In September, severe frosts do not happen yet, but it is necessary to prepare not only a garden and trees for winter, but also a chicken coop. It is necessary to proceed from the inspection on the damage to the feeders and drinkers, after which you can deal with the insulation of the room. The litter plays one of the most important roles in the hen house, as it not only improves the hygiene regime, but also serves as an additional source of heat.
While it is still warm on the street and Indian summer is going on, engage in the repair of outbuildings. First of all it concerns the chicken coop, it should be prepared for the cold properly.
To begin with, inspect whether the feeders, drinking bowls and perches are working, then clean and disinfect the floor with lime mortar. Next, warm the room, engage in the preparation of dry flooring, wash the windows, check the lighting.
In order to make it easier to remove the afterbirth, install removable shields under the perches, they will also help the litter stay clean much longer.
To make chickens feel comfortable while laying eggs, arrange the nests with a sliding curtain. Do not forget to take care of good lighting, as the lack of light can lead to the death of the livestock of the bird.
The litter plays one of the most important roles in the hen house, as it not only improves the hygiene regime, but also serves as an additional source of heat. Laid her in late September. The materials used are peat, sawdust, straw, leaves or other organic substances that absorb moisture. The height is made at least 20 cm. Once a week, the upper ball of the litter is turned over so that the afterbirth falls down, and more straw or sawdust is filled.
What birds need for a good wintering
To ensure normal wintering for the poultry, it is necessary to maintain the temperature and humidity at the proper level. In addition, you need to attend to lighting and ventilation system. All these conditions are easier to create in a stationary capital hen house. Mobile structures, when modified for winter conditions, can become excessively heavy, up to the actual loss of their mobility.
What temperature and humidity should be in the hen house
There are breeds of chickens (Russian white, Pushkin striped and motley, Kuchinsky, etc.) that are highly resistant to low temperatures. They practically do not reduce productivity in adverse conditions for other breeds. But for most breeds, it is not allowed to reduce the temperature in the house below 12 ° C. At a lower temperature, the egg production of laying hens is significantly reduced, and among the livestock in some cases, diseases can also begin. Usually in winter they keep the temperature in the range of 12–18 ° С. Russian white chickens are resistant to low temperatures As for humidity, the optimal value of this indicator is 70%. To allow an increase in humidity of over 75% is highly undesirable - it can cause various diseases in poultry.
What kind of lighting should be in the hen house in winter
The role of lighting in the winter is very important, because due to the short winter day, the productivity of the layers can be significantly reduced, up to an almost complete cessation of egg-laying. Therefore, a short day is compensated by artificial lighting. The use of such lighting should provide a light day lasting approximately 14 hours.
As light sources you can use:
- incandescent lamps,
- fluorescent lights,
- LED lights.
Ventilation in the hen house in winter
The house must be equipped with a ventilation system. Ventilation will help save the room from the harmful gases that have accumulated as a result of the decomposition of the litter. In addition, it regulates the value of humidity.Usually use the supply and exhaust ventilation system. It consists of two ventilation pipes: fresh air, where fresh air enters, and exhaust air, through which air from the room is removed. The pipes are mounted on opposite sides of the hen house. One end of the exhaust pipe is under the ceiling, the other rises above the roof about one and a half meters. The intake pipe rises no more than 30 cm above the roof, its other end is lowered almost to the floor itself, not reaching it by 25–30 cm. Supply and exhaust ventilation system In some cases, the supply and exhaust system may not be enough. Then mount a forced system in which fans are used. But such a system is usually used in large farms.
Of the electrical appliances for heating the house, oil radiators, convectors and infrared emitters are most often used. Oil radiator has the following advantages:
- it's economical
- cools slowly when disconnected, continuing to heat the room,
- running silently
- fire safe,
- has a long service life.
- heating the house is uneven,
- one radiator is able to heat a relatively small room, for large poultry houses several such heaters are required.
A good option for heating a chicken coop is to use infrared lamps. Their advantages are:
- they are inexpensive and economical
- work silently
- since they do not heat the air, but objects, they can warm up the litter, preventing it from becoming damp.
- these lamps, besides heat, emit light, therefore they cannot be used at night - this will disturb the daily routine of the hens
- since these are point sources of heat, it may take several lamps to heat evenly.
Instead of electric heating appliances, stove or gas heating can be used.
For furnace heating using metal stove-stove. This system is easily mounted, and any non-toxic combustible materials - wood, pellets (fuel pellets), fuel briquettes, etc. - can serve as fuel. fuel during combustion may produce an unpleasant odor.For heating, you can use a diesel furnace that uses diesel fuel. This furnace is more fireproof, economical, compact. Modern diesel stoves are equipped with a control system that turns off the stove when it overheats. Diesel furnace for heating the disadvantages of the "stove" is devoid of gas heating system. But it requires professional installation, it has a high cost, and the gas itself is a fairly expensive fuel. Gas heating is usually used in large farms.
In addition to the above methods, you can organize the so-called "natural heating". To do this, do the following:
- the poultry house is poured with quicklime at the rate of 1 kilogram of lime per square meter of floor,
- the second layer is covered with litter (peat, chopped straw or sawdust), layer thickness - 8–10 cm,
- over time, as the litter is being tamped down, fresh material is poured in, the old litter is not removed, but it is periodically loosened.
Natural warming of the hen house with his own hands
All of the above efforts to organize heating of the house can go to ashes if the heat is not kept indoors. Therefore, it is necessary to warm the floor, walls, ceiling, doors and windows.Peat, sawdust, small chips or straw, which are covered with a continuous layer with a thickness of 8–10 cm, are used to warm the floor.Sawdust is an excellent option for insulation for the floor. But before that it is required to fill the floor with hydrated lime to avoid the appearance of ticks and fleas. The litter itself can serve as a source of heat. How to properly organize such natural heating is shown above in the subsection "Without the use of electricity."
Materials for the inner lining of the hen house can be very different: board, plywood, drywall, OSB (OSB), lime-coated plaster. As a heater, mineral wool or foam is most often used - these are the most practical options.
You can still insulate the walls using sprayed polyurethane foam, but it is quite expensive material, besides for its application requires special equipment and certain qualifications of the performer. You can make insulation yourself - a mixture of clay and shavings, which plastered walls covered with shingles. Mineral wool can be laid both outside and inside the house.Thermal insulation of walls with mineral wool The sequence of actions for wall insulation is as follows:
- First make a crate of bars with a section of 50x50 mm, which are attached to the walls vertically. Bars must be installed in the corners of the room. The distance between the bars should be made slightly less (about 30–40 mm) of the width of the sheets of insulation - this will ensure its tight installation.
- Further, a vapor barrier film is laid on the walls with the help of a construction stapler with overlap; it will prevent the penetration of moisture from the outside.
- Then mineral wool is laid, it is fastened to the wall with “fungi” (fasteners with a wide hat). Outside, it is again covered with a layer of vapor barrier film.
- The wall is usually not left in this form - the insulation is sheathed with plywood, clapboard, etc. The material is fixed to the batten bars.
The same technology can be used when using foam as insulation. Joints between the sheets of foam can be sealed with foam. Since chickens quickly peck foam, it is sheathed outside with any suitable material. When insulating walls with this material, you can do without crates. To do this, perform the following actions:
- Foam sheets laid on the floor, primed and plastered (cement plaster).
- Three days later, the foam is attached to the walls, using for this "fungi" - fasteners with a wide plastic cap. The gaps between the sheets are sealed with foam.
- The foam is again covered with plaster, then the plaster is whitened.
- 3 mm plywood painted with oil paint on the inside
- then 10 mm foam sheets,
- the next layer is made of 20 mm board,
- outside the chicken coop is upholstered with galvanized iron.
Heating and warming of the hen house
The temperature in the chicken coop in winter should not be below +12 C. It is better if it can be maintained at +16 - +18 C. Between the heat and the productivity of laying hens there is a direct relationship. If you want to indulge your household with a fresh dietary product all winter, do not allow your chickens to freeze.
To solve this problem you need:
- To warm the coop for the winter,
- Make it an economical heating system.
To preserve heat, different materials are used: mineral wool, foam plastic, ecowool, perlite, sawdust. They are laid in the walls of the frame construction at the stage of external cladding.
Well keep warm blocks of gas and foam. They are often used for the construction of poultry houses.
Supporters of natural wood choose the option with the use of timber. Such a house looks great and retains heat well.
Heating a chicken coop in winter can be done with:
- Warm electric floor,
- Wood-burning mini-furnace (metal long burning),
- Infrared heater or electric convector.
Heated floor can be called the best option for heating. There are several reasons for this. First, this system eliminates the litter and air from dampness. Secondly, it is possible to automate the work of heating by installing a thermal sensor and a relay. They disconnect the heating cable at the moment of the set temperature, saving energy and preventing overheating.
In a large room, designed for 20 or more chickens, you can install a wood stove, working on the principle of glowing burning (pyrolysis). On one tab of the fuel, it will maintain a positive temperature all night.
In small winter houses (5-10 chickens) infrared electric heaters are installed. They create a comfortable dry heat, directing it to your chosen area of the room (perches, nests).
Practice shows that the combination of effective insulation and heating gives an excellent result. With minimal energy consumption in the coop, the optimum temperature is maintained.
Additional help in heating the bird can be obtained from the sun. To do this, when building a chicken coop, it is oriented so that one of its long sides faces south. Hermetic windows are set in this wall. The contribution of daylight in the air temperature reaches 2-3 degrees.
Sunlight is also of great importance here. When making a drawing of the building, note that the total area of the window openings in it must be at least 1/10 of the floor area.
Unfortunately, the winter day is short (7-9 hours). Therefore, the duration of the light period has to be increased to summer indicators (14-16 hours) due to artificial lighting. Its total power and points of installation are selected so as to achieve an optimal level of brightness.
Despite the cost-effectiveness of LED and fluorescent lighting, many owners of winter houses still use incandescent bulbs. They give soft radiation, whose spectrum is close to solar.
The poultry does not like too much light. She becomes irritable and restless. Therefore, do not overdo it in this matter. For a room designed for 10 chickens, a 60-watt incandescent bulb is sufficient. It must be installed in a sealed cover and hang over the feeders. In the perch area in this case there will be muffled lighting, ideal for resting birds.
In winter, the lights are turned on at 6 am and turned off at 8 pm. You can automate this process using a time timer (electronic or mechanical).
Is it necessary to build a warm chicken coop?
From the end of autumn to the first month of spring, unfavorable conditions for chickens come, which creates difficulties for bird owners.
If in spring and summer, the chicken is active: it moves, digs in the ground, bathes in water, then in winter, for many reasons, its activity decreases.
Summer coop does not need additional insulation and lighting
When the temperature drops, and the light day is shortened, the ability to lay eggs in birds decreases, or even completely stops. Therefore, it is important to make a chicken coop, which in winter will provide:
- temperature level not less than 12 degrees and low humidity,
- artificial lighting - to increase the daylight hours,
- the presence of low perches and laying eggs,
- The internal area of the room is 1 m 2 for 1–7 individuals (depending on the breed).
Providing these requirements will allow poultry to comfortably spend the winter without losing weight and laying eggs daily.
A properly built chicken coop can significantly increase the egg production rate of birds.
Options for warm chicken coops for the winter
Standard chicken coop - utility room, next to which there is a place for walking birds.
The site has a fence made of a chain-link mesh with small cells, protecting chickens from predators. If the farm is not more than a dozen birds, then this is ideal. Perhaps the arrangement of the chicken coop and with a high level of comfort, with outdoor and indoor walking area, but then it will take a large area. This option is not suitable for small plots.
The winter chicken coop is built on a foundation, on which a thick wooden floor creeps, and the place of walking is covered with a roof.
Considering the number of individuals, these types of chicken coops are used:
- From 10 to 15 individuals - a mini-chicken coop up to 10 m 2 with a walking area of 4 m 2. This area will provide free movement and adult birds, and young, in the case of breeding chicks. Also be sure to be equipped with a window and ventilation grille. Mini chicken coop is equipped with a covered walking area and a box for collecting eggs.
- From 20 to 30 individuals - a full-fledged room up to 20 m 2, 1.8 m high and 6 m 2 walking area. These dimensions allow you to build a perch in several tiers and install up to 7 nests. If the area of the plot is enough, then it is better to build a chicken coop with a vestibule: it will provide the necessary temperature in the main room in winter. Зимний курятник желательно построить с тамбуром, чтобы оградить кур от сквозняка
- More than 50 individuals - a room of about 40 2, up to 2 meters high and a paddock of 12 m 2. Such a chicken coop requires additional thermal insulation, ventilation and installation of heating equipment. It is better to place the perches in front of the windows, and the nests (in the amount of up to 10 pieces) - in the depth of the room. Large chicken coops are erected on high stilts, and the place of walking is done under the room.
If the area of the plot allows, the chicken coop is equipped in a fully enclosed area, inside of which there will be a walking area, which will prevent the bird from overcooling and ensure its free movement even at low air temperatures in winter.
The winter house can be completely closed, providing chickens with a warm place for walking.
When a chicken coop is required with minimal costs, there is a construction option according to the type of dugout. The height of the walls in it does not exceed 0.5 m, and for warming they are covered with earth. The roof is also insulated. The southern wall is equipped with windows with multi-layer glass. And the fallen snow provides thermal insulation.
Another of the low-cost options is a poultry house, made by frame technology: from a bar of small section, sheathed with plywood sheet, OSB, planed boards. Between them fit the insulating material, its thickness depends on the climate. For protection against rodents the heater is sheathed by a grid from metal. This increases costs, but later to bring rodents - even more expensive. During construction, it is better to follow the rules for the construction of frame houses.
In winter, the hen house is obliged to regulate the level of humidity, which is ensured by the installation of ventilation.
The best option for a warm house is a tree. At frame construction the timber is sheathed in dense rows of sheets of OSB, hiding the gaps. When construction is carried out with the help of a brick or a cinder block, good thermal insulation is necessary, since the brick has a high level of thermal conductivity. What material will be used for the chicken coop depends on preferences and financial possibilities.
Insufficiently insulated roof will become a source of heat loss and increased humidity in the room, and the cost of heating the chicken coop will increase. For insulation, it is recommended to sheathe it from the inside with foam or felt. Above the platform for winter walking is the capital roof - the continuation of the roof of the chicken coop itself.
For the winter period, a chicken coop with a gable roof is preferable so that snow does not accumulate on it.
Often, when building the walls of the house, wood is used because of its environmental friendliness and low thermal conductivity. Even if the frame is erected metal, then it is better to use the lining.
To facilitate continuous cleaning inside the chicken coop, its floor is made by pouring concrete. The service life of such a floor is long, but it requires good thermal insulation so that birds do not freeze through. The wooden floor in winter is additionally treated with special moisture-resistant compounds, and on top it is carpeted with a thick layer of straw and hay litter.
The floor in the chicken coop can be made concrete, but it must be laid down with a thick layer of straw
To give the whole structure of the chicken coop rigidity and strength, in order to avoid distortions of the walls and the appearance of gaps, as well as to raise the walls themselves above the ground, they perform a light strip foundation. It also allows you to keep warm in the winter.
The following materials are used for the construction of the main wall:
- Shellfish - porous limestone of natural origin with a low level of thermal conductivity. Most suitable for the construction of a chicken coop for 25-30 individuals. The standard block size is 18x18x38 cm. It is laid using the technology of masonry foam block or cinder block. Limestone walls are built quickly and retain heat well.
- Foam concrete is a common material that is harmless to health. Restrictions on the size of the building has not. D400 foam concrete, the block size of which is equal to 20x30x60 centimeters, is optimal for building walls. The thickness of the masonry is determined by the climate of the area. You can build a chicken coop out of foam concrete very quickly, observing the technology of laying
- Brick - building materials with low thermal conductivity, durable. It is optimal to build large chicken coops with bricks. The brick can be both corpulent and hollow. Brick walls of the chicken coop can be sheathed from the inside
Given the life of the coop, the material from which the walls will be constructed is determined. For the novice poultry farmer, wood and plywood are the best choice. Over time, it is possible to dismantle the structure or, on the contrary, add an additional area. And if you are breeding a large number of birds and build a chicken coop for a long time, then it is better to choose a brick or foam concrete. Also be sure to need insulation - foam sheets, mineral wool rolls or other modern material.
For the purpose of thermal insulation of the construction, natural insulation materials are also used: the walls are insulated with straw and hay, and the floor and ceiling are covered with coarse clay of a large fraction. There is only one negative side to the use of such heaters in comparison with modern materials - these heaters have a high thermal conductivity, which requires the use of them in a large volume. And this is difficult in the construction of the house.
Detailed characteristics of modern building materials for thermal insulation:
- Polyfoam - a material with good insulating properties. It has a cellular structure. Thermal conductivity is only 0.047 W / mK, which is lower than that of foam concrete, brick and wool. Sold in the form of sheets of different sizes. Easy to attach. The main drawback - susceptible to damage by rodents. To solve this problem, the foam is sheathed with sheets of plywood or OSB. The foam has good thermal insulation characteristics and is often used as a wall insulation.
- Mineral wool - has heat and sound insulation properties. It has a fibrous structure. Thermal conductivity is slightly larger than that of the foam, but it is not susceptible to damage by rodents. It is recommended to use in conjunction with waterproof and windproof film. Mineral wool is resistant to damage by rodents, but absorbs moisture from the environment
- Extruded polystyrene foam - a material having a closed cellular structure, manufactured by the polystyrene foaming method. It has a long service life and excellent insulation characteristics. In its properties surpasses almost all existing insulation materials. Styrofoam has a long service life, but with long-term use inside the room is harmful to health through the respiratory system
- Styzol - is a foamed polyethylene. It has high thermal insulation and sound insulation properties, is not exposed to moisture, durable. Available on the basis of metallized film, foil or non-woven fabric. The optimum thickness at application is about 1 mm. Styzol is used in construction as sheet insulation
When choosing insulation, it is important to consider what area it will cover. If the structure is small, use styzol or any material of polyethylene foam. For structures containing 50 or more birds, it is desirable to combine materials: if the wall is insulated with expanded polystyrene, the floors are insulated with expanded clay. And when minimum costs are required during construction, foam plastic and mineral wool are used.
Creating a project for the construction of a chicken coop, it is required to determine where the heater will be installed: if it is planned as an interior decoration, then during calculations it is necessary to increase the overall dimensions of the structure by the thickness of the pledged material.
The width of the foundation to be laid should slightly exceed the thickness of the future wall. At the same time the wall is installed exactly in the center of the foundation. The foundation of concrete additionally provides insulation and will protect against:
- exposure to moisture on the structural elements of wood, increasing the service life of the building,
- access to the coop of predators and rodents, which is easy to dig a hole under the ground.
There are other ways to protect against the penetration of unwanted predators:
- perform the foundation up to 30 cm,
- put the structure on concrete pillars, raising the floor to a height of 25 cm from the ground,
- to cover the walls with metal sheets, burying one edge of the sheet to a depth of 35 cm.
During construction, it is necessary to run several windows on the southern side of the hen house for natural lighting. But they should not be a source of draft.
Since in winter time chickens try to settle down as closely as possible to each other, their placement is organized according to the rule: 1 m 2 - by 4–7 individuals. If meat breed is grown: 1 m 2 - for 3 individuals. For laying hens: 2.5 m 2 - for 10 individuals. The height of the room is no more than 1.8 m.
For the winter inside the chicken coop, it is recommended to make a vestibule between the entrance door and the main room for birds, providing additional protection against low temperature and drafts.
The size of the chicken coop depends on the number of birds.
For the independent construction of a warm chicken coop you will need the following:
- poultry house design with precise drawings and sizes,
- building materials for formwork installation and foundation casting,
- locksmith and construction tools,
- building materials for the construction of premises for birds.
Self-production of the chicken coop: step by step instructions
At the very beginning of construction, the layout for the foundation (base) of the chicken coop is carried out using wooden pegs and a rope stretched between them. The foundation of the fence area for walking is carried out together with the foundation of the chicken coop.
- Dig a trench under the foundation. The design of the chicken coop does not have a large mass, so the foundation is made of a ribbon or columnar to a depth of no more than 45 cm. However, the use of a columnar foundation will lead to greater costs for thermal insulation of floors.
The foundation for the coop can be tape and columnar
- At the bottom of the trench, rubble is poured and compacted first, followed by sand, creating a so-called pillow (the thickness of the total layer should not exceed 5–10 cm).
- Mounted formwork for pouring the foundation. The height of the formwork is equal to the height of the foundation. The upper edge of the formwork serves to level the poured concrete. It is necessary to make the foundation according to all the rules, so that it does not warp and prevent cracking after drying.
- Armature is laid inside the formwork and tied at the corners with steel wire.
- Concrete is poured into the formwork, leveled on the surface until cement jelly is formed and covered with film. During the week it needs to be watered daily with water to prevent the occurrence of cracks.
In 20–28 days, when the foundation has gained the required strength, you can proceed to the construction of the chicken coop. A waterproofing layer is laid on top of the foundation to protect the structure from moisture.
From the place above which the floor of the chicken coop will be located, the top layer of the soil is removed, then sand is poured and compacted there, and a layer of expanded clay is laid as a heater. A grid is rolled over the clay and a screed is made using cement mortar. The thickness of the floor screed should be 2 cm. For several days, while the screed solidifies, it is necessary to water it. It is recommended to carry out a coupler with a slope of several degrees, which will ensure free flow of water when cleaning inside the chicken coop.
For a comfortable stay of chickens, the floors in the hen house are covered with boards.
Arrangement site for walking is done in different ways: either poured concrete, or sheathed board.
Sawdust, straw, hay are used as bedding. Usually, during the cold period, the litter does not change, and each time a new dry layer is poured over it. So it turns out natural floor heating due to warm litter mixed with dry litter.
Another option for setting a walking place is to preserve the natural ground, which will allow the bird to continue to look for insects, seeds and stones.
You need to think in advance what kind of floor will be in the place of walking birds.
The sequence of work is as follows:
- Before erecting the frame, it is necessary to decide what construction will be the roof. Often, to reduce labor costs, the roof is made shed. Then one of the walls is erected of greater height, and the upper crown of the side walls is made in accordance with the angle of the roof. After determining the height of the chicken coop and the amount of slope of the roof, a frame is erected. Its construction begins with the laying of timber (cross section of at least 10x15 cm) on the surface of the foundation. The timber to the foundation is attached to the anchor bolts, and between each other the bars are joined using corners or plates of metal.
- In the corners, the timber is vertically installed and fixed to the lower chord with the help of the same corners or plates.
- The vertical horizontal belt is also attached to the vertical bars. On the outer side of the frame there is a crate of wooden slats or slats of a small size, on which the insulating material will be laid. The crate is fixed with horizontal stripes on the corners or nails.
Frame construction is the simplest: it is easy to build such a chicken coop alone
- With the help of the same beam, openings for windows, entrance doors and miniature doors for bird exit are formed.
- On the upper horizontal belt of timber stacked rafters for the roof. The step of laying the rafters is equal to the size of the roll or sheet of insulating material.
To the rafter nailed crate of unedged boards or sheets of plywood. A special vapor barrier film or polyethylene is installed and fixed on the crate. The film spreads overlapped, and the seams are glued with adhesive tape. Thermal insulation material (mineral wool) is laid on it, and on top of it is covered with waterproofing.
Most often, the roof of the chicken coop make shed due to the simplicity of its device
Further, through the waterproofing to the rafters, the transverse strips are nailed with the necessary pitch, which depends on the type and size of the roofing material. If soft roofing is used, then over the planks plywood or sheets of OSB, on which roofing material is laid, must be laid. If slate is used, then wood paneling is not needed.
After completion of the roofing work, the frame is warmed with internal wall cladding.
Wall and floor insulation
Works are carried out in the following sequence:
- A crate installed on the outside of the frame from the inside of the building is laid with thermal insulation material - mineral wool or sheets of expanded polystyrene (the gaps between the sheets are filled with mounting foam). A film with vapor barrier and windproof properties is laid on top of the mineral wool. It is attached with a construction stapler to the timber.
In the winter hen house walls, floor and ceiling must be insulated.
- The horizontal crate is put again, but from the inside of the frame, so that the layer of insulation is inside the wall. The crate is mounted with a step smaller than the width of the roll by 4–5 cm.
- Edged board, plywood or OSB are nailed on the batten on both sides of the room, bypassing the door and window openings.
- Ceiling lining is performed: plywood sheets are attached to the rafters from the inside of the structure.
More as a heat-insulating material is sometimes used polyurethane foam. But for its installation specialists are involved with the equipment with which this insulation is applied to the surface of the walls. The use of polyurethane foam is expensive, but the application process is not labor-intensive and provides maximum protection from the cold.
Sheathing a winter chicken coop outside can be trimmed board or other facade material, except plastic, as it does not tolerate extreme cold
Concrete floor, even with a pillow made of expanded clay, does not ensure the safety of heat inside the chicken coop in winter. For this, the floors are additionally insulated.
You can lay an infrared film on the floor and make a cement mortar on it. This heating system works both periodically and regularly, providing the desired temperature in the chicken coop. Or you can use a less expensive option: cover the floor with wooden boards. These shields are tightly fitted boards attached to logs. In winter, plant litter is up to 15 cm thick to increase floor warming, while in summer they are removed from the hen house, cleaned and disinfected.
The arrangement of the chicken coop should be such that the birds feel comfortable both in winter and in summer
Sometimes, electric heaters are placed on the walls inside the chicken coop, and the installation sites are protected with heat-resistant materials. But more often under the ceiling hang infrared lamps.
There must be windows in the house structure. Despite the fact that they are a source of heat losses, it is impossible to refuse their presence, since the influx of sunlight is required to preserve the health of birds. Поэтому в окна встраивается тройной стеклопакет, а для безопасности птиц на стёкла устанавливается сетка.
В зимнее время обязательно нужно обеспечить продолжительность светового дня не менее 14 часов. Это осуществляется при помощи искусственного освещения. А при установке системы автоматического включения/выключения вы избавляетесь от лишних хлопот по уходу, хоть и затратите на это дополнительные средства.
Lighting can be heating, but should be safe for birds.
At first, individual individuals will settle for the night directly on the floor. It is not dangerous if the floor is insulated and sprinkled with chips or hay. Over time, the birds will become accustomed and with the onset of darkness will begin to roost. But it can be done differently: wake up the birds early in the morning, including the lighting for this, and with the sunset let them fall asleep.
Making the persecution
Perches are made of timber with a section of approximately 4x4 cm or 6x4 cm.
All corners are grinded in a rounded shape, and the surface is smoothed to a smooth condition so that birds do not injure their paws. You can also use a tree branch as a perch.
If several perches are established, then the distance between adjacent planks should be about 30 cm in width, and 20 cm in height. A small ladder is attached to the lower perch for convenience.
Perches are fixed either between two walls or in the form of a ladder set across the room.
To establish perches, you must:
- To determine the place and height of the perch installation - attach one or several slats near the window at a height of 0.5–0.7 m from the floor level.
- Measure the width of the chicken coop and cut off the required amount of timber.
- On opposite walls to beat the pieces of the board at 0.5 m with cut grooves under the perch.
- In the grooves set perches and secure with screws.
Nests for laying eggs are made in the form of a half-open box, assembled from a bar, planks or plywood. And sometimes ready-made plastic boxes are used as nests. If the nests rise to a certain height, they are mounted on supports.
To the nests down a ladder for easy movement of birds
Material for construction
Such a room as a chicken coop should be cheap, which means that it can be built from any materials at hand. In other words, a chicken coop is a budget option and can be easily implemented. The cheapest option is a half dugout, when walls rise to a height of 0.5-1 meters above the ground level. At the same time, the depth of the dugout can be 1 meter or a little deeper, so that you can be in the hen house to its full height. The part of the chicken coop that rises above the ground can be mounted in part from glass located on the south side, and the rest from any building material. In addition, to make the coop warmer, all sides except the southern one are covered with earth. If we consider that a layer of snow will be added in winter, the room will be quite warm.Those who are seriously going to breed poultry should think about building a chicken coop from foam concrete: it is light, warm.
As an option, the room for the chicken coop on the basis of a wooden frame, sheathed on all sides with plywood or chipboard. After that, the insulation is laid and from the inside again everything is sewn up with the same material. How thick the layer of insulation is planned to be laid depends on the region.
If you build a chicken coop from logs or from a thick beam, then in the middle lane you can do without additional insulation.
With the onset of winter, the problem with warming arises quite acutely. Almost everyone needs warmth: people, animals, and birds. The warmer the conditions for domestic animals and poultry, the more efficiency you can expect from them. As a rule, with the onset of winter, with the first cold snap, the laying hens cease to actively nest until they adapt to new conditions. But it is not necessary to wait for them to start flying again, although not so massively, but to make sure that the poultry feels comfortable even in extreme frosts. This not only does not reduce the intensity of the appearance of eggs, but also saves the bird from hypothermia, which is fraught with the appearance of diseases.
Therefore, only the responsible owner will go therefore not easy, besides, also a costly path. Despite this, there are a lot of techniques that do not require additional costs, but require desire. The simplest version of insulation is the use of mowed, and then dried grass, as well as tops of various garden crops, with which you can simply and easily warm such premises for the winter. It is enough to build a small frame around the chicken coop and then simply lay a gap with dry grass, dry tops and dry stems. With the arrival of spring, all such insulation can be burned, having received valuable fertilizer for the garden.
Tips on arranging a chicken coop in cellars or basements
There are some features of the arrangement of the chicken coop in the basement:
- Use litter - Sawdust or hay is used. Replacement of litter from sawdust occurs once every 6–7 days, from hay - once every 3-4 days.
- Lighting - mounted electric lamp on LEDs with a capacity of more than 5 watts. With the help of a lamp, the required day length is ensured: the longer it is, the more chickens will lay eggs.
- Insulation - cotton wool or any rolled insulation with a thickness of at least 5 cm is used. The use of a waterproofing film is mandatory.
- Ventilation - set the draw and exhaust channels. Periodic direct airing of the premises is carried out.
- Internal arrangement - nests are made of timber, sheathed with plywood. One nest is used for several chickens and is approximately 40x40 cm. Rests are mounted at a height of at least 50 centimeters. It is allowed to connect the perch and nest, putting a board between them.
Care after the winter: how to handle the walls
Sanitary treatment of the house is performed annually with the onset of warm time. This prevents the spread of infectious diseases among chickens.
During disinfection is carried out:
- Cleaning - all surfaces of walls, ceiling, floor, perches and nests are cleaned of dirt with a hard brush and broom, and then washed with a solution of soda ash in hot water.
- Surface treatment - special tools are used (2% caustic soda solution or 4% xylonaph emulsion). When preparing solutions, you should strictly adhere to the recipe and be sure to use personal protective equipment.
After treatment, let the chicken coop dry completely for 5–6 hours, carefully ventilate the room.
Building a chicken coop is a simple task and completely solvable on its own, without the involvement of third-party specialists. It is only necessary to study this instruction well, and also to read the advice of other people engaged in breeding poultry.
Area, size and layout
For winter housing per hen should be at least 0.5 m2 of floor space. Based on this norm, it is easy to calculate that the area of the house for 10 chickens should be at least 5 m2.
In addition, you need to choose the size of the walking area (cage). Here, one bird must account for at least 0.8 m2 of territory.
The layout of the house, designed for 20 laying hens, is similar to that described in the first scheme. The difference lies only in the size of the warm room and walking. They need to be proportionally increased, focusing on the norms of content (0.5 and 0.8 m2 per 1 bird, respectively).
If an incubator for chickens is placed in a warm house, it is better to choose a “linear” version of the layout.
The optimal ceiling height in the house is 2.0 meters. In the lower room it will be difficult to move, and in the higher room the energy consumption for heating will increase.
The length of the perch is important for the comfort of the bird. It is calculated on the basis of the norm of 30 cm per chicken. For example, placing 10 chickens will require perches with a total length of 10 x 0.3 = 3 meters.
The cross-sectional size of the bar also matters. Use for this purpose the material section 4x5cm grinded and with rounded edges.
If the perches are set in two rows, then the distance between them should be at least 30 cm. The minimum height from the floor is 60 cm. To facilitate the cleaning process, litter trays are placed directly under the perches.
The minimum size of the nest for laying hen is 30x40 cm. It can be made of plywood, OSB boards or boards. Choosing between open and closed nest option, you should give preference to the latter. In a closed bird feels more secure and rushes better. The number of nesting sections is calculated according to a simple formula: for 3 hens there should be 1 branch.
Placing nests inside the house is the best option. When choosing a compact layout, you can use the external installation of nested sections. In this case, they need to be well insulated and provided with a reliable roof.
Regardless of the quality of floor insulation, there should always be a fresh sheet of straw or shavings on it. It absorbs moisture well, collects droppings and allows chickens to do their favorite thing - to row their paws.
Remember that the bird can fight parasites that damage the feather. Your task is to help her in this matter by placing a box with ashes and sand for bathing. In order to feed and drinkers less polluted, they should be installed on a small elevation from the floor (10-15 cm).
An example of building a winter chicken coop with your own hands
The most affordable option for beginners is a wooden frame lined with clapboard and insulated with mineral wool.
Consider the step-by-step assembly of a frame hen house for 10 laying hens. Its base is a wooden frame of timber with a section of 10x10 cm, impregnated with an antiseptic.
It is not necessary to fill the strip foundation for light construction. It can be put on columns of masonry blocks (40x20x20 cm) as in the photo.
In order to independently build a winter chicken coop you need a drawing. On it you need to specify the overall dimensions of the building and the junctions of the structures (the foundation - the supporting frame - the frame - the roof).
Installation on the posts - a reasonable solution not only because of the savings of concrete. Natural ventilation of the underfloor space protects the wood from dampness and decay.
We mark with a tape measure the area reserved for the poultry house (2.0x3.0 m) and dig holes 40 cm deep under the foundation pillars. We pour ashore a gravel-sand mixture (drainage pad) 20 cm thick and seal it with ramming.
Put on the solution columns of blocks (one in the ground, one above the ground).
While the solution is gaining strength, you can do the supporting frame. A 10x10 cm timber will be suitable for its manufacture. Having assembled it according to scheme No. 3, we fasten an OSB board to the lower part of the timber along the contour. On her we will lay the floor heater.
Nests of installation of anchors are more convenient to drill "in place", setting the frame on the blocks. Having made a hole in the wood, we put a drill for concrete in the perforator and dive into the block by 15-20 cm. After removing the frame, lower the threaded anchors into the holes and put them in solution with monolith.
After giving the foundation a few days to build strength, we mount a frame on it and fix it with anchors to the blocks at the four corners.
Begin to build the frame. To do this, in the corners, in the middle part of the frame and in the installation site of the door, we put 7 vertical posts from a bar with a section of 10x10 cm, fastening them to the frame with steel corners. On top of the rack tying horizontal bar. It will serve as a support for the roof rafters.
Rafters are collected on a flat platform, connecting them in the ridge of the steel plate. Ridge timber will not be set. It will be replaced by a slab plate. It will securely connect the roof frame. Fixing temporary trusses trusses on the harness bar, fasten them to the OSB plate.
We lay shingles on the roof or other sheet material (ondulin, metal).
We lay the floor of the board "thirty", treated with antiseptic. On it we stack the plate of OSB.
We start the inner lining of the frame with waterproof plywood. Having finished this work, we insulate the walls, laying between the racks of the frame mineral sheets 10 cm thick.
Where in the building there will be a manhole for curia, we put a wooden frame with a sliding door, fastening it to the support bar. Making the outer skin, fasten the frame to it with screws on three sides.
We put the door and carry out the outer casing of the chicken coop with wooden or plastic clapboard. In the places of installation of supply and exhaust ventilation make holes of the appropriate diameter.
The installation of electrical wiring, ventilation, a lamp, an infrared heater, the installation of perches, feeders, drinkers and nests completes the work.
The ceiling is usually warmed with mineral wool or foam. The process of laying insulation is the same as described above for the walls: creating a batten, laying a vapor barrier film, laying insulation, installing a finishing material (plywood, wall paneling, OSP-plate, etc.). If there are ceiling beams on the ceiling, then these beams can be used instead of battens.
Doors and windowsThe windows in the chicken coop are made with double glazing and do not open, as they serve not for ventilation, but only for natural lighting.
In winter, the window can be further warmed by tightening the window opening with a transparent polyethylene film. The doors, both large and small, for the release of a bird, must be tightly closed. They can be insulated by padding.
So, it is necessary to prepare the chicken coop for the winter. Without insulation of the floor, ceiling, walls, windows and doors, proper organization of heating and ventilation, the conditions of stay for chickens will be uncomfortable. At best, they will survive in the cold, but fresh eggs can be forgotten for the entire winter period. Therefore, it is better not to save money and equip the house with everything necessary, especially since the results of these works will last for at least several years.