In the 19th century, American chicken-lovers became acquainted with Indian fly-bearing hens. The birds were large, with large legs, dense plumage and bright color. Farmers were fascinated by these chickens and decided to breed their own breed based on the Indian.
Indian blue-legged hens were crossed with Malay, Chittagongs and gray Cochinchins. The result of the selection was called "Gray Chittagong". Soon he was changed to "Brahmaputra", as a symbol of the fact that Indian hens became the ancestors of the breed. Brahmaputra is the river that flows in India.
The first exhibition of the breed "Brahma" was held in Boston in 1850. After a couple of years, several birds were presented to Queen Victoria. By the end of the XIX century, the bramki gained worldwide fame.
The standard of the breed "Brahmatura" was approved in 1850. At the end of the XIX century it was slightly modified. The final description was approved in 1906.
- Head medium-sized, occipital part flat. Bird wide-broad, with a low-key crest. The comb is three-row, the teeth are almost invisible.
- Neck average. Tight, well-fitting hair forms a mane.
- Torso strong, fleshy. Layer shirokozadaya, with a powerful chest.
- Wings well developed, tight to the body.
- Legs powerful, hair on them is long and thick.
- Feathers soft to the touch, "one to one".
- Color varied: from standard white to unusual partridge grouse.
Character and temperament
The breed has a calm disposition. These are phlegmatic, slightly inhibited birds. Brahms fit a small paddock in which the hens will leisurely pace. Roosters are faster.
Bramki different ability to adapt to any conditions. They are hardy, picky, indifferent to cold weather. Viable diseases avoid them.
The appearance of the species
Brahma originated from the interbreeding of the Kochinquin and Malayan hen. The standard of the Black (dark) Brama breed was established as early as 1874. Initially, the breeders had a goal - the removal of large and unpretentious individuals to the conditions of detention.
Black Brama was planned as a meat breed, but later productivity gave way to the exterior.
Later the breed is divided into 3 branches:
Black Brama is spread on the farmsteads of the whole world. Individuals serve as decoration of the bird's yard, pleasing the eye with an original look.
Among the distinguishing features of domestic chickens - a magnificent posture, which is formed due to the fleshy body, highly placed body and thick sternum. The crest is small, there are no scars on it.It is shaped like a pod.
The dark Brahma is distinguished by its elongated neck, small head and bulging frontal lobes. Bill is yellow with black stripes. Eyes of a reddish-brown shade. The tail is set straight, the paws are high and steady.
The head and neck of the subspecies has a silvery-white shade.. The tail of the hens is rich black in color, with a clear pattern on the body. Roosters are noticeably darker, they are dominated by black feathers with a greenish tint. Marriage subspecies - the presence on the plumage of a reddish hue.
The main differences between the species are specific color.
White breed and black collar are peculiar to light breed, partridge hens have triple edging of feathers (combination of black and gray shades).
The color of the fawn subspecies depends on the gender of the individual.: differences in color and fluffiness of feathers.
A short video where you can visually see what the representatives of this breed look like:
Weight and egg production
Representatives of the Black Bram subspecies are a bit smaller than bright individuals: hens up to 3.7 kg, roosters up to 5 kg. Layers produce up to 150 eggs per year.. The weight of 1 egg is 55-65 g. The shell has a light cream shade. Egg production persists in cold climates. The level of preservation of chickens to 65%, adult birds - 80%.
Advantages and disadvantages of chickens
Black Brama is unpretentious to the conditions of detention. Individuals show high reproduction rates at low temperatures.
Among other advantages of the subspecies:
- non-conflict nature (easy to get along with another bird),
- good egg production
- hen instinct,
- lack of space for large walking.
Are there any disadvantages? Among the main disadvantages are the slow growth of chickens (evaporation should be carried out no later than June) and late egg production (from 8 months).
Maintenance and care
To preserve the purity of the breed is not recommended to keep individuals with other chickens. The alternative is individual farms or small farms.
For the comfort of the birds it is important to ensure constant cleanliness and dryness in the hen house. The floor should be wooden, smooth and large.
Necessarily arranging the house with perches, feeders, drinking bowls and nests. When installing, you must take into account the size of individuals (perch is not less than 30 cm wide and 40 cm from the floor). Sunlight should freely enter the room; it is important to protect the coop from drafts.
The basic rule of feeding is the established mode.. In the morning should be given zernosmes, after lunch - wet mash, in the evening - whole grains.
For the active growth of young stock, it is allowed to add 10% feed to the grain. Feeders need to be installed a little higher than the chicken sternum so that the feed does not drift by.
For roosters and hens, it is advisable to equip different feeders and fence them with mesh.
The photo shows the Black Dwarf:
Ways of breeding subspecies Dark Brama:
- buying young stock
- acquisition of breeding individuals
- self selection.
The latter option implies a compulsory diet for the hen, as due to the large weight the chicken will crush most eggs.
To make the chicken stronger before winter, he needs to be born no later than June. Kids hatch yellow, but on the second day the characteristic color is already manifested. Up to 6 months youngsters should be kept separately.by giving them a balanced feed for active growth.
Black Brama is large, beautiful and majestic birds that will decorate any compound. The main rule in their removal and maintenance - ensuring cleanliness and optimal diet.
Chickens Brahma were removed for a long time and were officially registered in 1874 in North America. They came from the crossing of two breeds - Malay and Kokhinhinsky. The first one was distinguished by its beautiful plumage and fighting character, the second - by the excellent quality of meat. As a result, breeders managed to bring a beautiful meat breed.
Residents of Russia first met the hens of Brama in the XIX century. They have long been valued as meat individuals. In the twentieth century, the breed was among the five most common domestic birds. At that time, roosters could reach a weight of 7 kg.
A large weight even gave them a number of inconveniences, since it was difficult for the birds to hold onto thin legs. Today, they are increasingly bred because of the decorative characteristics. As a result of mixing with other breeds, they have lost value for poultry farms (as a meat species).
External characteristics of Brahma chickens make it easy to distinguish them from other poultry. They are characterized by:
- beautiful posture,
- large fleshy body
- wide chest and belly
- small scallops in cocks in the form of a pod without clearly distinguishable teeth,
- red-orange eyes,
- fully feathered legs
- yellow skin
- strong short beak of yellow color
- red earrings and earlobes,
- colorful plumage
- hens reach a weight of 3.5-4 kg, roosters 4.5-5 kg.
With a body weight of 3 kg chicken can bring 100-120 eggs per year. The average weight of each egg is 50-65 g.
The egg-laying chickens of Brahma begin at 9 months of age. Decrease in productivity during the winter period is insignificant. A reduction in egg production occurs when the hen reaches the age of two.
The main plumage of the parturd subspecies of light fawn color with a triple outline of feathers in black and gray. Roosters have a red with orange color of the head and back, belly and legs are black with a green tint.
Partridge laying hens lay eggs with a light brown shell in dark brown specks.
The main color of the plumage is light brown with a golden hue. Male representatives have a darker mane. Both sexes have a dark collar. The feathers on the neck are black. In black painted and the end of the tail. The eyes have a red-brown iris.
Chickens are born yellow or dark.
A species with light plumage is also called Colombian. Its plumage is mainly colored silvery-white. Fly wings and tail ending are black.
There is also a black stripe in the form of a collar around the neck. Roosters have black stripes on the lumbar feathers, in chickens there are no such stripes. Plumage is very lush.
For dark layers of the Brahma breed is characterized by a complex pattern of plumage. Dark stripes around the ends of the feathers, which gives the body of birds a very interesting color. The head is silvery white. The feathers on the neck are black with white edging.
Roosters are more simple color. The head is painted silver-white with black splashes. Other parts of the body are black with green tint.
Tips for feeding chickens
To achieve a beautiful plumage of chickens, their healthy appearance and tasty, not hard meat, it is important to choose a balanced diet. Here are some tips on how to feed the Brahma birds correctly:
- When keeping poultry it is recommended to organize three meals a day. Birds should be fed at the same time every day.
- It is recommended to adhere to the following feeding pattern: morning - grain food, lunch - wet mash with the addition of water or broth, greens, evening - grain food.
- The diet should contain the following components: grain, bran, vegetables, fish meal, chalk, salt. The basis of the menu should be cereals.
- An approximate daily ration may look as follows: grain - 50-55 g, wet mash - 30 g, boiled potatoes - 100 g, hay flour - 10 g, chalk - 3 g, bone meal - 2 g, salt - 0.5 g In winter, the amount of feed needs to be slightly increased (based on the needs of the bird).
- In the chicken coop and on the walk, you should put a separate vessel in which to put river sand or small gravel. These elements are necessary for the good functioning of the digestive tract of birds.
- The daily rate of feed should contain 15 g of protein, 4 g of fat and 50 g of carbohydrates.
- It is important to change the menu periodically so that the feed is not boring.
- Constant access for birds should be a drinking bowl with fresh water at room temperature.
- To stimulate chickens to motor activity, you need to pour 10% of the daily feed on the floor.
- Mineral supplements with calcium in the composition should be placed in a separate trough.
Hens of Brahma breed: reviews
There are poultry farmers who deal with the bird seriously and keep only large chickens, as if supporting the meat trend in this breed, but very few of them. As a rule, the modern Brahma is 3-4 kg of roosters and chickens a little less. Once upon a time, Brahma was taken from an amateur by this breed, and he brought a bird from abroad, roosters of 6 kg each. 4.5 kg each.
These are large and strong birds with lush colored plumage. Differ in fast growth, a set of live weight, endurance. According to the description of the standard of breed the hen Brama have:
- a wide, but not too deep, massive straight body,
- the comb is small, pods,
- splendid plumage on the body, legs,
- lively but calm nature.
- short stature
- too stocky body
- toe comb
- narrow chest,
- lack of feathering on the middle finger,
- in chickens, the body shape is similar to that of a Cochin,
- Hawk heel,
- white lobes,
- "Fish eyes",
- short back
- loose cock tail.
All individuals with any one or more of these deficiencies are strictly not allowed to breed.
In chickens, the color of the feathers of the “pillows” is white, in the cockerels the tail is greenish-black, the braids with a white edging, as well as the tail cover feathers in chickens. Fly feathers are black, with white wings, the “cuffs” are white with a dark pattern, the other feathers are silver-white on the wings.
The rough flaws of the Columbian Columbian coloring: juicy yellow tinge, black feathers and white tail on the legs and back, too dark pattern on the back of the cocks.
Yellow Colombian (fawn)
The pattern on the feathers of this variety, which is also called Brahma, is pale yellow, similar to that of the light Brahma, but instead of silvery feathers are yellow. This color is preserved throughout the body. Black pattern of strokes must be fuzz gray. Hocks are yellow.
If the chickens have black feathers on their backs, and in the tail, on the toes - yellow, without a dark pattern, then this is considered unacceptable.
This type of head, shoulders and back are white, the loins and mane are the same, but with a black pattern. Fly feathers are black in color, but with white outer webs. Shiny black stripes on the wings. The rest of the feathers on the whole body are shiny, black tones. Bill is yellow.
The dark Brahma chickens have a white-black head and chest, all other feathers are bluish-gray, with a characteristic wavy pattern. Fly feathers are black inside, gray - on the outside, on the tail - a dark gray shade.
Rude flaws: there is no pattern on the neck, black and white feathers on the shoulders, red or pronounced yellowness, in chickens - brown plumage.
Brahma are considered rather late ripening, they begin to carry the hens only after reaching 9 months of age. Nevertheless, they always rush steadily, even in winter. From 2 years old egg production begins to decline. In addition to age, it is influenced by the quality of food, conditions of detention and the period of the year.
Hens Brahms perform their duties well: they can hatch eggs and grow chickens. By the nature of Brahma calm and phlegmatic, they need a little time to get used to the owners, they treat them with gullibility.
Advantages and disadvantages
The undoubted advantages of this old, but wonderful breed, according to the owners, are:
- good exterior
- adapted to the cold climate
- high-quality meat with excellent taste,
- undemanding to growing conditions,
- calm character
- good hens productivity,
- excellent maternal instinct.
Among the shortcomings worth noting late maturity.
Conditions of detention
Chickens of both sexes must be kept apart from other breeds and other types of poultry. The room in which they live should be spacious so that everyone has enough space (no more than 2-3 individuals per 1 sq. M.), Be sure to be dry and light, there should be roosting, feeding troughs, drinking bowls, nests for chickens, floor bed fresh bedding. All inventory must be disinfected from time to time.
In order for the young and adult chickens to fly well, they need to ensure sufficient daylight hours (13-14 hours). If there is not enough natural light, then a backlight is required. The house should also be equipped with good ventilation that allows you to constantly regulate the flow of fresh air in the room.
Diet and nutrition
It is recommended to feed chicken Brama 3 times a day. In the morning and in the evening they can bring different grains, in the middle of the day - wet mash beans with the addition of grated vegetables, salt, chalk or shells, fish meal, bran. Per day chickens should receive approximately 15 g of proteins, 50 g of carbohydrates and 4 g of fat per head. In winter, feed needs to be increased.
But nevertheless, when feeding, one should strictly adhere to the recommended doses, since both undernourishment and overfeeding for this breed are undesirable. In violation of the norms of the birds are able to get sick, especially characteristic of them obesity. In addition to food, all Brahms need to provide clean water that needs to be changed every day, and mineral supplements, which necessarily include calcium.
You can breed Brahma chickens in 3 ways: buy chickens to raise adult chickens from them, purchase breeding birds that will give eggs or buy an incubator in which to hatch the young. The latter option is preferable to the second, not because Brahma has bad hens, because they are large and can crush eggs in their nest with their weight. If the chickens are too fat, they need to cut the diet and more often let out a walk in the yard.
Breed signs in Brahma breed chickens appear only in the 2nd year of life, for the same reason, the material for incubation must be taken from individuals that are more than 2-2.5 years old. Taking eggs from chickens that have just begun to nest is impractical because they can be small, which is why they are not suitable for incubation.
Chickens Brahma require a special diet with a predominance of protein and with the inclusion of calcium. In the first 10 days they need to be fed 6-8 times a day, then up to 45 days of age - after 3 hours and after 1.5 months - every 4 hours. To feed early-age Brahma chickens you need finely chopped eggs, green nettle mixed with millet or corn porridge. After 2 weeks, chickens can already be given mixes of mixed fodder with greens, fish oil, meat and bone meal, eggshell, yeast, etc.