The number and size of the fruit on the trees in the garden, in most cases depends on the health of the trunk, if the plant is sick or was attacked the pests, it will affect the future harvest. Most often garden plants suffer from the attack of ticks, of which there are many varieties. Measures to combat gall mite on a pear there are various, each gardener chooses the most suitable for themselves.
How to recognize gall mite
Before embarking on a pest control, it is necessary to ascertain the signs of its appearance and determine whether it is exactly it. Pear gall mite, like a parasite on a plum, manifests itself most clearly in early summer, when the leaves have already blossomed. The parasite itself has the following appearance:
- tick size is very small, only 0.18 mm,
- the color of the calf is white, becomes pinkish or light brown by autumn,
- two pairs of legs allow the pest to travel in the right direction without problems.
With the naked eye to consider it will not work, the appearance features are visible only in the photo of the gall mite. Malicious activity is distinguished by the characteristic darkening of the leaves, the affected parts of the tree become brown. Gall ashberry mite is recognized by the sharp yellowing of the leaves, then dark spots appear.
Pests of pears are not afraid of low temperatures, they spend the winter in shady buds, which is what the kidney tick deserves.
Up to 150 parasites can winter in one kidney, each of which will lay here 4-6 eggs.
The development of larvae occurs in the winter. In the spring, when the leaves begin development, each of them will already have a "lodger" that feeds on sap and forms galls. On pear leaves, tick infestation is manifested as:
- Yellow brown or black small dots
- small blooms, creating the effect of expanding the leaf plate.
Matted blistering form as if the swelling on the leaves, sometimes it can burst, it means that the mites little space and they choose a new facility for life.
Damage to gall mites
Pests such as gall mites and spider mites have a negative effect on the growth and development of garden plants. The parasites who have settled on shtabs suck the sap from the tree, thereby depriving the plant of forces. The consequence of this defeat will be:
- lower yields, and the fruits will become smaller,
- leaves will develop poorly
- drying of branches may occur.
With a large accumulation of ticks, the shtamb may die at all. Treatment of garden plants from this scourge exists. The fight against gall mites is carried out not only in the summer, the treatment should be carried out regularly, starting in the spring months.
Gall mite can easily settle on apple, pear, sea buckthorn, as well as on maple.
Agrotechnical options of struggle
These methods are considered the most effective, their use is 100% will get rid of pests on fruit representatives infield and bird cherry.
The fight is as follows:
- application of mineral fertilizers in the spring and before winter make the trees less tasty for pests, increased osmotic pressure in the juice will complicate their food,
- you need to regularly clean the skeletal branches and the trunk of the old bark, do it at the very beginning of spring and autumn,
- fallen leaves and fruits must be removed from the okrug area,
- regularly pruning crown, in time to remove dry and old branches.
It will be correct to completely remove the weeds from the plot, thus depriving mites of breeding and living places.
Foliage and remote branches from infected boles should be burned; this should be done immediately after removal from the tree.
Lime gallic mite is very afraid of miticides, these tools allow the fight to get rid of pests in a shorter time, thereby allowing the bole to recover and give a good harvest. It is best to treat the parasites with known drugs:
- Decis, which can be bought for 39 rubles. per package with 1 g of substance
- Inta-vir works similarly, its price starts from 40 rubles.
- Fufanon from 35 rubles. for the same amount of dry powder.
Fruit trees are treated with these means regularly, the total duration of treatment is two months, and the treatment is carried out twice a week. The effectiveness of each of the drugs is quite high, and the fight is better to lead in the spring.
Choosing a new shtamb for the garden, you must carefully examine the selected tree for the presence of pests. It should be understood that one copy will be able to easily infect the entire garden in a relatively short period.
It is possible to use the chosen remedy for prophylaxis, only a purchased bob is treated with a substance diluted according to the instruction before disembarking.
Remove lime felted mite from the site can be without harmful chemicals. Experienced gardeners recommend the use of folk methods, the benefits of which will be many times more.
Fight parasites in the area can be more effective in using the recipes:
- Potato infusion to help cope with the problem quickly and efficiently for its preparation will need a kilo of fresh foliage, or exactly half dry. The crushed stalks pour a bucket of warm water and allowed to stand for 4 hours. After adding a tablespoon of soap and stir well until complete dissolution of the additive. Apply the solution throughout the day from the moment of preparation.
- Equally effective infusion of marigold flowers, 100 g of fresh or dry substance is poured liter of boiling water and boiled for 5-7 minutes. Insist 5 days, filter, add the same amount of clean boiled water.
- Exterminate ticks on the site will help ordinary dandelion, pounds it leaves pour 3 liters of warm water, kept in a dark place for three days, strain, add a tablespoon of shredded soap.
Applying folk remedies, strictly withstand the recipe, so as not to harm the plants.
Gallic pear mite can cause a lot of damage to the garden, so you need to fight it immediately after detection.
Pear gall mite
The pest has a worm-like shape and four legs, the body is whitish in color. Dimensions are 0.23 mm in females, 0.19 mm in males. Wintering of this species occurs under the scales of the kidneys, each can hold up to 1000 individuals. Once the temperature reaches 10 degrees, the pincers start to suck the juices from the first kidney (during their blooming) and then of growing pear leaves. As a result of their nutrition, the development of buds is stopped, the plants wither, and photosynthesis is inhibited. As a result, the fruits are smaller. Crop loss can reach 95%.
At the same time on the damaged leaves of the pear galls are formed, representing the rounded swellings of green. Galls are formed as a result of the release of specific physiologically active substances (possibly hormone-like substances) by ticks. Each female lays up to 20 eggs in these formations. By the time ticks become larvae, galls wither in adults. By the beginning of summer, a new generation of gall mites appears. Three generations of the pest have time to develop during the season.
Measures to combat gall mites
Removal and burning of damaged and dead shoots, fruits windfalls pears, fruit collection of fruit drop, during bud, after flowering and in July - August it is advisable to spray the trees with preparations acaricidal action. These include Fufanon. Karbofos, Neoron, Aktellik, Tiovit-Jet. With a relatively small population is recommended to fight with the help of folk remedies, in particular extracts of onion scales, garlic, dandelion, yarrow, chamomile, for reproduction to take cuttings only absolutely clean of ticks pear trees to prevent the spread of the tick, the choice of resistant gall mites pear varieties .
As a preventive measure is recommended the regular application of mineral fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium, for example, fly ash, potassium monophosphate: these fertilizers increase the osmotic pressure of the cell sap of the leaves, which makes many food sucking pests, including mites and insects, limiting nitrogen fertilization, contributing to long-term growth of the shoots of pear, weed, is an intermediate host mites and aphids.
Red fruit mite
Harm to most fruit crops. The size of adult females is 0.4 mm, and the males are 0.3 mm. The body of a wide oval can be of different shades of red. The length of the larvae is 0.17 mm, at first they are red, then turn brown.
The larvae turn into nymphs, which in turn into adult mites. Females begin laying eggs 2-4 days after becoming adults (in the reproductive sense). Usually they lay them on the bark of vegetative shoots or the bases of the rams. In total, each female usually lays from 60 to 90 eggs. Maximum productivity 150 eggs. In spring, the hatching of larvae coincides with the phase of pear bud budding. All stages of development except eggs are considered harmful.
In Russia, the season has time to develop from 3 to 5 generations.
Brown fruit mite
The body of an adult female is wide-oval, 0.5-0.6 mm in size. Males have a more elongated body. Hibernate in the egg stage. Ticks overwinter in the egg stage. In the spring, during the bud break, the larvae hatch from eggs and crawl to the buds, and then to the leaves. The number of generations depends on the climate. So in the northern regions 2-3 generations have time to develop, and in the southern 4-5.
Fruit Tick Control Measures
Pear tree strands should be cleaned from pieces of dead bark and whitened in the fall with lime milk. Spraying pears during bud break and bud separation with drugs with acaricidal properties.
It is worth noting that there are means of both acaricidal and insecticoacaricidal purposes. Acaricidal drugs are considered specifically directed against ticks, these include Neoron, Karachar, Tagore. Insectoacaricides are considered drugs that act on insects and ticks. Such means are fufanon, karbofos, Aktellik, Bitoxibacillin, Fitoverm. The first three drugs are purely chemical, the last two are biological. When dealing with fruit mites, insectoacaricides should be changed, as these types of mites can develop resistance to them. The most reliable is to consider the alternation of plant protection products with different mechanisms of action.
Since the drugs most accessible to gardeners have a similar mechanism of action, especially since karbofos and fufanon contain the same active ingredient. Therefore, in the backyard, it makes sense to use folk remedies on a plant basis. As these funds are recommended for spraying pear extracts of marigold, potato, tomato tops, dandelion, chamomile, yarrow, garlic, burdock leaves, and pine extract and tincture of ash.
Rules of making folk remedies
Potato infusion. To obtain it, 1 kg of fresh or 500 grams of dry tops should be chopped and filled with a bucket of hot water. Then insist for four hours, strain and add a tablespoon of soap to stick. The working fluid should be used on the same day, maximum for a day.
Marigold. To make this, it is recommended to take 100 g of flowers and boil one liter of water with them. The resulting decoction must be insisted 5 days and diluted with water twice.
Dandelion infusion. To prepare, pour 1 kg of leaves with three liters of water and insist 3 days. Strain the liquid and add to it a soap solution containing 30 grams of soap.
We hope this article will help you keep your garden healthy and the fight against pear mites will be crowned with success!
What it is?
Gallic mite spread across the planet and affects many tree species. Especially he likes to feast on fruit crops. They are often affected plum, apple, peach trees, quince. This pest is especially prone to pears. This type of tree most often affects one of the species of gall mite - spider mite.
The tiny bug itself is not visible to the eye. Its body measures approximately 0.1-0.3 cm. In the cold season, the tick is inactive. He climbs deep into the buds of a tree and there he suffers from cold. Up to 1500 individuals can winter in one bud.
In the spring months, when the temperature is set above + 10 degrees, the insect enters the active stage. It begins to actively feed using the resources of the tree. In parallel, the mite lays a very large number of eggs on the scales of developing buds.
During the summer season, the population of eggs, larvae and adults is increasing. The pest spreads across the crown of the plant and affects nearby trees. Pear mite can be carried by birds, animals, other insects, wind. Sometimes new young seedlings are already infected and become the source of the insect in the garden.
What hurts a tick?
Developing larvae and adult insects feed on sap from the buds and leaves of the tree. When located on the crown of a large population of mites, the plant is very depleted due to the extensive loss of foliage.
Developing, the mite forms the so-called galls on the leaves. They are clusters of insects. Gauls look like formations on the leaves are rounded. The affected areas usually have a diameter of 2–3 mm. On each sheet a lot of such clusters of larvae and adult ticks form. This gradually leads to exhaustion and drying of the leaves.
First galls have light-green color, different from the color of all the sheet. Often they rise in the form of pimples or small turrets above the leaf plate. Pretty quickly education become brown or almost black. This is due to the depletion of vegetable juices in a particular area of the leaf and the death of plant cells. Visually, this pattern is similar to the signs of scab lesions and inexperienced gardeners can incorrectly identify the cause of the poor condition of the tree.
Pear mite spreads quickly over the crown. The leaves lose their bright green color, turn brown and fall off. In the season of the insect is able to give at least 3 generations of new individuals. Each of the females under favorable conditions lays 15-20 eggs.
The defeat of gall mites leads to a significant weakening of the entire fruit tree. Young seedlings due to pest attack may die in one season. Habitat pest on the crown leads to a strong delay in the growth of young branches. Also buds and buds die. The tick attack negatively affects the crop. In most cases, the tree is too weakened, and the fruits wither or rot on the branches, before they mature.
If a tick lives and develops on an adult tree for several seasons in a row, it can simultaneously develop diseases. The culture becomes poorly resistant to fungal infections.
How to fight?
To begin with, it is necessary to study and remember well the methods of preventing the development of this pest on fruit trees. These measures will help reduce the likelihood that the insect will be able to live and breed in your garden.
- In the autumn months it is recommended to remove the foliage from under the trees. It is best to burn and cut its branches or take it away from the site.
- In the summer should be collected in time the drop. Slowly rotting foliage under a tree is a breeding ground for diseases and pests.
- Try not to over-grow weeds under the crowns of trees.
- If you are planning a vaccination, make sure that the cutting is taken from a healthy tree.
- When preparing for winter, dig the ground under a pear and other fruit trees.
- When choosing a seedling, pay attention to its characteristics. Check out his resistance to diseases and pests. Varieties with weak immune systems are damaged mites virtually certain.
- Timely treat the fruit crop from other diseases, fight pest insects. A weakened tree becomes very vulnerable, and the likelihood of its damage by gall mites also increases.
- The lack of regular sanitary pruning of the crown and its excessive thickening is a risk factor.
- Significantly reduces the likelihood of an attack gall mite regular whitewashing the trunk. You should also remove the old bark from the tree.
- Seedlings better to plant at a distance of at least 300 meters from other plants. This will prevent the transfer of the insect to other trees in the event that a new young plant was struck by it.
- In the spring before bud break in the soil should be applied fertilizer nutrients. This will serve as a feed for the root system and support for the tree during the spring-summer growing season.
- Dusting soil in the root zone with ash is a good preventive measure against the development of many diseases and the spread of pests.
- Избыток фосфорсодержащих удобрений создает благоприятные условия для развития данного насекомого-паразита.
Не стоит злоупотреблять этим веществом при подкормке.
Если же галловый клещ уже поразил листву, придется применять более сильные методы борьбы. Чтобы избавиться от паразита, в ход пойдут химические препараты и средства. It is important to remember that the fight against pear mites should not be delayed. It is necessary to start taking measures immediately after the discovery of signs of its activity on the leaves.
- If in the previous season the foliage was already attacked by an insect, the treatment of the plant should be carried out in early spring. Before starting, budding should be sprayed with “Intra-Vir”. The dosage is one tablet of funds per 10 liters of water. Also with this tool you can spray the trunk and branches in the late fall.
- According to reviews of gardeners, Fufaron, Karbofos, Nitrafen products help to get rid of the pest. They are also used in the form of spraying crown. Each subsequent treatment is carried out after a two-week break.
- In the period of budding without harm, the drug Isofen is used for further fruiting. Depending on the extent of the pest damage, a 10 or 20% solution is used.
- After the color converges, the crown can be treated with colloidal sulfur (100 g of substance per 10 liters of water). This procedure should be carried out only at a temperature not lower than +20? С.
- If the defeat of the crown is very extensive and on the foliage persistent signs of vital activity of the tick persist, resort to the drug "Fufanon." The solution (0.1%) plentifully spray the crown every ten days.
- Not so long ago another very effective treatment began to be applied. It consists in the introduction of acaricides or insecticides directly into the tree sap flow system. Injection is carried out using special equipment.
This method can be applied even during the period when fruits have already formed on the plant. And spraying crown chemicals at this time is highly undesirable.
Below are the most popular and effective methods from the people's piggy bank. They can be a good alternative to the use of strong chemicals. In many cases, they are used as concomitant pest control agents to improve the outcome of treatment with special preparations.
- Experienced gardeners claim that pear mite does not really like dandelion infusion. Fresh leaves of the plant (about 1 kg) need to be cut and infused in 3 liters of water. After filtering in the resulting infusion you need to pour a small amount of liquid soap or dissolve the chips from the laundry into it. The soap component will help the tool to keep on the leaves and protect against rapid evaporation. The resulting composition of pear sprayed in dry, calm weather, early in the morning or in the evening.
- To combat the gall mite, gardeners also use an infusion of potato tops. In a bucket of warm water soaked one kilogram of fresh and half a kilogram of dried aerial parts of potatoes. For 4 hours, the agent is infused in a warm place. You can periodically put the bucket on a small fire and heat the water to a temperature of 38-40 degrees. After the infusion is filtered, it is added liquid soap. The composition is suitable for use during the day.
How does the "enemy"
The pest has very small dimensions - the length of an adult individual is only 0.18 mm. Insects have a white color, which with the arrival of autumn is replaced by pink or light brown. The insect moves with the help of two pairs of legs. It spends wintering between kidney scales. In one kidney there may be about 1500 insects. Even before the buds begin to bloom, each female lays 5-6 eggs, leaving them on the inside of the scales.
Then, from them, the emergence of larvae, which by the time the buds begin to blossom, will become adult individuals. They dig into the not yet blossoming leaves and gradually contribute to the appearance of galls.
On leaves that have been infected, yellow-brown begins to appear, and then blackening minor swellings. Sometimes pear galls stick together, which creates the appearance of a "tumor."
Over time, drying of the epidermis and cracking of the galls are observed. In such a situation, ticks are looking for new young leaves and move to them.
What harm from a tick
Having settled on the sheet, the pest begins to suck the juice out of it. In such leaves there is a violation of the water balance, a decrease in the amount of chlorophyll, stopping the process of photosynthesis. The plant becomes weak.
If the tree attacked a large number of pests, the fruits grow, but have small sizes. Ticks are dangerous for plants in any period of development - they negatively affect the tree during its growth and during the formation of the fruit.
The gall mite on a pear can cause very great harm, so control measures should be taken immediately.
Often mass reproduction Gall mites contribute to the inept selection and frequent use of organophosphate agents that are intended for the death of their enemies. Sometimes the number of ticks increases due to the increase of their fertility under the influence of stimulating drugs.
It is plant protection against pests using this method that is most effective. Thanks to the ground-growing tillage, the number of gall mites and their larvae is reduced.
It protects against pests and the introduction of a variety of fertilizing with the use of mineral fertilizers. They allow to increase the osmotic pressure in the cell sap, which makes it difficult to feed the ticks.
To combat the galls, it is recommended to carry out the following agrotechnical measures:
- clean the stumps and skeletal branches from the old bark,
- collect and remove plant residues (fallen fruits and leaves) from the site,
- regularly carry out pruning crown.
If there are no weeds in your garden, it will reduce the probability of tick breeding.
In the fight against pear gall mites, it is common to use special agents — acaricides.
To implement the treatment of trees, it is recommended to use organophosphorus and chlorine-containing preparations. Thanks to this method, you can get rid of pests pretty quickly. They affect the mite's digestive system and lead to its death. The pear must be processed twice a week for 2 months.
Insect control can be carried out by injection. Due to the fact that the substance quickly penetrates into all parts of the plant, this allows you to get rid of a large number of pests.
If the tree struck a pear gall mite, what is the way to process the plant? You can use drugs such as "Decis", "Inta-vir" and "Fufanon."
What harm does the tick
Just like all leaf pests, gall mites cause damage to trees in the form of:
- delays in regrowth of young branches,
- almost complete death of the kidneys,
- damage to buds, ovaries, fruits,
- yield reduction.
Important! The tree does not receive sufficient nutrition and is poorly prepared for wintering. As a result, it can freeze and die.
How to get rid of the pest
A gall mite on a pear can destroy almost the entire crop, so it is important to choose effective measures to combat it. To prevent and prevent the occurrence of pear mites, one should not forget to perform simple agrotechnical techniques:
- take cuttings for grafting only on healthy trees,
- fall to collect and burn fallen leaves and cut branches,
- remove the drop
- remove weeds on which ticks can breed,
- digging the ground under a pear in the autumn,
- choose to plant varieties resistant to pests,
- in the spring to make increased rates of fertilizers (eg, ash).
If the tick has already appeared, then it is necessary to apply chemical measures of protection - acaricidal drugs, which are directed specifically against ticks of all kinds.
The fight against gall mites begins with the arrival of spring. To get rid of pests will help a set of activities:
- before blooming buds, pear processing is carried out with Decis, Inta-vir,
- on rose-buds, Karbofos and Isofen preparations (10% solution), 20% solution are used for spraying,
- after flowering, spraying of colloidal sulfur is carried out at temperatures above +20 degrees (take 100 g of product per 10 liters of water).
With a strong infection of the pear, if signs of vital activity of ticks after spring spraying remain, for the first two summer months, every ten days, the tree is sprayed with a 0.1% solution
The first dose is indicated for spring spraying up to the opening of the kidneys, the second - for treatment with contact pesticides.
The difficulty in etching the gall mite is that chemicals get on the leaves, and the tick lives inside the leaf and is not easily accessible to all drugs. They are selected from the buds after their blooming, and in the fall (from September to October) are moved back to the kidneys. It is at these moments that they are most vulnerable.
At present, a new way has been invented to deal with such hidden pests. Apply insecticide or acaricide injection directly at the location of the mites. The drug enters the sap flow system, which allows you to quickly get rid of inaccessible pests.
However, for this you need to drill a tree, have a specialized syringe and somewhere else get the right solution. Usually this is done by special companies whose call is not at all cheap. All this is troublesome and expensive.
Many gardeners do not like to use chemicals on their plots and use popular methods of pest control. These methods include:
- potato infusion
- infusion of dandelions,
- infusion of marigolds,
- onion peel infusion,
- infusion of garlic.
You can not use herbal infusions in the middle of the day in bright sunshine. In this case, they lose their pesticide characteristics. It is better to carry out treatment in the evening or in cloudy weather.