Perhaps the most familiar and productive livestock breeding activity is pig breeding. Growing pigs for meat is quite profitable and not very difficult. In today's conditions, the government of the Russian Federation attaches great importance to the development of agricultural activities within the country. And that means starting Growing pigs at home as a business can, among other things, rely on state support.
Today there are a huge number of pig breeds, but they are all divided into three areas, depending on the end product of production:
- meat or bacon,
Before starting the organization of the farm, you need to choose the direction in which you will be engaged and, depending on this, select the breed. It is possible to choose several directions or one. If you decide to engage in one direction, then probably the best choice would be meat-breeds, which include the following breeds - Yorkshire, Ukrainian steppe, Siberian northern, Livenskaya.
The decision to engage in the breeding and sale of pigs implies, in order to comply with the legality of the business, implies the execution of a certain set of documents.
The most successful form of ownership in this case will be the registration of individual entrepreneurship (IP). But this should be done only if the livestock that you will contain will be more than 100 heads. Otherwise, it is easier for you to take shape, just like a regular home farm and sell surplus products.
If you decide to design an IP, then you should indicate the following code of the All-Russian Classification of Economic Activities - 01.46.11 - raising pigs for meat. If, in addition to meat, you are going to breed breeding pigs, then it is necessary to enter the second code - 01.46.12 - breeding of breeding pigs.
Despite the fact that pigs in humans are associated with dirt, they are quite clean animals. And therefore, like any other animal must be kept clean and relative warm.
Dampness and drafts in the room for pigs are unacceptable. Their comfortable temperature should not fall below 12 degrees Celsius. And if young animals are kept indoors, it is not lower than 16 degrees.
How to start breeding pigs as a business and how to succeed? Of course, from the arrangement of a good pigsty! The best room will be a building with a brick wall thickness of at least 50 centimeters, a floor of boards or concrete. It is important the complete absence of cracks in the floor to avoid injury to animals. Warm the floor in bulk of sawdust and clean sand, a layer of at least 20 centimeters.
It is very important that the room can be cleaned regularly, so often water supply and sewage systems are carried out in the pigsty. If animals are kept indoors all year round, a heating system is required. Feeders and drinkers should be installed.
If you expect to contain at least a hundred heads, then you should think about the automation of feeding and water. Or hire a sufficient number of staff.
Breeding pigs requires a separate room for sows. In such rooms, additional heating should be provided, as small piglets will be kept there.
There should be a walking area next to the pig house. This will help animals to gain weight faster and be less sick. In addition, such a platform will contribute to the maintenance of cleanliness in the pigsty, as pigs will defecate on the run.
At least once a month, it is necessary to disinfect the room where animals are kept. In winter, for these purposes, it is possible to expel all adult animals into the street several times a week and thoroughly ventilate the premises, bringing the temperature to minus in it. This way you can get rid of most viruses and bacteria.
For a good weight gain, pigs should eat well, for that they need to be fed regularly.. Pigs up to three months of age eat 5 times a day, from three to five months - 4 times a day, and then food takes place three times a day. After the animals have eaten it is necessary to thoroughly clean the feeders.
Feed for pigs are sold in finished form, but, of course, the best option would be to prepare the mixture yourself. Rapid weight gain and improvement in meat quality is facilitated by the use of such products as rye, millet, barley, potatoes, carrots, peas, beets and pumpkins, sometimes pigs are fed with buckwheat and corn. It is obligatory to add barley and wheat bran to the ration. Very negatively on the quality of meat and fat affects the nutrition of pigs soybeans, cake and oats.
Breeding pigs at home as a business involves the production of offspring animals. What breed to breed is up to you. But when choosing a breed, you must not forget to take into account its adaptation to the climate of your climatic zone, food preferences and immunity resistance.
When buying animals, special attention should be paid to the fact that they do not have even a long relationship. Otherwise, the offspring of such animals may not be viable.
Pigs reach sexual maturity by six months, but allow them to mate no earlier than 10 months, provided that they weigh at least 100 kilograms. In the event of pregnancy, you need to pay special attention to the nutrition of the animal - in the feed you need to enter additional quantities of grain crops. Pregnancy in these animals lasts about 110 days and ends in childbirth, which lasts from 1.5 to 6 hours. As a rule, pigs up to a year bring up to 8 pigs in one pregnancy, and those who are already one year old - from 10 pieces at a time. It is desirable that the litter occurs in the presence of people who are able, if necessary, to provide resuscitation to newborn piglets.
With a population of over 20 pigs, you will need helpers. For every 20 heads you will need at least one pig farmer. The remaining employees are hired for a total number of animals:
Pigs worth buying at a small age. After all, they are very loyal animals that are attached to the owner, like dogs. In addition, this will eliminate nutritional problems, since it is easier to transfer small pigs to a new diet. It is necessary to decide on the breed to be bred. In Russia, more than 30 breeds are known and all of them are divided into 4 groups:
Consider some breeds.
In Russia, the white large breed has received special distribution, as it is most resistant to the climate of Russia. This pig meat-greasy direction. They are unpretentious in food, but prone to obesity. With a good diet, the average weight is 200 kg.
Vietnamese visrubry pigs - owners of bacon meat. Have a good immunity. Early ripen: sows are ready to breed at the age of 4 months, and boars - at 6 months. These are herbivores. They are clean, so you should make a pigsty for Vietnamese pigs with your own hands, where you need to arrange a place to sleep from wood and hay, as well as the main concrete platform.
Mirgorod pigs were obtained by crossing different breeds. Refer to the fat-meat direction. Their weight reaches 250 kg. Most of the feed is made up of succulent feed.
Healthy pigs are frisky and eat with pleasure. Also pay attention to the appearance: the legs should be straight, the ears and tail should be straight, the back straight and the head heavy. Ask the parents to show the pigs, so you determine what they will be when they grow up.
Sooner or later they will have to be engaged in breeding in order to get a replacement for slaughter pigs. Good offspring will be obtained only if the sow and the boar have no relatives. Therefore, it is necessary to take heterosexual individuals from different vendors. Particular attention should be paid to the choice of sow: it should have at least 12 nipples of non-crater type, and the jaws should be closed exactly.
It is better to make a purchase on proven pig farms from experienced farmers. They can also give some tips on care and nutrition.
We arrange the room
To organize pig breeding at home is not very difficult. For further prosperity, it is necessary to properly organize a pig-breeding complex, which will contain all the necessary equipment and facilities.
So, a pig farm must contain:
Growing meat and lard
In the process of growing pigs for meat and lard emphasis should be on their food. Yes, they are omnivores, but this does not mean that they should be given everything. To get quality products, you need to make a balanced diet.
The feeding habits of piglets depend on their breed. Therefore, in the preparation of the diet they need to be considered.
In general, farmers prefer dry-type feeding, that is, feeding with compound feed. It helps to avoid problems with digestion and has a good effect on growth. The diet should contain juicy food and green herbs, cereals. You can also add and waste from the kitchen. Grains before serving need to be ground, as in the whole form they are not digested. Potatoes are served boiled. You can make different porridge and mash, using animal feed.
It is dangerous to overfeed pigs, as this will lead to obesity, which is highly undesirable.
In the aviary they should always find a full drinking bowl of fresh water, as well as a feeding trough with salt and charcoal. It is recommended to use vitamins and supplements that are added to the feed. They will positively affect growth, meat quality and health of pigs.
Pigs as a business. Where to begin?
First of all, you should decide exactly what direction of pig breeding you plan to do. Based on this, you should choose the breed of pigs that is best suited for the chosen direction.
At present, the choice of such breeds is truly enormous, however, all the varieties of these domestic animals are divided into three main areas (depending on the type of the obtained product): meat and greasy, greasy and meat (bacon).
Of course, you can not get hung up on one thing and once choose several pig-breeding directions.
However, for example, this type of living, such as meat and grease, gives two types of products at once, so it’s worthwhile to look at these breed groups first.
On the territory of our country, the most popular meat-greasy varieties of pigs are: Livensky, northern Siberian, Ukrainian steppe and Yorkshire. In addition to the direction itself, when choosing the breed of the future herd, one should take into account the availability of food supply and the climatic conditions of your region.
After you have decided to engage in commercial pig production, it is worth thinking about the legalization of your business so that it is legal and meets all legal requirements.
Any design requires a certain set of documents, a list of which you can get from the tax authorities at your place of residence. If you consider yourself a legally savvy person and you have enough free time, then you can assemble this package and register your business yourself. If, however, any difficulties arise, it is better to seek help from a qualified specialist (their services are usually not very expensive).
The simplest way to register and file a business is the individual entrepreneur. However, it should be remembered that such registration is necessary only when the planned number of livestock exceeds the number of 100 units. If your initial plans are more modest than the voiced figure, it is easier to arrange the simplest household plots, which will still allow you to sell the surplus of the products obtained.
If individual entrepreneurship is still needed, remember the OKVED code (All-Russian Classification of Economic Activity Types), which must be specified at the time of registration. His number is 01.46.11, which means “growing pigs for meat”. In the case when you plan in advance to receive additional income from the cultivation and subsequent sale of breeding animals, immediately enter another code - 01.46.12, meaning "breeding of breeding pigs". The number of such codes for one entrepreneur is not limited, so if you have any other type of business in your plans, then the specialists will help you to choose OKVED and for it.
Pigs as a business at home
Many people at the mention of the word "pig" immediately imagine the dirt and impurities. This is a common and common misconception. In fact, it is very clean animals.
In addition, they grow and multiply much better in a clean and relatively warm environment. Draft and damp pigs do not like. The optimum temperature for them is considered to be one in which the ambient air temperature does not fall below 12 degrees Celsius. When keeping young stock, this indicator should not be lower than 16 degrees.
What do you need for pig farming in the first place?
A beginner breeder should remember that before you buy a herd, you need to arrange a good room for it in advance.
The best option is a building with brick walls not less than 50 centimeters thick and a floor covered with boards (or concrete). There should be no gaps on the surface of the floor covering to avoid possible injury to animals. The floor should be insulated by sprinkling a mixture of clean sand and sawdust onto it, with a layer thickness of at least 20 centimeters.
In fact, in many cases, building a pigsty from scratch is optional.
It is cheaper and easier to find a more or less suitable abandoned room (of which there are quite a lot in Russia) and make repairs in it. If you still decide to build your building, then you should pay attention to the prefabricated buildings of metal frame and sandwich panels. Such structures are cheaper than brick and are built much faster. It should only choose the right contractor company with a good reputation in the market and a large number of buildings built by it and already functioning.
An important point in the construction or arrangement of the pigsty is the possibility of convenient and quick conduct in it of regular cleaning, and therefore usually in such a room immediately provide sewage and water supply. If you plan to maintain year-round animals in the pigsty, you will need a heating system. A prerequisite is the availability of proper drinkers and feeders.
Если вы планируете содержать стадо численностью более 100 голов, следует позаботиться об автоматизации раздачи воды и корма.
В противном случае понадобится большое количество обслуживающих свиней работников. При разведении этих домашних животных необходимо иметь отдельное помещение для супоросых свиноматок. Оно должно хорошо отапливаться, чтобы обеспчить комфортные условия для рождения, роста и нормального развития народившихся поросят.
Next to the pigsty is necessary to provide a platform for walking animals.
Regular exercise in the open air contributes to rapid weight gain and reduced morbidity. In addition, the presence of a walking area facilitates the maintenance of cleanliness in the room, since pigs are more likely to defecate in open space.
At least once a month, it is necessary to carry out measures for the disinfection of the pigsty.
In the cold winter period, for this purpose, it is possible to remove all adult pigs from the room to the street several times in one week and ventilate it well, lowering the internal temperature down to minus. This simple, but effective method helps to get rid of most of the pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
To pigs quickly gaining weight, you need to properly approach the issue of the composition of their diet.
Before the age of three months, the piglets must be fed daily 5 times, from the age of three up to the age of five months they must be fed 4 times a day, and then transferred to three meals a day.
After each feeding should be carefully cleaned from all the feeders not eaten remnants of food.
Feed for pigs is on sale and in the form of ready-made mixtures, but in order not to overpay for them, it is better to cook them yourself.
For a quick set of live weight and improving the quality characteristics of meat in the diet of animals it is necessary to include the following types of products: cereal feed (barley, millet, rye), roots (carrots, beets, potatoes), legumes (peas). Also well suited for these purposes pumpkin. In some farms pigs are given corn and buckwheat. In the diet, wheat and barley bran must be present.
Negative effect on the quality characteristics of fat and meat feeding products such as oats, soybeans and cake.
If you have more than 20 animals in your herd, you need an assistant. Usually the number of pigs is calculated according to the scheme of 20 pigs - one worker. The rest of the staff take on the whole herd.
These professionals include:
- animal technician,
- handymen (depending on livestock and volume of premises for animals).
Pigs as a business. How to start and how to succeed?
All of the above features of this business require certain costs.
Therefore, before you start organizing your business, you should definitely draw up a business plan, the essence of which is to compare the initial capital investments and current expenses with the expected income.
This will allow you to estimate the payback period and overall profitability. A successful project should always start with a business plan.
For example, consider the expenditure and revenue part of the pig business per 100 pigs.
The main items of expenditure are:
- construction and equipment of the pigsty - from 1 000 000 rub.,
- staff remuneration - from 800,000 rubles per year.,
- purchase of animals - from 500,000 rubles.,
- the cost of buying feed - from 200 000 rubles / year.
Total minimum investments for the first year amounted to 2 500 000 rubles.
The income part consists of:
- receipts from the sale of meat - from 600,000 rubles / year,
- receipts from the sale of offspring - from 300,000 rubles / year.
Total planned income of the first year of work amounted to 900,000 rubles.
Even this very rough calculation shows that the payback period is at least three years, subject to a gradual increase in the income part due to the increase in the livestock population.
Pig raising as a business is a promising idea for several reasons at once:
- This product has a consistently high demand.
- mini-farm does not require any unreasonable initial investment. You can even start with a small herd.
- pigs do not need special conditions of detention. Their care requirements are minimal.
The disadvantages of this business idea include a two-three-year payback period with a population of 100 animals. If you start with several animals, you can pay off after about six months (maximum - a year), however, the income will be insignificant.
In general, with a competent approach and good organization of the economy, profitability starts at 30 percent.
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Profitability of pig breeding
Is it profitable to engage in pig farming? Pigs, in comparison with other animals, very well digest food. For example, the chicken absorbs only 20% of the feed, and the pig - a full third. Also, pigs have a very high slaughter yield, that is, carcass weight in relation to live weight, equal to 70-85%. In young cattle it is 50-60%. Pigs are very prolific. For one farrowing sow brings 10-12 pigs. The time of farrowing - 3 months 3 weeks and 3 days. Feeding piglets lasts from 30 to 60 days. In a year, a pig usually has 2 farrowings, and as a result, it brings 20-25 piglets.
In addition, piglets gain weight very quickly. By the time of weaning from a sow, by the age of two months, pigs of an ordinary white pig weigh 16-20 kg. With good feeding, pigs reach 100 kg of weight by the age of six months and can already go for slaughter. For profitability of pig breeding, it is better to grow not one, but several pigs at a time. Economic calculations show that when two pigs are 8 months old, each of them eats up 30% more feed than each of them contained alone. However, when choosing the number of pigs for breeding, it is necessary to calculate all their possibilities for feed. After all, with insufficient feeding of pigs, their growth will stop and they may develop various diseases. Compared to cattle, the increase in pigs is 10-12 times better. On average, from one sow, taking into account all her piglets, in one year you can get up to 3 tons of meat, which is 3.5 times higher than in cattle. The weight of an adult sow reaches 280 kg, and of a boar - 380 kg.
What are the conditions for keeping pets like pigs?
Although the pig as a whole cannot be called an overly demanding animal, it is worthwhile to take into account some of the necessary conditions. After all, not only the productivity of the animal, but also the possibility of breeding pigs will depend on it.
Best of all is to provide the animals with a spacious shed. At what, its preparation should be addressed even before the purchase of young animals. So, the shed should consist of the following mandatory parts:
- Corrals (machine tools) for the constant maintenance of animals. They should also be divided into two conditional zones - a place for feeding, where the trough will stand, and a den, where the animal will spend the rest of the time.
A young machine will be sufficient machine size of 3m2, for a pregnant sow it needs to be increased by 1 m2, and for the suckling - up to 6 m2.
The space that will serve as a place for walking animals in the warm season.
Since some breeds of pigs can be kept on the run almost around the clock, there should be a shed above such a space (or at least a part of it).
It should also not be forgotten that a pig is a rather large and mobile animal. In particular, both sows and boars, very often prone to breaking partitions, undermining the floor.
Of course, in the summer, they will be able to satisfy this need on the run, but for keeping during the cold season the fences must be very strong.
Do not forget that the roof of the room of the pigsty should be strong, warm and waterproof. Such characteristics should be taken into account and to the walls, which should protect animals from freezing.
The floor must be not only strong, but also warm. To him must be brought gutters, by which it will be possible to remove animal feces.
Also, in the pigsty it is important to have and electric lightingwhich is included in the period of farrowing and the first weeks of feeding young offspring by a sow. Young piglets will also need heaters.
Constructed from materials capable of retaining heat, the sty should be whitened from the inside. This requires the usual sanitary and hygienic considerations, which are an opportunity to prevent the spread of various diseases.
The best floor for pigs is wooden, from ordinary boards. Also, the floor should be made under a slight slope so that the water and urine of animals can flow along it. But the fences of machine tools can even be made of metal, because wooden can not boast of strength and durability.
The area for walking should be quite extensive, especially if it is planned to produce a large number of individuals or a sow with young offspring.
Corral less than 10 m2 is not even worth doing. In the pen also should be installed drinking bowl for pigs, but it should be put on a small hill. Otherwise, the animals will pollute the water they contain.
Discussing the features of the necessary diet for animals
Stern for pigs must contain as little fiber as possible, because their stomachs are not able to fully digest such food. Thus, it is better to give animals concentrated feed, and juicy and coarse to use as additives.
At the same time, there are two types of feeding: wet and dry.
In the first case, animals are given masters of bred with water. This is, in fact, the traditional way of feeding, when animals are given food waste and cooked root vegetables.
On the one hand, this method is very simple, since it does not require the purchase of any additional feed, and on the other hand, it is not capable of producing a particularly intensive increase in the weight of pigs.
Therefore, if you still want to rely on the rapid production of large quantities of meat, it is still more rational to use dry food. With them, and less hassle, and the result of such feeding will be more noticeable.
The only thing - along with dry feed pigs will need to be given plenty of water to drink.
But besides this, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of each feed, and the state in which it is better to give it to animals:
- It is important for pigs to produce a lot of grain, but by no means as a whole. The animal will of course eat it, but the pig cannot fully chew the grain, and most of it will come out along with the feces.
- Potatoes can be used as the basis of the diet of these animals, especially if you apply a wet type of feeding to them. However, tubers are given to pigs only when cooked. Before cooking, they must be washed, but water from potatoes should not be given to animals.
Raw roots are given only in small quantities, and only as vitamin supplements.
Types and rules of feeding pigs
Depending on whether you want to get more fat or meat as a result of feeding your animals, the way of feeding will depend on it.
If the breed of pig meat, and you want to have lean meat with a 3-inch layer of adipose tissue, then fattening of small pigs can be started already from 2.5 months and continue until they reach the age of 6 months.
If all the necessary instructions are followed, in such a short time the pig will reach a mass of 90-100 kilograms. So, while the pigs have not reached 70 kilograms of weight, and give:
- About 5 kilograms per day of various chopped greens (peas, legumes, clover, alfalfa).
- No more than 1.1 kilograms of concentrated feed, which can be fully replaced by the same amount of food waste from your own kitchen.
Starting from 70 kilograms of pigs, they start fattening even more intensively: greens are already given 6 kilograms per day, they also add up to 5 kilograms of boiled and fresh pumpkin and beets, about 2 kilograms of potatoes, the amount of concentrates should be increased to 1.5 kilograms.
To maintain a healthy digestion and a good state of the animal's body, it is also given 5-25 grams of chalk and 10-35 grams of attorney salt.
For real marble pork, fattening starts at 2.5 months, when the pigs already weigh 25 kilograms, and boars were neutered at 2 months of age. In the diet include:
- 3 kilograms of fresh chopped greens.
- 1.5 kilograms of skim milk.
- 1.5 concentrates.
- 2 kilograms of pumpkin and beet.
- Up to 20 grams of salt.
- Supplements of animal origin in small quantities.
At the beginning of fattening, the daily weight gain of 450 grams is the norm, but starting from the age of 5.5 months and the subsequent time the weight gain must be at least 500-600 grams.
It is very important to remove from the ration of pigs all those feeds that can reduce the quality of meat - soy, fish waste (pork can start to smell like fish), bran (can be badly digested).
With such feeding at 7 months, the animal must weigh from 90 to 95 kilograms. Also, to get good bacon, pigs should have plenty of space for walking, they are fed no more than twice a day.
The most effective is fattening, aimed at obtaining a large amount of fat. To do this, it is better to fatten either sows or the young that have already gained 100 kilograms of weight.
It is recommended to use for this feed rich in carbon, that is, corn, potatoes and beets. In order to achieve a daily weight gain of 1 kilogram in the summer, the ration of animals consists of such a quantity of products:
- 4 kilograms of green fodder.
- 3.5 kilograms of pumpkin.
- 3.3 kilograms of concentrate or food waste.
- Not more than 55 grams of salt.
What you need to know about insemination sows: we get our own offspring
Often for breeding pigs they buy young stock on the market, but you can keep your own sow.
However, it should be borne in mind that her sexual maturity does not occur before 8 months, and the farrowing occurs 115 days after fertilization.
For mating, you must use a pig that has reached a mass of 100 kilograms, without defects. Before this, it is important to feed it well, saturating the diet with plenty of vitamins.
In order to carry out the mating, a sow should have a hunt - she will start to behave very restlessly, redness will appear. It should be flattened with a boar after 12 hours, or it can be fertilized independently. After fertilization, the first 3 months the pig should receive regular food, and later it is made more concentrated.
How to grow a good young: the rules of care for pigs from birth
Piglets are born very weak and even with good supervision of both sows and humans there is a big risk of their death. Therefore, even before farrowing should take care of the necessary conditions for the maintenance of newborns and prepare the necessary feed.
Thus, the temperature in the pigsty should not fall lower than + 18ºС. The room must be well ventilated and dried.so that there is no damp anywhere, take care of artificial lighting.
With regard to feeding small piglets, it is best to feed on the sow's milk, which will increase their immunity and allow them to gain the necessary weight very quickly.
From the third week onwards it is important for young animals to start giving other foods that stimulate their further intensive growth. However, milk can be given from the fifth day of animal life.
Also, you can add various steamed concentrates, from the 20th day of life - boiled and mashed root vegetables. Taking pigs from pigs is not recommended earlier than 4 weeks after farrowing.
If there are no sows, the piglets are fattened with cow or goat milk from the nipple. From the second week they begin to fully feed. Also, at such a milky age, it is important for them to inject special vitamin shots with iron.
Necessary aspects of care for pigs
It is not at all difficult to care for pigs, since the main aspects that need to be done are feeding, looking after the young and ensuring optimal conditions for the housing. In particular, among the latter should be noted:
- Some breeds of pigs do not tolerate temperature fluctuations, so in the barn it should always be between 12 and 16ºС. For young stock - from 18 to 20 ºС.
- We can not allow the humidity in the room to rise above 85%, the best option - 70%.
- We can not allow cold and drafts in the pigsty.
- It is important to comply with hygienic and sanitary standards for keeping pigs, to constantly clean the floor in pens.
- Youngsters definitely need a walk.
- Do not allow contamination of water in drinking bowls.
- Feeders must be cleaned from food residue and periodically rinse with a brush.
Top building materials
- porous aerocrete,
- cinder blocks,
- rubble stone
Inside the wall you can plaster and whitewash or sheathe boards. Suitable microclimatic conditions for keeping pigs should be maintained in the pigsty. The attic must be insulated, and the floors can be poured with concrete or assembled from boards. In external walls, manholes with dimensions of 70x70 cm are needed, through which animals will be able to get to the street area for walking.
Conditions of detention
Труднее всего дается выращивание молодняка свиней, которому нужны более комфортные условия. Купленных поросят нужно на неделю оставлять в карантинном помещении для выявления больных особей на ранних сроках развития.
Молодняк нужно выращивать при окружающей температуре в пределах 18-22 градусов и влажности в пределах выше 70-80%.
Pigs need to be kept in warm rooms without dampness and drafts so that they can get stronger.
The room for pigs should be kept clean, and animals should be provided with walks outside. Change water as often as possible, and after each feeding, clean the feeders. Monthly pigsty requires disinfection treatment.
The correct technology of growing pigs involves ensuring adequate natural light in the room. Sunlight has a positive effect on the development of individuals. In the winter months, when the light day is shortened, artificial lighting is required.
A nursing female needs lighting for 18 hours a day at a light level of about 15 lux, and fattening individuals need lighting of 5-6 lux for 12 hours.
Ventilation of the room
In the pigsty you need to equip the ventilation system, which will take the processed air out of the room, and instead, drive inside the fresh air from the street.
Small-scale pig keeping is possible with an improvised ventilation system, and industrial equipment will be required for breeding on a larger scale.
The main thing is not to forgetthat drafts are dangerous for piglets and young stock, therefore ventilation should not be too powerful. Optimum conditions for growing pigs are created with a forced-air and exhaust installation with capacity control.
Which breed is better
To organize a home farm you need not only to study and comply with the conditions of breeding pigs, but also to buy suitable living creatures. All domestic pigs are divided into three categories, depending on the meat:
- Bacon. In their meat most of the layers of fat, but there is no layer of fat.
- Tallow and meat. They have high-grade lard, but they also have meat.
- Meat and greasy. They get mainly meat.
In Russia, about three dozen breeds of different categories are in demand, and among themselves they differ in terms of cultivation, meat quality and weight. In determining the breed of pigs in the compound, be guided not by features, but by market demand in the region:
- Large white. This breed was brought from England, but our selectors made a significant contribution to the current appearance of animals. Proper breeding of white pigs allows individuals to gain 100 kg of weight in 7 months, and the mass of adult boars reaches 350 kg and females up to 250 kg. Breed attributed to meat-greasy.
- In the bacon category, the most popular in the Russian Federation is considered to be a breed called landrace. A hundred kilograms of animals gain about six months, and the maximum weight is 300 kg for males and 220 for females.
- The most popular breed among the fat-meat is difficult to select, because there are a lot of them. Among them is a large black. Pigs gain centner in 6-7 months, reaching a maximum weight of 310 kg for boars and 215 kg for sows.
If you are interested in growing pigs in order to get dietary meat, pay attention to the breed Pietrain. Such pork contains less fat, and the animals themselves do not require any special care.
What to feed the pigs
Than to feed pigs for fast growth - this question is asked by all beginners. If for you pig breeding is a business, it’s better not to save on feed. A balanced diet is the main factor influencing individual weight gain, and the taste of meat depends on the quality of the feed.
In total there are three categories of feed, but we recommend using the first and second, or combine them.
It is not recommended to produce feedings of the third category, otherwise the meat will lose its taste. You can add it to the diet in rare cases, and 2-3 months before slaughter to exclude it altogether. Between the feed differ in composition:
- Feed category I - is wheat, barley, rye, beans, peas, carrots and beets.
- Category II includes alfalfa, clover and other herbs.
- Category III feed consists of potatoes, corn, wheat bran, beet molasses, buckwheat, etc.
A greater amount of green fodder contributes to the meat build-up, while the roots, corn and barley increase the fat layer. Thus, everyone decides for himself, the better to feed the pigs.
The choice of premises and equipment for the pigsty
If you decide to build a pigsty from scratch, then you need permission to place. Consider that nobody will allow you to build a pig farm in the city, only in rural areas. In addition, it is impossible to locate the construction of a pig farm near water sources. While you pick up a piece of land for the premises, order a project. Pigs clean animals. The room must be dry and clean. If you take into operation the old farm for rent, you should definitely make a total disinfection. It is very likely that the abandoned building of an old Soviet pig farm is located not too far from the city.
The room for the pigsty should have the following characteristics:
- The temperature in the room should be maintained in the range of 18-22 degrees. In no case, the temperature in the pigsty should not fall below 12 degrees, so in the winter, be sure to take care of heating the room, otherwise the pigs will lose in growth and you will incur losses
- It is also necessary to provide for good ventilation and the complete absence of drafts,
- The height of the ceiling should be at least 2.5 meters, and the windows should be located at a height of not less than 1.5 meters from the floor, which should be opened to ventilate the room,
- It is best to plaster and lime the walls in the pigsty,
- If there is a concrete floor in the room, it should be covered with wooden boards, and ideally you should use a system of slotted floors that do not allow waste to accumulate
- To insulate the pigsty, walls are insulated with boards to a height of about 1 meter and also sections for pens must also be separated with boards,
- Pens should be divided into two parts: the angle for feeding pigs and the angle for their livelihoods.
As for the area of the premises, there will be a direct dependence on the number of heads. According to GOST, one pig should account for 2.5-3 square meters, however, pig specialists advise that for a pig intended for fattening to lay 4 squares, and for a sow - five squares. If we add more vestibules and aisles to everything, then for 50 heads we need 300 square meters. To make pigs feel better and healthier, you should equip them with a zigzag for walking in fresh air.
The pig farm itself should consist of the following elements:
- sow building
- maternity building,
- insemination building
- building for fattening
- cold store for several tons
- water tower,
- grain store,
- transformer box
- sanitary inspection room with sauna,
- guarded entrance to the farm.
As the most economical option of heating, they use devices of direct combustion of liquid fuel or gas, namely, blown heat generators. For piglets with piglets use water mats, which are supplied with hot water from the water-heating boiler. For the mother liquor air heat generators can not be used, and you should use ribbed pipes of general heating.
The selection of equipment for the pigsty will depend on the organized way of feeding pigs: dry or liquid. In the first case, the cost of equipment is 2-3 times lower, so the method of dry feeding is most prevalent. In addition to this method of feeding will be less questions from regulatory agencies. If you use a standard square or rectangular sty, then you will need spiral feedfeeding the feed from the bunker. In the case of non-standard pigsty, more complex and expensive equipment will be needed - chain washer conveyor.
- machine equipment,
- forage loader for transportation and loading of dry feed,
- equipment for heating of a pigsty: warming lamps for piglets,
- water supply: water treatment unit with pressure regulator, mechanical filter, medicator, including cup and teat drinkers,
- spiral feed line or chain washer conveyor
- manure removal system.
Staff for the pigsty
- First, you need a vet. Diseases of pigs lead to direct losses, as pigs lose weight, their meat can become inedible, and a pig can die as a result of a serious disease. Meat healthy pigs valued much higher. The duties of the veterinarian include carrying out the necessary activities for the prevention of diseases, as well as advising other employees.
- Secondly, a zootechnician is needed to keep all installed and working equipment in the pigsty in working condition. The zoo-technician supervises the process of breeding animals, develops and introduces new methods, controls the observance of the mode of keeping animals. In relatively small farms, the functions of the pigsty and zootechnics can be combined by one person.
- Needless to hire pig farmers. For 300 heads 4 breeders are needed. To save money, you can hire one experienced breeder and three assistants. for a given number of goals. The pig breeder controls the number of livestock, feeds the sow, carries out weighing and driving of pigs, monitors the cleaning of manure, sends animals for slaughter, etc.
- A farm of 300 pigs will need two laborers for cleaning the premises, as well as for loading feed and hay.
- If you yourself do not want to manage, then you need a manager and an accountant. Since you have to pay a tax on the simplified system of 6%, the manager and the accountant can be one person. Also, an accountant may be coming.
Purchase of animals
If you are new to this business, then choose a white large breed of pigs for breeding. Experts advise choosing piglets from one to two months of age. Under favorable conditions and good nutrition, young pigs weigh 5–7 kg by month, and by 7–8 weeks they are gaining 14–18 kg. When buying, pay attention to the behavior of pigs. A healthy pig should be active with a tail curled up. For an average farm choose 300-350 heads. For a small farm in the home will be enough, and 50 pieces. Kabanchikov and pigs should be purchased from different suppliers in order to most certainly avoid kinship ties that result in weakened offspring. In case of acquisition for 300 heads, 100 heads will be sows, on which 10 boars are needed, the rest will go for fattening and for sale.
Care and nutrition
Pigs are omnivores, eating both plant and food of animal origin. It should be borne in mind that not every food will benefit them and in the end can adversely affect the quality of meat. These fatty foods include fatty foods: cake and meal, and also those containing a large amount of carbohydrates: corn. If you feed the pigs with boiled potatoes, then the water must be drained, since it contains a large amount of corned beef and you cannot give it to the pigs. It should also be well washed with dirt from potatoes before cooking. You can also feed pigs raw fish, as well as food containing rot and mold. Pigs love mushrooms as food and pumpkin, which has anthelmintic properties and pigs are not averse to self-treatment. A good vitamin supplement are raw root vegetables. If you give them in large quantities, then the roots should be boiled.
When growing pigs on farms for 300 pigs per year will need 2,700 tons of grain and feed. In this case, you get a good meaty and weighty animal. Feed is the most costly part of all costs and they must be reserved for future use to eliminate the possibility of malnutrition of pigs. A reserve for 3-4 months will be quite enough. Pigs should be fed 3-4 times a day.
In the summer, hay should be harvested for the winter at the rate of 0.5-2 kg per head per day. To feed the pigs also grown Jerusalem artichoke.
Feeding pigs can pursue two goals: fattening for fat and fattening for meat. The last option is the most common. In this case, fattening is stopped when the pig's weight reaches 100-120 kg, since further feeding will be unprofitable. When feeding in the summer, greens should be half the entire diet. Sows are taken for fat, after weaning piglets from her. Feeding potatoes, root crops and corn gives a good greasy effect. The composition of the diet of pigs should be handled by a professional. You can not let this matter take its course. As for the size of the portion, you need to give exactly as much as necessary. Scraps, if left - throw out, do not mix them in new portions of food in order to save.
It is very important to properly organize the proper watering of pigs. On hot days, pigs can do without water for only a few hours. Water in drinking bowls should be 12-15 degrees. Lack of water will lead to a decrease in appetite and, consequently, to a lower weight gain. Once a week, pigs should be washed with a soft brush. On the runs you need to leave a large tub for swimming. It is advisable to add potassium permanganate to the water at the rate of 1 gram per 5 buckets of water.
The pigs are pregnant 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days. In a year, an average of 2.4 litters occurs in a sow, in which 10–12 piglets appear. Farrow sows for the first time in commodity farms weighing 120 kg should be happened in 9-10 months. In breeding farms sows weighing 140-150 kg in 10-11 months are found. In this case, the optimum multiplicity is achieved. Sooner or later, sows are undesirable. In the conditions of industrial pig breeding, 40% of sows are rejected. In commodity and breeding farms, 25-30% is rejected. The duration of operation of sows is 2.5 years.
Utilization of pig waste
In any livestock building waste disposal is a very important task. And this problem should be solved at the design stage. In Russia, the most popular is the following scheme. Manure is simply aged in the manure for 8-12 months, and then simply burned. Extracting of liquid manure during storage is necessary for biological deworming (disinvasion) in a natural way. When storing liquid undivided manure, mixing of the stored mass is mandatory. This is because liquid manure has the ability of natural gravitational separation into liquid and solid fractions. In swine manure, the solid fraction mainly precipitates and accumulates at the bottom of the lagoons. In cattle manure, the solid fraction is mainly collected in a crust floating on the surface of the lagoon.
The situation with unmixed slurry storage without mixing is aggravated by the fact that many farms pump manure and transport it to the fields, using tractor cisterns. The amount of solid fraction gradually accumulates, and there comes a time when you can select the accumulated solid fraction only by excavators. And since the lagoons are mostly film-like, their surface receives mechanical damage and becomes unusable. Man-caused storages fail, which leads to the need to attract additional capital investments for the construction of new ones.
From the pig farm 300 heads of breeding stock every day 30 cubic meters of waste are released, taking into account the cleaning of the pigsty and its disinfection. In accordance with NTP 17-99, the storage period for manure should be 8-12 months. For storage use the lagoon. The depth of the lagoon should not exceed 5 meters, and its width should be at least 18 meters. Therefore, taking into account precipitation, a 300-head pig farm will require a lagoon with a minimum capacity of 9,000 cubic meters. If you use the depth of the lagoon exactly 5 meters, then its dimensions can be 50 to 36 meters. Must contain at least two lagoons. While in one lagoon manure will be quarantined and stored, you will fill the second lagoon. The lagoon should be located at least 60 meters from the livestock buildings.
Industrial pig breeding
A pig farm on an industrial scale, as a rule, has from 12 thousand heads. Pig production in Russia is currently the most developed and very attractive industry for investment among all others in the agro-industrial complex. It is no coincidence that in Europe it is this industry that almost does not date from the state. To make pig farming profitable, it is necessary to use modern technologies in this industry. Do not skimp on good equipment. Currently, the most computerized projects should be developed, where the influence of the human factor will be minimal and the number of employees in the pig farm will also decrease.