Drip irrigation greatly simplifies the life of greenhouse owners and summer residents. In order for the system to work as efficiently and as long as possible, the choice of equipment must be taken seriously. All components of the irrigation system must be reliable and of high quality.
Drip tape allows on the site to provide the highest quality and optimized watering. Its feature is that the water supply takes place directly under the root system of plants. This not only favorably affects the good development of crops, but also impedes the rapid growth of weeds. Thus, with the help of drip irrigation, substantial savings are achieved not only in water resources, but also in finances.
What is drip tape for?
This equipment allows you to provide the most optimal and high-quality irrigation of any suburban area, with a very different landscape. A distinctive feature of the tape for drip irrigation is the possibility of dosing. This is a very rational approach, allowing economical use of resources and at the same time getting the maximum from the land plot. Before getting into the drip tape, water passes through a special filter, avoiding clogging of the system and, consequently, increasing its service life.
Then the water enters the regulating channel of the tape. On its way, it passes through a large number of filter holes. Then it enters a special labyrinth canal in which the flow rate is adjusted. After that, the water goes to the outlet. Drip tape supplies water directly under the roots of plants, thereby ensuring the full development of crops. In addition, this watering is used to prevent sunburns in plants.
The emitter drip tape is different in that small special flat droppers - the so-called emitters - are embedded in it over its entire length. They serve to adjust the water pressure, and the special design creates a turbulent flow, thanks to which the water in the dropper is cleaned of foreign particles. The cost of such a variant of equipment is higher, and the smaller the pitch of drip tapes, the more expensive the product.
In this type of ribbon for irrigation, a flexible labyrinth channel is present inside, slowing down the flow of water and making its flow more uniform. In certain places there are thin holes through which water seeps out. The drop tape of this type is simple in installation and reliable in further operation. The disadvantages include the need to filter water, because narrow gaps are often clogged.
In this type of tape for irrigation, the channel through which water flows has the shape of a zigzag, due to which the speed of water movement is significantly reduced. The main advantage of this labyrinth tape equipment is uniform heating of the water, which is very good for all plants. Among the shortcomings can be noted frequent breakdowns in use and the complexity of installation. Today the labyrinth tape is considered a bit outdated option, but at the same time and the least expensive.
Benefits of drip irrigation
In metered irrigation using drip ribbons, there are functional advantages, especially when compared with traditional types of irrigation.
Among the advantages of this method include:
- Efficiency. This method can significantly reduce the consumption of water or liquid fertilizers, since they go directly to the root system of cultivated plants.
- The entire watering process is automated. After installing the tape you only need to turn on and off the flow of water. The rest of the work will be done by the system itself.
- Due to the minimum amount of water entering the soil, it does not wash out the nutrients.
- Such irrigation of plants contributes to their good development, increasing yields and improving the quality of grown products.
- With this method of irrigation eliminates the risk of burns on seedlings, which cause the sun's rays when surface irrigation through a normal hose.
- Drip irrigation system eliminates the need to carry heavy enough hoses around the site.
How to make the right choice?
Choosing the best drip tape among the listed options, you should pay attention to several important parameters:
- Wall thickness.
- Water flow.
- Emitter pitch.
The diameter of the drip tape is very important. Most often in the tape, the length of which is not more than 300 m, the diameter of the tube is 16 mm, if 300-750 m - 22 mm. The choice of a suitable drip tape for watering the land depends on the following factors - the required length of the tape and the pressure in the plumbing system.
When choosing such a tape, special attention should be paid to the wall thickness of the tube. The strength of the entire product, its functionality and the duration of operation largely depend on this parameter. Systems with increased wall thickness are best suited for watering plants with a long maturation period. Tapes with thinner walls are an excellent option for almost all precocious crops.
This is also an equally important parameter. For example, if the crops are planted close to each other, it is necessary to use tapes for watering, having a small distance between the holes. Determining the optimal distance, you should consider the type of soil on the land. For medium-grained soil suitable drip tube with droppers, between which a distance of 30 cm.
This parameter depends on the following two factors:
- watering tape lengths,
- plant needs for water.
A small expenditure of water reduces friction and makes it possible to more rationally water long rows of crops. In addition, the system will not need a higher level of filtering. It is worth paying attention to how much pressure in the emitter. If the indicator is 0.7 bar, you need to choose a tape for watering based on the following parameters:
- 1.5 l / h is suitable for irrigation of plants from the reed family,
- for most crops, choose universal watering - flow rate 1.0 l / h,
- tape with a low infiltration rate and a flow rate of 0.6 l / h is able to irrigate the earth for a long time, it is well suited for long pipelines.
The simplest method of this type of irrigation, which can be arranged with your own hands without any special problems, is the system by which water is fed to the irrigation points by gravity.
To do this, you need to take a sufficiently capacious tank for water and install it on a small elevation. It should be borne in mind that the higher the level of installation of the water tank, the higher the pressure in the irrigation system. For every meter it increases by 0.1 bar. This means that with a tank height of 1 m in the system, the pressure will be 0.1 bar, with a height of 2 m it will be 0.2 bar, etc.
In the bottom of the tank do inset exhaust pipe. At the same time, its upper edge should be slightly higher than the bottom itself. This is necessary so that the nozzle does not clog the falling debris. On the inset from the outside of the vessel, a tap is installed, to which a filter is subsequently connected for the primary treatment of water.
Then from the inset filter and with a crane perpendicular to the beds lay the base (distribution) pipe. Pre-drilled holes for smart connectors on it, which are located according to the beds. Next, at the end of the distribution pipe, the valve is mounted, which is necessary for periodic flushing of the entire drip system.
In the next step, connectors are attached to the holes. Then from them along the beds lay the tape system. At the same time, care must be taken that emitters are located on top. The end of the tape opposite to the distribution pipe is reliably suppressed (it can be well tied up with a rope).
For watering plants planted in one row, the tape is laid on the side. On double-row beds, stacking is performed midway between the rows of plants.
Fittings for drip tape are special elements that are mounted at the joints of this equipment with a water source or when switching to a different diameter.
- Repair connection. These elements are used for damage and rupture of tapes. Can also be used to add sections.
- Knee. They are used to dock the drip tape with a polypropylene tube. Can be used as a water supply regulator.
- Clamping tee. It is necessary for branching drip tape.
- Cranes. Used to regulate the flow of water into the irrigation system.
- Stubs Used in the repair of tapes for drip irrigation. They avoid pressure loss.
- Elastics for starters. This item serves to seal and seal the irrigation connections.
This is not a complete list of elements for the organization of drip irrigation. Fittings are made of high-quality polyethylene, which is not afraid of the influence of UV rays.
If we approach the question of choosing a drip tape responsibly, effective watering of the land will be guaranteed.
Benefits of drip irrigation
- - Efficiency. The consumption of water and mineral fertilizers decreases. as water is supplied directly under the root of the plant.
- - Automate the process of watering. Having collected the system once, you just have to follow the water supply. If necessary, turn on and off.
- - The nutrients from the soil are not washed out.
- - The plant receives the amount of water it needs. At the same time, weed growth is better developed and reduced.
Drip irrigation: types of tapes and the rules for their installation
An important part of the whole structure is the drip irrigation tape itself. It is a tube in which holes are made with a predetermined pitch (at a certain distance). The design is thought out in such a way that a certain volume of water would pour out of it.
Drip tape can be divided into 3 types.
The most popular and budget option in Russia. It has a simple design. The labyrinth channel through which water flows is stamped on the surface of the belt outside. The maze has a zigzag shape. The water in these ribbons, warms up quickly, which has a positive effect on plants, but is uneven. But these tapes are short-lived, unwinding the tape, it is easy to damage the labyrinth, due to the fact that it is located on the outside of the tape. The period of use of this type of tape will not exceed 1 season.
This type of tape is similar in construction to the labyrinth. But the water channel is installed directly inside the tape, along its entire length. Water outlets are made at a certain distance from each other. For such a droplet tape, deep water filtration is necessary, otherwise the tape will quickly clog and cannot be used further. This leads to additional costs for the purchase of the filter.
This type of drip tape is most reliable. Separate flat emitters (droppers) are embedded in the tape. Thanks to the turbulent flows, which are created due to the wide entry and improved design of the dropper, has protection from clogging and is capable of self-cleaning. Will last more than one season. Emitter tapes are divided into two types. Compensated and uncompensated. For an uncompensated tape, the amount of water used depends on its length and the slope of the section; this must be taken into account during installation. The compensated water flow is always the same.
Tape wall 5 mil (0.125 mm) - has thin walls, is used for watering plants with a quick yield of yield. It is laid on the soil, which contains the minimum number of stones. This type is used by experienced growers.
6 and 8 mil (0.15 and 0.2 mm, respectively) is a general-purpose tape (universal), used for watering plants with a long ripening period, used for soils with normal conditions.
10-12 mil (0.25 and 0.3 mm, respectively) - the tape is characterized by thick walls, used on stony soil, in the zone of increased risk of damage. It also applies when used for more than one season.
15 mil (0.375 mm) - tape with thick walls, used on stony soil, where animals can cause damage to it. This tape can be used for several years.
The choice of the distance between the holes
Here the main factor is the need of the plant for water during germination and subsequent growth. If plants or seedlings are planted close to each other, it is more efficient to use a tape that has a small distance between the outlets. When determining the distance between the holes, the type of soil must be taken into account, since the movement of water and the shape of the moisture contour depend on the structure of the soil.
10-20 cm - this is the optimal irrigation pattern for crops that are planted close to each other, suitable for sandy soils or places where increased water flow is required.
30 cm - it is used for watering plants planted in medium-grained soil at a distance of 30 cm between plantings.
40 cm - used for irrigation of plants planted at a great distance between plantings and, if necessary, ensure long irrigation lines.
By type, drop tapes are divided into three groups:
- Tape-maze. The channel of such a tape has a zigzag-like shape, which makes the speed of water movement significantly lower. The advantage of these ribbons is that the water in them warms up well, which in turn is more suitable for plants. The disadvantage of the tape is that the uniformity of irrigation, which it provides is insufficient. This is the most budget version of the tape, but today it is considered a bit outdated, as there are more efficient types.
- Slit tape. It is a more modern look. Such tape differs in simplicity of laying and uniform watering. For effective operation of the slotted tape, you need to carefully monitor the quality of water, there is a chance that you will need to use several types of filters at the same time. The advantage of this type of tape is its relatively low cost.
- Emitter tape. This type of tape is the highest quality and reliable. The emitter tape is resistant to contamination, so the term of its operation will be much longer than the previous species. The holes between the droppers are at a certain distance from each other, and the smaller this distance, the higher the cost of the tape. In addition, only this type of tape is available in two different configurations - compensated and uncompensated. With compensated droppers, the length of the tape does not affect the water consumption, and with uncompensated such an effect is present. These features should also be considered when choosing installation of automatic watering.
Dimeter Drip Tape basically 22 mm and 16 mm. In the first case, for quality watering, the length of the beds should not be more than 750 meters, in the second - more than 300 meters. Another important parameter that will affect the choice of drip tape is its thickness. Many tend to underestimate this particular characteristic of the tape, which should not be done. After all, the term of system operation depends on the tape thickness in many cases.
The tape for drip irrigation can have the following thickness:
- 15 mil This tape has very thick walls, which makes it ideal for use on stony surfaces. A tube with such a thickness is very resistant to damage.
- 10 mil A tube with such a thickness is also suitable for stony terrain. Such a tape will also not be able to damage insects or animals.
- 8 mil It is also distinguished by good resistance to damage and has a long service life. This tape is almost universal.
- 6 mil The tape with such thickness is applied on a site with usual soil.
- 5 mil It is very demanding in the care and handling. As a rule, the term of operation of such a tape does not exceed one year, so it is recommended to use it for crops that quickly mature.
Obviously, the thinner the tape, the lower its cost. But if you plan to use the automatic watering system for a long time, then it is better to choose thicker ribbons.
The choice of the drip tape step depends on the characteristics of the crops that are grown. If the plants are planted at a short distance from each other, then you should choose a tape with a small step.
Так, для полива лука, морковки, салата оптимальным будет шаг капельницы – 10-15 см. Если же орошать нужно растения на значительном расстоянии друг от друга, то следует купить капельную ленту с шагом капельниц от 30-40 см.
Таким образом, большая разновидность капельных лет, их особенностей и характеристик, позволит создать максимально эффективную систему полива. And so that it was also durable, then you should choose only high-quality equipment from reliable manufacturers. How to equip drip irrigation on your site, read this article.
Drop irrigation: principle of operation and types of tapes
The drip irrigation tape pattern is simple, which allows you to mount it yourself. Several drip hoses (their number depends on the area of the irrigation area) are assembled into a common drip irrigation belt using special adapters.
The inlet hose of the system is connected to the water supply system, and the water is directed along the branches. On the beds, it drips out through the dropper holes in the hoses.
All tapes that provide drip irrigation, operate on the same principle. But the internal structure of different models may vary depending on the purpose, operating conditions and manufacturer.
There are 3 main groups:
The first option (one of the most famous representatives in Russia - the drop tape “Dew”) is the simplest system in construction. A special channel in the form of a labyrinth passes through the thin wall of the tube. It reduces the pressure of the water, and as a result, it seeps out in separate drops.
More reliable, providing uniform drip irrigation is a slit system. In contrast to the labyrinth, in the slotted tape channel is located inside it.
The most perfect is the emitter drip tape. In the irrigation device of this type, irrigation is carried out through emitters - special miniature droppers. They are designed so that the turbulent water flows in them perform the function of self-cleaning.
DIY installation rules
The simplest option of such irrigation, which can be arranged without any problems with your own hands, is a system through which water is supplied to the irrigation points by gravity.
For this, a sufficiently capacious water tank is taken and installed on a certain elevation. It should be borne in mind that with the increase in the level of installation of the water tank per meter, the pressure in the irrigation system increases proportionally by 0.1 bar. This means that at a height of 1 m, the pressure in the system will be 0.1 bar, at a height of 2 m - 0.2 bar, etc.
At the bottom of the tank is a tapping of the exhaust pipe. Moreover, its upper edge should be slightly higher than the bottom - so that the falling litter does not clog the nozzle. A tap is installed on the inset on the outside of the tank, to which the primary water purification filter is then connected.
From the tie-in with the crane and the filter perpendicular to the irrigated beds fit the base (distribution) pipe. Before this pipe should be drilled holes for smart connectors, which are oriented according to the location of the beds. At the tip of the pipe-distributor mounted valve for periodic cleaning (washing) of the entire system.
Next in the holes are mounted connectors. From them along the beds gently laid tape system. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the emitter droppers are located on top. The end of the tape, opposite the distribution pipe, must be securely muffled (for example, tightly tied with a rope).
If the plants are planted in one row, the tape is laid on the side. If we are talking about double-row beds, the tape should be laid in the middle between the rows of plants.
Criterias of choice
There are several important parameters drip tape that will help you choose the best option irrigation devices.
First of all, it is advised to pay attention to the thickness of the walls of the tubes. From this parameter depend on the strength of the tape, its life and functionality. In particular, systems with an increased wall thickness are best suited for watering crops with a long period of maturation, and with thinner walls - for early-ripening crops.
It is necessary to pay attention to the distance between adjacent exhaust droppers. For closely planted plants, tape should be used with a small distance between the outlets. When determining the optimal distance, it is also necessary to take into account the type of soil. So, for medium-grained soil, the distance between droppers of 30 cm is best suited.
Important and the flow of water in the tape. At low watering intensity, friction losses are reduced, fluid is used more efficiently, and the system is operated for a longer time.
Finally, the diameter of the tape should be considered. 16-mm tubes, as a rule, are used in a tape up to 300 m long, 22-millimeter - for the device of a tape from 300 to 750 m long.
If the user takes into account all these factors, he will have at his disposal a reliable and highly efficient assistant in the irrigation of the vegetable garden.
What is drip tape used for?
Drip tape allows you to provide optimal irrigation of virtually any area, regardless of its landscape features. The distinctive characteristic of the drip tape is the ability to carry out dosed irrigation. This is a very rational approach, thanks to which you can more economically spend money and at the same time get the most from land resources.Before getting into the design of the drip tape, the water passes through the filter. This avoids contamination of the system and significantly increases its service life. Then water enters the regulating channel of the belt and passes through many filtering holes on its way. After that, the water enters the labyrinth channel, where the water flow is regulated, and then it rushes to the outlet.
Tape for drip irrigation provides water directly under the root system of the plant. This irrigation scheme ensures the full development of crops and also prevents the rapid growth of weeds. Also drip irrigation is used to eliminate the possibility of sunburn in plants.
Types of drip tapesCompetent selection of drip tape is the key to proper watering. Varieties of hoses for drip irrigation, which are on store shelves, are quite diverse. But there are several basic types that have certain characteristics. To select the appropriate tape, you need to proceed from what specific tasks will be performed by the autowatering system.
The drip system of water supply is represented by two main types: the drip tape itself and the usual hose with special droppers attached to it. First option - This is a hose that has droppers built in (miniature holes). Second option - This is a set of droppers that are independently connected to the hose.Tape drip irrigation of this type has a flexible labyrinth inside, which slows down the flow of water and makes its flow more uniform. In certain places, ribbons are made with thin slit-like holes through which water seeps out. This type of drip tape is easy to install and reliable in subsequent operation. Among the shortcomings, it is possible to highlight the need for careful filtration of water, since narrow gaps are often clogged with a fine slurry.
Also, do not overlook the distance between the outlet openings. For example, for plants that are close planted to each other, need to use drip tape with a small distance between the holes. When determining the optimal distance, it is necessary to take into account the type of soil on a particular plot of land. Drip tube with integrated droppers, the distance between which is 30 cm, suitable for medium-grained soil.