle part of the shoot or lower part is used,
- the finished chubukas are tied into bundles, on which labels with the inscription are hung, what kind of variety is this.
Storage methods for planting material in winter
What to do with cuttings in the fall? Before you put the harvested cuttings in storage, they must be prepared. First, in order for the shoots to retain moisture for as long as possible, they are dipped into the water for a day, after having made fresh cuts at one end.
Then they are kept in a disinfecting solution (a 3% solution of ferrous or copper vitriol or 1% potassium permanganate is suitable) so that no mold will form during storage. Then dried at room temperature.
Next, paraffin is melted and both ends of the pipe are dipped into it. As the paraffin hardens, the cuttings are sent to storage. Shoots stored in this way will be able to keep moisture inside for a long time.
The cuttings are stored in winter in several ways:
- in the basement or cellar,
- in the refrigerator,
- on the salo of the trench.
Any of these methods of storage will save planting material of the time when the cuttings will be planted in the ground.
Storage in the basement or cellar
Under cellar conditions chubukov can be stored in wooden boxes with sand. To do this, take the boxes, poured on the bottom of the wet sand, no more than 10 cm thick, fold the bundles with chibuk on it, fall asleep with the same wet sand, and so on. Instead of sand, you can use sawdust.
There is another way. Moisturized sand or sawdust 15 cm thick are poured into the bottom of the box, sticking cuttings in there so that they do not touch each other, and the box is covered with polyethylene on top so that moisture does not go away or the moisture level is constantly monitored.
You can also use plastic bags. Bound cuttings are put into these bags, and the bags are tied and stacked on the shelves.
At least once a month, it is necessary to check the condition of the shoots - wet dried ones, and wipe the moldy ones with a cloth dipped in a 3% solution of copper sulphate.
Do not forget that the humidity in the cellar, necessary for the normal storage of chubukov, must be at least 60%, and the temperature - from 0 to + 4 ° C.
How to keep cuttings in a trench
Some gardeners store planting material right in the garden, in a trench:
- in order to dig a trench, you must first find a suitable place for it. It should be located on a hill so that the meltwater does not accumulate in the pit, but also so that there are no drafts,
- further, they dig a ditch, a depth of 15–20 cm more than a bunch of cuttings, at the bottom of which sand, sawdust are poured, or moss or branches are eaten. Then put bunches with chibuk, which also cover with sand, moss or spruce branches,
- after the air temperature drops to 0- + 1, the trenches are covered with earth.
When spring arrives, somewhere in the middle of March, the chubukas are taken from their storage sites, they are inspected to make sure that the planting material is suitable for rooting - they make fresh cuts, which should be green. Further, the cuttings are divided in half so that each half has two buds.
The cut in the lower part is made obliquely so as not to be confused with the upper part. From the center of the shoot to its lower part, scratches are cut out with a sharp clean knife and, further, the shoots are placed in water for 24 hours.
After this time, the chubukas are taken out of the water and put again for a day in a special solution that will promote the formation of the roots. Then, a quantity of pure water is poured into the jar to cover the lower parts of the shoots by no more than 5 cm, and the cuttings are placed there. Bank placed on a sunny window sill. Water is added as evaporation.
After two weeks, buds will begin to swell on the cuttings, and in a month the first roots will appear. Now the planting material is ready to be planted in the ground.
The sequence of landing chubukov in the ground:
- first prepare the tank with the ground. It can be cut milk and juice bags or ordinary plastic bottles. As a soil, use a mixture of vegetable fertile soil, humus, sand and sawdust (1: 1: 1: 1),
- holes for outflow of liquid are made in the container, drainage is placed on the bottom and ground prepared slightly moistened earth with a height of no more than 8 cm. A pipe is placed on it and covered with the remaining earth. Then watered and placed in a sunny place,
- plantings require additional feeding, which will be suitable as an aqueous solution of wood ash. If the shoots quickly grow, they will need to pinch,
- As soon as warm weather sets in, and the threat of frost passes, plants can be planted in a permanent place of growth.
If the whole process of harvesting, storing and rooting the chubukov has passed correctly, then the shoots will take root without any problems and in a couple of years will delight the first crop of delicious fragrant berries grown with their own hands with great love.
It is important to note that the cuttings should be stored in this case in the cellar, but not in the basement. For in such places the temperature is above the established norm, and as a result, very weak seedlings are obtained due to the fact that they begin to actively breathe and squander nutrients.
If you plan to keep cuttings in the garageThen periodically sprinkle the sawdust so that they are only wet. On each of the seedlings should be screwed tag indicating the variety, in order to avoid confusion in the future.
Storing seedlings in a trenchIt is used if you plan to store a large amount of planting material, or summer residents have only a warm basement. The essence of this method is to store the seedlings in a specially prepared trench.
You must choose places that are protected by a small hill. It will not allow fill the trench with water and keep the cuttings in order. Cutted cuttings must be laid on the bottom of the wintering trench, having spilled up to this bottom with a layer of sand of 5 centimeters.
When to start harvesting
The best period for harvesting grape cuttings is autumn. And cut off the seedlings before the onset of the first significant frosts.
It is permissible to cut cuttings before the first December frosts - the main thing is that the temperature does not fall below -10 ° C. In this case, the vine still does not have time to completely lose nutrients, but it will also be hardened at low temperatures.
The time frame of such a temperature regime in different regions may vary, therefore it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of its climatic zone. However, the sooner you cut the cuttings, the greater the number of living buds on them. The eyes are quite sensitive to low temperatures and are easily damaged by frost. Therefore, if you do not set a goal to harden the vine, it is best to prepare the shoots when the temperature is in the range from 5 ° C to 0 ° C.
How to choose cuttings for cutting
Cut the cuttings carried out only on a well-matured vine. The plant must be perfectly healthy and strong. If there are at least insignificant traces of disease or pests on the shoots, this shrub is not suitable for reproduction.
VIDEO: HOW AND WHEN TO CROP VINE GRAPES Select in advance the bushes that you want to propagate. Decide on the variety, make sure the yield of the plant and its good health. From the beginning of autumn you can mark for yourself bushes that interested you, so that later there will be no confusion.
For cutting chubukov suitable only ripened part of the vine. Check shoots for maturity is very simple, because the difference between the young green branches and already matured is pretty obvious:
- mature shoots have a distinctive dark straw color, while the young parts have a greenish tint,
- on the ripened part of the bark is tougher and rough,
- молодые зелёные и созревшие побеги очень отличаются по своей температуре в любое время года — зелёные всегда гораздо прохладнее по ощущениям, а вызревшие всегда тёплые.
- невызревшая и тонкая виноградная лоза,
- очень толстая, жирующая лоза,
- порослевые побеги,
- растения, на которых есть повреждения от грибков и вредителей,
- побеги, у которых слишком короткие, или наоборот — слишком длинные междоузлия,
- малоплодные и бесплодные кусты.
VIDEO: PREPARING A ROD FOR TRAILSMandatory conditions that must be met grape hubs:
- high yield of the selected plant, its health and maturity,
- the thickness of the cubs should be about 1 cm in diameter,
- it is best if the shoots contain from 5 to 7-8 internodes, although some use only 3-4 buds in length - however, the more internodes, the greater the chances of a plant for successful growth,
- Chubuk made from the middle part of the branch, starting from the 4th eye.
How to cut
In order to properly cut the grapes, you must adhere to several basic rules:
- the pruner, which will be cut, must be clean and disinfected,
- the middle part of the branch is cut off by 3-4 or 6-8 internodes,
- the lower cut is done right under the knot, and the upper cut is done approximately midway between the adjacent nodes,
- Chubuk need to completely clear of leaves, antennae and stepsons,
- seedlings must be prepared and processed before storage,
- the cuttings are grouped by varieties in small bunches,
- bundles are fastened with twine or wire and supplied with labels with the necessary information.
Before chubuk grapes go to storage in the cellar, they must pass the preliminary processing.
It is imperative that the cuttings are saturated with moisture before hibernation, then they will grow much better. To do this, cut the twigs simply drop into a container of water and leave them to stand like that for a day.
Then disinfection of chubuk is performed, since there can be a large number of various bacteria and parasites on the shoots. If you do not disinfect, all these microorganisms will actively multiply under conditions of moisture and heat, so they can destroy all the planting material.For disinfection, you can prepare a solution of potassium permanganate, preferably an intense pink color. The cuttings are soaked for half an hour in this solution, and then dried in air.
But the most popular method of disinfection is the use of a 3% solution of copper sulphate. Planting material is just dipped into the solution and dried.
In this processing and preparation of grape cuttings can be considered complete.
Optimum temperature for storage in winter
In winter, cuttings are stored in a fairly cool and humid place. A cellar, a basement, a fridge, a trench or a prikop are quite suitable for this. In this case, the temperature regime should be in the range of 0 ° C to 4 ° C.
When the temperature rises above 6-7 ° C, kidney swelling may begin, which is highly undesirable.
It is believed that the approximation of the temperature to zero mark slows down the vital activity of the shoots, because of which there is a minimum consumption of nutrients that will be very necessary after planting the cuttings for their further growth.
In plastic bagsWith this method, you can use not only plastic bags, but also food film.
Before you wrap the shoots in polyethylene, they should be lightly sprinkled with water. After which the bundle is carefully wrapped in film or package. At the same time, it is necessary to make small holes in polyethylene - they will ensure air ventilation.
It is important to ensure that the pipe does not dry out, do not freeze and do not overheat. Periodically they need to be ventilated and sprinkled with water if necessary, if the vine is still overdried.
VIDEO: STORAGE OF GRAPES
In the sand and coniferous sawdust
At the same time wet sand or coniferous sawdust is added to the package with a bunch of vines. So you can significantly reduce the consumption of carbohydrates by the plant and provide shoots with constant hydration.
In addition to storage in polyethylene, the cuttings can also be laid in wooden boxes filled with sand or coniferous sawdust. For this purpose, a layer of this material is laid at the bottom, at least 10 cm thick, grapevine bunches are laid on top, then they are covered with a layer of the same thickness.
It is necessary to organize airing. In addition, about once a month, you need to loosen a layer of sand or sawdust and inspect the chubuki for mold or parasitic damage.
Where else can you store cuttings in the winter if there is no cellar
Since not everyone has a cellar, we will consider other ways to stock up on your chiboons for the winter - for example, in the pool or in the fridge.
This is the easiest way to store chubukov. It consists of the fact that small trenches are dug in the ground into which shoots are laid out, after which they are poured from above with earth.
The trench depth should be approximately 25 to 50 cm. But the length and width are selected according to needs, depending on the number of cuttings and their length.
It is important that the excavated trench is located at some elevation, it can be located next to any building. Such an arrangement will provide good ventilation and avoid stagnant melt and rainwater. Before laying the cuttings, it is advisable to fill the bottom of the trench with a small layer of sand (about 5 cm), then carefully lay out the bunches with the vine, and also pour a layer of slightly wet sand (7-8 cm) on top. From above, the rest of the earth, which has been previously dug out of the trench, is poured.
With this method of storage, it is not necessary to air, shift and check bunches with grape cuttings.
In a refrigerator
This is also a simple method, the only minus of which is the impossibility of storing a large number of chubukov.
Bundles with pins should be wrapped in plastic bags. There must be filled up or wet sand, or sawdust. You can simply wrap the twigs with a damp and clean cotton cloth. Then all this is carefully packed in polyethylene. A small hole is made in the film for ventilation. The bag is then placed in a cold storage room. Periodically you need to get the cuttings and air them, moisturize dried, remove damaged ones.
Removing and inspecting cuttings in spring
Remove grape cuttings from storage sites in early spring, closer to mid-March.
Each shoot must be carefully examined and checked to see if it is viable. To do this, make a cut. If the vine is fine, then the color on the cut will be light green.
Need to remove unfit shoots:
- too soft
- too loose
- changed color
- with fallen bark.
After the cuttings are extracted, inspected and found suitable for planting, you can begin the process of preparing them for germination.
In general, storing chubuk grapes in the winter is not a big problem. The main thing? so that the cuttings were cut on time and stored in a cool and humid place with a stable temperature regime. Under these conditions, in the spring you can extract from the cellar, prikopa or refrigerator rich planting material.