Under the name cranberries unite the breed of plants of the heather family, representing creeping shrubs that grow mainly in the northern hemisphere.
Cranberry fruits contain a huge amount of vitamins that are useful for the body micro and macro elements, are not high-calorie, contain little fat and carbohydrates.
Initially, cranberries were exclusively wild plants and only after the 18th century, breeders were able to cultivate varieties that are still successfully cultivated in country houses and kitchen gardens.
Where does garden cranberry grow?
Previously, before the cultivation, cranberries grew only in the marshland, where the acidity of the soil is significantly increased. Its homeland is considered North America, and the first researchers of America called it a crane berry.
Only a couple of centuries ago, cranberries were harvested in the swamps, and now they are already cultivated on a large scale on plantations, where favorable for growth and conditions are created that are most similar to natural ones.
In Russia, the most common varieties of cranberries received in Karelia, Kostroma and the Leningrad region.
By creating suitable conditions and proper care, cranberry yields can reach up to 11 tons per hectare of plantings.
Cranberries are now widely used in the manufacture of confectionery, juice drinks and fruit drinks, jams and jelly, and therefore, the cultivation of this plant is not only in demand, but can also become a good source of income.
About the cranberries tell the program "Live is great!":
We have bushes in the garden - how to?
Now you can proceed directly to the work. It is possible to plant seedlings at a new place from April to October, but it is better to do this in early spring. The cuttings are placed according to the 15x15 cm scheme, and 2-3 saplings are placed in one well. Young plants are buried by 10 cm, while a small tip of no more than 4 cm should remain on the surface. With proper care, the roots will appear after 14 days. If you are dropping annuals, then between adjacent specimens it is necessary to maintain a distance of at least 20 cm, and for biennial seedlings it increases by another 10 cm. Marsh cranberries are planted in three rows, and large-fruited - in two.
Planting cranberries on the plot
If you prefer a wild relative, then the distance between the holes can be slightly reduced - from 10 to 20 cm. It is advisable to place the seedlings in rows in a staggered manner, so the area is used as efficiently as possible. Finally, the soil is mulched with sand and moistened. A newly planted plant especially needs fluid, so we water new residents daily for two weeks. After the specified period, the need for moisture is somewhat reduced, and the number of waterings can be reduced. At the same time be sure to keep the soil moist. Subsequent irrigation depends on weather conditions. During the rains should reduce the number of irrigations, and in drought - increase.
In early June, you can feed the representative of the flora with mineral fertilizers. On one square we add 7.5 g of potassium salt, 10 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 2.5 g of copper sulfate. The next month, reduce the amount of fertilizer in 2 times. It is very important not to overfeed the plant, but the yield will decrease, and the cranberry itself will be prone to various diseases. It is also advisable not to use chlorine-containing bait. We pay due attention to weed control, they are especially dangerous in the first few years of plant life, until the shoots covered the area. Already in the second year, an increase will appear, and even after 2 years the plants will close and enter the fruiting stage. True, it will be possible to enjoy a full-fledged harvest in another year. Creeping shoots need to drip, it contributes to better rooting.
What to do with the grown berry and how to deal with parasites?
After 3 years, the entire area will be completely closed by the shoots of the plant, which complicates the process of pollination and harvesting. In addition, in such a "coat" lodge pests. Often, such creeping shoots drown up vertical ones, and it is on them that flowers and fruits form. Solves a similar problem by mulching with coarse sand. Repeat the procedure every 3 years. The thickness of the sand layer should be about 20 mm. As a preventive measure, you can sprinkle a little frozen soil with coarse river sand.
During the first three years of the plant’s life, it is especially important to feed it with minerals. This will most favorably affect the growth and development of young shoots. It is enough to repeat the procedure 2 times a year. At the same time every year the dose of fertilizer decreases. In the first few years with the help of molding trimming you can give the bush the desired look. This is often used in the design of landscape design. But remember that cranberries older than 4 years can not tolerate shortening.
To make the bush more fluffy, it is necessary to shorten the vertical shoots by 1/3 in early spring, but by cutting the horizontal branches, you can give it a more spreading shape. In the latter case, the harvesting procedure will be significantly simplified.
Snow mold is considered one of the most dangerous diseases of cranberries. You can calculate it by leaves and buds, which at the beginning of spring have a reddish-brown color. But after a few months they become gray and fall. Gray mold quickly affects closely growing shrubs, and if you do not take action in time, then you can say goodbye to all cranberries. You can overcome the fungus by spraying. Well proven drug Fundazole. Processed representatives of the flora in the fall. You can also freeze the cranberries. To do this, with the onset of frost it is necessary to fill the plot with water and throughout the winter add a little liquid to increase the ice layer.
If the tops of the shoots turn brown and dry up, then you need to take measures to combat monilial burn. Dark brown round spots on the leaves and cracking of the bark suggests that cranberries are affected by ascochytosis. In the fight against the first disease Bordeaux mixture, drugs Horus and Mikosan-V. If for some reason the plant has not been treated, the affected shoots should be removed and burned. To overcome ascohitoz, you should sprinkle the affected areas with a mixture of chalk and sulfuric copper. All fallen leaves must be burned.
Reproduction - how to increase the number of their own?
In nature, cranberry breeding occurs vegetatively or by seed. But in artificial conditions - seeds or green cuttings, also in specialized stores you can buy shrubs. If you decide to grow cranberries from seeds, then be prepared to wait, as this planting material needs stratification. The procedure takes about 5 months, and only after it you can put the seeds in open ground.
For grafting selected the most powerful adult plant. Small branches are cut, from 7 to 15 cm long, and planted in the prepared soil. The longer the cutting is, the more chances it will take root. A month later, the roots will appear, and the plant is ready to transplant to a permanent place. But the most convenient way of breeding - seedlings. If you want to grow wild shrubs on the plot, then small plants are taken directly from the forest. And by purchasing a varietal cranberry in the nursery, you will provide yourself with an excellent harvest.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. Landing in spring
- 3.3. Planting in the fall
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Spring care
- 4.2. Summer care
- 4.3. Autumn care
- 4.4. Treatment
- 4.5. Watering
- 4.6. Top dressing
- 5. Trimming
- 5.1. When to trim
- 5.2. Spring cropping
- 5.3. Pruning in the fall
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. How to multiply
- 6.2. Cuttings
- 6.3. Seed propagation
- 7. Diseases
- 8. Pests
- 9. Types and varieties
- 10. Properties
- 10.1. Beneficial features
- 10.2. Hazardous properties
Planting and care for cranberries (in brief)
- Landing: in early spring, when the soil thaws to a depth of 8-10 cm.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: very humid to swampy, in areas with high groundwater levels, acidic (pH 3.5-4.5), peaty or mossy forest.
- Watering: The first two weeks after planting are daily, then the ground is kept slightly moist. In May and June, watering should be moderate, and in the heat - daily. From August to October, cranberries are watered regularly, trying to soak the soil to the depth of the roots.
- Feeding: regular: in the first year - from spring to the end of July, once every two weeks with complex mineral fertilizers. The first dressing is made three weeks after planting. In mid-August and mid-October, potash-phosphate fertilizer is applied. In the second and third year, the cranberries are fertilized according to the same scheme, and starting from the fourth year, the concentration of fertilizers in the solutions is weakened and 6 additional dressings are carried out per season.
- Pruning: in May, a bush is formed for three years, and then only annual sanitary cleaning is done.
- Breeding: seeds or green cuttings.
- Pests: black-headed cowberry leafworm, apple treeworm shchitovka, unpaired silkworm, cabbage scoop, heather moth and even more than 30 pests.
- Diseases: terry (overgrowth), botrytis, ascohitoz, pestalation, gibber spot, cytosporosis, fomopsis, moniliosis, snow mold, red spot.
Cranberry Bushes - Description
Cranberry plant creeping. Its evergreen shrubs reach a height of 15 to 60 cm. The root system of the plant stem. Regular leaves of cranberries, located on short petioles, have an ovate or oblong shape. In length they reach 15 mm, and in width - 6 mm. The upper side of the leaf plate is dark green, the lower side is whitish due to the wax coating that protects the leaves from water. Cranberry blossoms begin in May or June: on long stalks pink or light purple flowers are revealed, each of which lives for 18 days. Cranberry fruit is an ovoid or spherical sour red berry with a diameter of up to 16 mm. Despite the fact that due to its healing properties, cranberries are very popular, they are not as common in the culture as gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, black currants or red currants. Recently, however, it, along with such crops as strawberries, blackberries, blueberries and blueberries, began to gain more and more space in our gardens. To those gardeners who have not yet grown this wonderful berry, we suggest reading our article, which provides information on how to plant and care for cranberries in the garden, what diseases and pests of cranberries can complicate its cultivation, how to propagate the cranberries, how to feed them cranberries, to increase its yield, as well as what kind of care the cranberries need after harvesting.
When planting cranberries.
Planting cranberries is best in early spring, as soon as the land on the site thaws to a depth of 8-10 cm. Choose an open sunny place for cranberries with a high degree of humidity. It is desirable that the groundwater lies close to the surface. If there is a stream, pond or lake in your garden, plant a cranberry on its shore, and it is not that bad if it is partially in the shade of trees growing near it. Cranberries like sour (pH 3.5–4.5) peat soil or a sphagnum forest substrate, and if you don’t have one on the plot, cut off the top layer of soil 20-25 cm thick and replace it with a mixture of about this composition: forest humus, sand, forest land and peat in the ratio of 1: 1: 1: 2 with the addition of rotten pine needles.
Planting cranberries in the spring.
Before planting cranberries, dig holes 10 cm deep at a distance of 20 cm from each other and spill them with warm water. Place 2 seedlings 15–20 cm high into each well, then fill the hole with soil, but do not compact it. You will receive the first berries only in the third year after planting, and the cranberries will yield a full harvest only in the fourth year - on average, half a kilogram from each m² of land. For the first two years, cranberries will simply decorate your garden with their picturesque brushwood, which designers often use to decorate the landscape.
Planting cranberries in the fall.
Autumn cranberries are not planted, but to prepare the site for spring planting, preferably in September. And first of all, the future cranberry bed should be fenced off, having dug into the soil along its perimeter to a depth of 20 cm non-decaying material - slate, plastic, pieces of roofing material. Above the ground, this fence should rise by 20-30 cm.
Care for cranberries in the spring.
Growing cranberries is a simple matter. At the beginning of spring, when the berry grows green, carry out the thinning pruning of the cranberries and feed it with full mineral fertilizer, considering that its concentration should not be strong - the cranberries more easily tolerate the deficiency than excess fertilizers. Keep the soil in a slightly wet state all the time, loosen it and regularly remove weed grass from the site. Since the cranberries are pollinated by bees, plant honey plants - savory, oregano, etc., near the cranberry bed.
Caring for cranberries in the summer.
In the summer, especially in its second half, make sure that the soil in the garden does not dry out. Since cranberry grows well only on acidic soil, when watering three to four-year bushes, add vinegar or citric acid to water. If it seems to you that cranberries do not grow well, feed them by adding fertilizer to the water for irrigation. As a preventive measure or, if necessary, treat cranberries with fungicides. Loosen the soil on the plot and fight the weeds - the first three years of weeding the beds should be a regular procedure. Plots with cranberries older than three years every 3-4 years are mulched with a layer of peat crumb or coarse sand 1.5-2 cm thick.
Caring for cranberries in the fall.
In the fall, harvest time comes - in September-October, cranberry fruits are harvested unripe. Ripen berries already in the process of storage.
How to care for cranberries after harvesting? To protect the cranberries from pests and diseases, a snowless winter and spring frosts, the cranberry at a temperature of -5ºC several times poured with a layer of 2 cm of water, allowing each layer to freeze through until the plants are completely hidden under the ice. If the winters in your area are not too harsh, you can simply cover the cranberries with fir fir branches or spunbond.
In order to protect the cranberries growing in constantly moist soil from fungal diseases, it is necessary several times during the growing season to carry out preventive treatments of the culture with fungicides. In the spring, during the period of swelling and blooming of buds, cranberries are sprayed with one-percent Bordeaux mixture or Azophos. During the budding period, the cranberries are processed three times at weekly intervals from gray mold and blemishes with a solution of 4 g of Scor or Horus preparations in 10 l of water. If necessary, after flowering, the treatment of cranberries from gray mold can be carried out again. In November, the plot is treated with one percent Bordeaux liquid.
The first two weeks after planting, cranberry saplings should be watered daily, but then this rule should be followed: the ground should be wet all the time, but not wet. In May and June, watering should be infrequent and moderate, since the excess water at this time adversely affects the quality of the berries. During the peak of the heat, cranberries need cooling irrigation, and during a long drought the soil should be moistened daily. From August to October, regular cranberry watering is necessary. Moisturize the soil to the depth of the root layer.
Caring for cranberries involves regular plant feeding. In the first year of growth, the cranberries are fed for the first time 3 weeks after planting with a complex fertilizer. A Universal based on this calculation: half a tablespoon of fertilizer per one m² plot. Continue such feeding every 2 weeks until the end of July. In the middle of August and then in the middle of October, the cranberries are fed with Autumn fertilizer at the rate of one third of a spoon per m². The second and third year cranberries are fertilized according to the same scheme, and from the fourth year the amount of fertilizers is reduced - during the growing season, six dressings per one third of a tablespoon of fertilizer per m² are carried out.
Cranberry pruning in spring.
How to cut the cranberries? If you decide to form a compact tall shrub, cut off all thin, low-resistant creeping shoots in spring, stimulating the growth of vertical branches, and if you like the “spreading cranberries”, stimulate the formation of horizontal shoots. But note that it is easier to remove a berry from a tall bush.
How to propagate cranberries.
Cranberries are propagated generatively and vegetatively. Seed propagation is carried out mainly for the breeding experiment, since the subsidiary plant does not inherit the characteristics of the parent. If you want to immediately get varietal seedlings, spend green grafting cranberries.
Cranberry seed reproduction.
In order to obtain seeds, the cranberries well ripened on the bush and kneaded and washed in a large amount of water, let the seeds settle on a sieve and sow immediately. If cranberry seeds have been stored for some time before planting, they need to be stratified. Lay the seeds in a box with a wet mixture of peat and sand at a ratio of 4: 1 and hold for 2.5-3 months at a temperature of 3 to 7 ºC with free access of air. Seeds are sown in spring (after stratification) or at the end of summer (freshly harvested) in a tank with high peat - on the surface of the substrate, without digging into it.Top through a sieve they are covered with a layer of sand 2-3 mm thick or covered with a layer of crushed peat up to 5 mm thick, then watered, covered with glass and placed in a bright warm place. Crops should be regularly moistened and ventilated, and when a mold appears on the substrate surface, it must be treated with a fungicide. The seedlings will appear in 2-4 weeks, after which the glass is removed, but the irrigation does not stop. At the developmental stage of seedlings of 4-5 leaves, they dive one by one in pots or on a bed in a greenhouse at a distance of 10 cm from each other. Seedlings grow during the year, watering and feeding them regularly with a solution of 1 tablespoon of Kemira-station wagon in 10 liters of water at the rate of 1 l per m², trying not to fall on the leaves with a solution, otherwise they can be burned. From mid-April to mid-July every two weeks make feeding. In August, the greenhouse cover is removed, and at the end of October the bed is mulched with a layer of peat 5–7 cm thick and covered for the winter with two layers of spunbond. In the spring, spunbond is removed, and the seedlings are transplanted to a school, where they are grown for another year or two, after which they are transplanted to a permanent place. Get the harvest of berries from the bushes grown seed way, you can in 2-3 years after disembarkation to a permanent place.
Compliance with agricultural practices will allow you to maintain the health of cranberries at the proper level, however, sometimes there are still annoying troubles, and a healthy cranberry can strike some ailment. In such a situation, it is important not to become confused and immediately begin to fight the disease, until it hits all the plants, and for this you need to accurately determine the nature of the disease. So, what is sick cranberries?
Snow mold - The most harmful disease, the development of which occurs from March to April. Symptoms of the disease - red-brown color of the kidneys and cranberry leaves, on which you can see the yellowish mycelium. By the end of spring, the affected leaves become ashen and fall off. If the disease is not combated, the lesions increase in size, merge, and the whole plant may die.
Control measures. In the autumn, the site is sprayed with a Fundazol solution in accordance with the instructions, and in the winter, a step-by-step filling of the site with water is performed with layer-by-layer freezing.
Red spot - also a fungal disease that deforms the shoots and causes their dying off. In addition to shoots, red blotch affects flowers, buds and cranberry stalks, acquiring a pinkish hue. Leaves developing from affected buds look like small roses.
Control measures. To destroy the causative agents of the disease, the cranberry is treated with a solution of 2 g of Fundazole or Topsin M in 1 liter of water.
Monilial burn - fungal disease, from which the tips of shoots wither, grow brown and dry. In wet weather, the affected area turns yellow, and cranberries are covered with a patina of conidial sporulation. At the stage of bud formation, the infection passes from diseased shoots to buds, flowers and ovaries, causing flowers and buds to dry up, and sick ovaries continue to develop, preparing for you a surprise in the form of rotting fruits.
Control measures. In the fight against moniliosis, fungicides Topsin M, Ronilan, Ditan, Bayleton, and copper oxychloride have proven themselves well.
Fomopsis - A disease that causes shrinkage of the ends of the cranberry shoots with no signs of wilting. Leaves first turn yellow, then turn orange or bronze, but do not fall off. The stems are covered with dirty gray spots that turn into ulcers. Flowers and fruits turn brown. The disease progresses in dry and hot weather.
Control measures. To destroy the primary infection in spring, cranberries are treated with Topsin M or another systemic fungicide. Before active growth, spraying cranberries with Bordeaux liquid is effective.
Cytosporosis - This is a black rot of cranberry berries, the pathogens of which penetrate at the end of summer through small wounds on the plant.
Control measures. Cranberry treatment for black rot - preventive treatments at the beginning and end of the season with Bordeaux liquid, Topsin M or copper chloroxide.
Gibber's spotting dangerous because it causes massive premature leaf fall, which greatly weakens the plant. In early August, small red-brown specks appear on the leaves, then shapeless and chlorotic spots with a dark rim and fruit bodies in the center.
Control measures. The giberra is destroyed by the treatment of cranberries with a solution of 2 g of the fungicide (Topsin M, Fundazol, copper chloroxide) in 1 l of oxen.
Pestalocia affects the fruits, stems and leaves of cranberries. Dark green spots appear first on green, then outlined by a dark border and gray spots merging with each other. Young shoots bend in a zigzag pattern and shrink, leaves fall.
Control measures. Helps to cope with the disease treatment of cranberry chlorine dioxide of copper.
Ascohitosis can be recognized by the round dark brown spots on the leaves and stalks of cranberries. With the development of the disease, the surface under these spots is cracking.
Control measures. An effective remedy for ascochytosis is the treatment of cranberries in spring and autumn with fungicides - Fundazol, Topsin M, copper chloroxide.
Botrytis - this disease, which in wet weather stalks, leaves and flowers of cranberries gray fluffy bloom of fungus, does not affect young shoots. Another name for the disease is gray rot.
Control measures. Treat the cranberries with Bordeaux liquid, Topsin M or copper chloroxide.
Terry cranberry, or sprouting - A viral disease caused by mycoplasma organisms. The affected parts become similar to the “witch's brooms” - the shoots rise, the leaves become smaller and fit snugly to the shoots. Cranberries struck by sprouting do not bear fruit, and from those ovaries that have already been formed before the onset of the disease, small, ugly fruits are obtained.
Control measures. How to spray cranberries to destroy sprouting pathogens? Such drugs have not yet been invented, so you just need to remove the diseased plant from the garden and burn it so that the disease does not spread throughout the garden.
Cranberries can infect more than 40 pests that feed on its ground organs. Most often on cranberries are found:
- - black-headed cowberry leafworm,
- - apple treeworm
- - Gypsy moth,
- - cabbage scoop,
- - heather peppered moth
Pests are not able to cause significant damage to cranberries, therefore, as a protective measure, we can limit ourselves to the agrotechnical rules of cultivation of crops, and first of all, attention should be paid to regular control of cranberry weeds and creating favorable conditions for harmful insects. Insecticides (Aktara, Aktellik, Karbofos, Metafos and others) should be used only in case of emergency and no later than a month before harvesting, as well as after removing the berries.
Types and varieties of cranberries
The cranberry subgenus is represented by four types:
- - large cranberry,
- - cranberry chetyrehlepestnaya, or marsh,
- - small-fruited cranberries,
- - giant cranberries.
In the culture most often cultivated varieties and hybrids of cranberry, large-fruited and four-spine, or marsh.
Cranberry marsh (Oxycoccus palustris)
of European origin, it was introduced into the culture at the end of the 20th century in the Baltic countries and in Russia. Of the many varieties of cranberry marsh today are well known:
- – Dar Kostroma - a high-yielding large-fruited mid-early variety, ripening at the end of the third decade of August, with very large, juicy and sour ribbed berries of a dark red or cherry color, with a flat-round shape, with a deep hollow at the stem,
- – Sominskaya - also a medium-early large-fruited variety of high yield with sour and juicy, hilly asymmetrical berries of red or cherry color and heart-shaped form,
- – Sazonovskaya - variety of medium ripening period (beginning of the first decade of September) with juicy heart-shaped ridge-hilly asymmetric berries of medium size, purple-red color and sweet-sour taste,
- – Beauty of the North - a productive late variety, ripening by the second decade of September, with very large rounded-oval berries of different shades of carmine color - from light to dark with a light red side,
- – Scarlet Reserve - late high-yielding variety with spherical juicy and sour berries of red color, medium and large size.
Cultivars of the marsh of Hotavetskaya and Severyanka grow well in culture.
More than 200 varieties known today come from North America. The scientific name is Oxycoccus macrocarpus. Popular varieties of large-fruited American cranberries are:
- – Ben lir - high-yielding early ripe variety with round berries with a diameter up to 20 mm, which are poorly stored, therefore, after removal, they require immediate processing or freezing,
- – Franklin - mid-season disease-resistant variety with medium-sized berries (up to 15 mm in diameter), dark red,
- – Searles - well-stored fruit variety with dark red matting berries with a diameter of up to 23 mm with dense flesh,
- – Stevens - one of the best varieties, characterized by the ability to produce high yields, with round-oval large and dense berries of dark red color up to 25 mm in diameter,
- – Pilgrim - very late variety with oval large berries of purple-red color with yellow wax coating and uneven color.
In addition to these, such American varieties of large-fruited cranberries, such as McFarlin, Wilcox, Black Weil, Early Black, Crowley, Early Reed, Bergman, Washington, Wulman, Beckwith and Howes are popular.
Useful properties of cranberries.
Cranberry berries contain the entire list of useful substances characteristic of the fruits of all berry crops, including sugar, organic acids (citric, ursolic, quinic, benzoic, apple, chlorogenic, succinic, oleander, and oxalic), vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6 , PP, K1 and C) and pectins. Cranberries also include anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, catechins, betaine, macro- and microelements - iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, boron, cobalt, nickel, titanium, zinc, iodine, tin, chromium and silver.
Cranberry improves the appetite and the gastrointestinal tract, protects the urogenital system and the intestines from infections, is a prophylactic anticancer, reduces the potential risk of atherosclerosis, and normalizes blood pressure. Cranberries are prescribed for avitaminosis, fevers, respiratory diseases and rheumatism.
Cranberry juice has bactericidal, thirst quenching and antipyretic effects, cleans wounds, treats burns and cough, stimulates the pancreas, increases physical and mental activity.
Dangerous properties of cranberries.
It is categorically not recommended to eat cranberries in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as gastritis with high acidity. People with unhealthy liver before eating cranberries are better to consult a doctor, because it is likely that it can cause exacerbation of the disease. Caution should also be observed for those who have weakened or thinned tooth enamel.
How to distinguish marsh cranberries from large-fruited
In areas in central Russia, large-fruited cranberries brought to us from the United States and the marsh, which is a native native, can be grown. Both variants are also on sale and, although they are very similar in appearance, it is desirable to understand what you are buying and are going to grow.
Cranberries are a perennial frost-resistant shrub with small dark green leathery leaves and a root system located at a depth of 10-15 cm. It blooms with small pinkish flowers collected in a brush on vertical shoots. Cranberries do not give horizontal shoots of berries, but they grow stronger than vertical ones. In the marsh cranberries, their length reaches 40 cm, and in the large-fruited it is 2 meters. The vertical shoots of both species are about 20 cm.
The marsh cranberries are better adapted to our latitudes, they bloom in late May, and in mid-September they are ready to harvest. Large-fruited cranberries begin to bloom only in mid-June, therefore, only early varieties have time to ripen, while late ripening crops are suitable only for growing in the southern regions.
Despite the fact that the berry of large-fruited cranberries (weight 2.5 g) is almost twice the size of marsh cranberries (weight 1.5 g), it is more profitable to grow a second one, because it is hardy, does not need shelter and lends itself well to reproduction under conditions of a private plot.
Reproduction of garden cranberries
If the money for the purchase of planting material for cranberry plantations you pity, you can always buy a few bushes, and then propagate them yourself. Cranberries are propagated by cuttings, which are cut from horizontal and vertical shoots in the first half of May, during the period of bud break. The length of the cuttings should be about 10-12 cm.
Rooted cuttings in a mixture of high-moor peat and sand (2: 1), filling them up so that no more than 4 cm remains on the surface. Planting the cuttings should be groups of 10 × 10 cm, and then sprinkle with a layer of coarse sand on top. Young cranberry seedlings need regular watering and stable moist soil. Overgrown bushes begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th year of life.
Soil for garden cranberries
Cranberries fruit well on very acidic soil (pH 4.0-5.5). The water used for irrigation should also have an acid reaction (pH 4-5), otherwise plants first show signs of chlorosis on the leaves, and then the growth of the bushes stops.
Although it is believed that cranberry loves moisture, the plant is more suitable for a moderate rather than excessive soil moisture. It is important to keep the topsoil in a slightly damp state, in which the cranberry root system is placed. In addition, the soil should be water and breathable (suitable peat, sandy loam, sand).
The dates of harvesting cranberries depend not only on the variety, but also on the region. In the middle lane, as a rule, cranberries are ripening in September, but if the berries did not have time to ripen, then you can leave them for the winter under the snow and pick up the spring cranberries in March. It is stored worse and contains less vitamins, but it fights excellent seasonal avitaminosis.
You can distinguish ripened berries by the color of the bones inside - they should be brownish, or at the very least, yellow.
Ripe cranberries are stored for 2-3 months, if kept in a cool dry place. You can also freeze the berries, make juice or juice and preserve it.
We decided to plant cranberries and do not know which variety to choose? To get started, buy one of the most popular and proven options.