This year we have a big crop of table grapes, and I thought about preserving it, I decided to study the question: how to cook raisins at home. I read a lot of literature and concluded that there was nothing difficult in this, so I decided to share with you the knowledge gained.
Raisin - means dried grapes. Suitable for drying ripe sugary clusters. Depending on the grape variety used, as well as its color, the raisin is light, dark, small, large, with and without stones. Moreover, from seedless grapes it turns out - raisins, and from varieties with seeds - raisins.
The range of use of raisins, diverse, it is used in bakery and confectionery products (muffins, cakes, buns), compotes and drinks (kvass, fruit drinks).
Raisins useful dried fruit, and the dark is more useful than light. This is a very sweet product, it has a huge amount of fructose and glucose, which remain in the product after evaporation of moisture.
Dried grapes are rich in potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and vitamins B1, B2, B5, PP.
But at the same time, it is a high-calorie product, it contains 264 - 279 kcal per 100 g of product and overeating can lead to obesity. It is not recommended to abuse it to people suffering from obesity, peptic ulcer, acute heart failure, diabetics, due to the threat of provoking the exacerbation of these diseases.
Raisins, as mentioned earlier, can be prepared at home, if there is raw material and desire. It will differ significantly from the factory, the aroma and purity.
Dried grapes, basically, in four ways, which we now consider.
Drying grapes in this way, the most common, costs virtually no material.
- ripe grapes
- baking soda
- flat surface (pallet, roaster, wooden surface, mesh)
- gauze or mosquito net
- the sun
1. Bunches of grapes sorted, removing unripe, damaged and rotten berries. Sorted raw materials are washed, placed in a colander and blanched in soda solution.
2. For blanching, take a saucepan and boil water, add baking soda at the rate of 1 tbsp. on 1 liter of water. Colander with berries dipped in boiling water for 3-4 seconds. After that, immediately immerse in a bucket of cold water to cool, then rinse thoroughly with cold water.
As a result of this treatment, a waxy bloom leaves the berries and a fine mesh is formed, which helps speed up the evaporation of moisture during drying.
3. Prepared clusters, spread on a towel so that excess moisture is gone, and then they are laid on a sieve and taken out in the sun to dry.
You can do otherwise, remove the berries from the bunches, sort them by size, small ones separately from the large ones and put each fraction separately on a baking sheet, any flat surface, previously lined with paper (parchment). We put on a sunny surface, cover with gauze to protect from insects and birds.
4. Grapes are dried for 20-30 days, depending on the weather. It is recommended to bring pallets under a shed at night to avoid rain. Berries stirring occasionally, for uniform drying.
5. Dried grapes, put in an open box, stand for 2-3 days, then tightly laid in a hermetic dish and stored in a dry place.
Drying grapes in the shade
This method is most common in the countries of Central Asia, it is believed that the raisin retains the original color and all the vitamins. For this purpose, in these countries, special dryers are built from clay with a lot of ventilation holes.
- We sort and process grapes in alkaline solution, as in the previous method.
2. Treated bunches of grapes, put on a flat surface and put in piles, cover with something dense, it can be a tarpaulin, film. A sulfur checker or a sulfur wick is ignited beneath them, thus sulfur fumigation is produced for 45-50 minutes. This affects the appearance of the raisins, it turns out a beautiful view.
Then transferred to a permanent place of drying, stacked in piles, covered with mosquito fabric, periodically once every 3 days, turning clusters. You can processed and fumigated bunches, hang on the ropes and so dry.
3. Drying in the shade takes 20-30 days.
Drying raisins in an electric drier
Nowadays, to buy a good electric dryer for fruits, berries, is not a big deal. Drying in it saves a lot of time and labor and it turns out raisins are not worse than in the sun.
1. Blanch the grapes in soda solution and cool in cold water to stop the cooking process.
2. Then the grapes must be dried on a towel, thus removing excess moisture.
3. Grape berries are cut from Gronka, sorted by size and spread on drying grids, in a uniform layer.
4. First, turn on the dryer at 50 degrees and dry for 3 hours, then turn off. And so we do, until the berries become semi-soft, swapping lattices, the raisins will turn out evenly dried, dried, but not firm. Periodically check and remove the ready berries.
The rest of the berries, at a temperature of 50 degrees dry it without a break. A total of drying berries takes 34 hours.
The yield of finished products from grapes is: from 2 kg of berries, 450 g of raisins are obtained.
5. Keep the raisins in a closed glass container.
Raisins from the oven
Berries can be dried in the oven, but this is the most time-consuming way, and it is expensive. And given the weather conditions, heat, it is impossible to stay indoors for a long time.
But, nevertheless such method is.
1. Prepared berries, put on a baking sheet, evenly and put in a preheated 85 degrees oven. Leave the door slightly ajar to evaporate moisture.
2. When the berries are half dry, reduce the temperature in the oven to 70 degrees. In total, drying takes about 30 hours.
The composition of raisins:
Despite the fact that raisins are obtained by drying the grapes, it retains a number of useful vitamins and minerals that are originally contained in the grapes. The chemical composition of raisins is not too different from the composition of the grapes.
Among the minerals in the raisins contain: potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron and zinc. Raisins are also rich in vitamins, among which are: B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9), ascorbic acid C, tocopherol E, vitamin K. Vitamins and minerals that are part of raisins are necessary for the normal functioning of the body. Thanks to this, raisins are nutritious and beneficial to humans.
The calorie content of raisins is 265 Kcal per 100 grams of product.
Types of raisins:
Raisins can be divided into 4 types, which differ in color, size and number of seeds.
- Small and light seedless raisins - this type of raisins is made from white and green color raisins. This raisin is dried in two ways: in the shade or in the sun. In the first case, the raisins are called soyagi, and in the second bedon.
This type of raisin contains a lot of sugar, it is very tasty and nutritious. Especially useful for those who have weakened immunity to restore vitality and energy. Due to its excellent taste, this type of raisin has worked well as an ingredient for bakery and confectionery products.
- Dark seedless raisins - This is a classic look made from dark grape varieties. It is prepared by drying in the sun. Varieties stegany and avlon get a simple drying in the sun without treatment. Hermian variety by drying in the sun the grapes of the best dark varieties, with pre-cooking in alkali.
Dark raisins contain the greatest amount of nutrients, so it can be called the most useful for the body. It is a bit dry, has a sweet taste and a dark blue color. When using dark raisins in bakery and confectionery products, it adds to baking a nutmeg flavor.
- Light raisin with one bone - Classic medium-sized raisins, obtained by drying light grape varieties with a stone. It was most common in the USSR during the Soviet era. Due to the presence of stones contains additional useful elements. Some believe that the raisin with a stone has a richer flavor.
It is used not only in the confectionery and bakery industry, but also in other cooking, in such dishes as pilau, stuffed chicken, stewed fruit.
- Large raisins with a few bones - this type of raisin is prepared from ladies' fingers or germian grapes. This is the sweetest and most fleshy grapes. After drying, it gets a bright amber color.
This raisin is used in many areas of cooking. It is crushed and added to the composition of baking or curd mass, or used as a whole in morse or compote. It is noteworthy that even after boiling it retains its beautiful color and rich taste.
Production technology of raisins:
Raisins are prepared both naturally, by drying in the sun, and artificially, using temperature and chemical treatment. Naturally dried raisins have a less attractive appearance, as they are exposed to environmental influences during drying in the sun, but have more beneficial properties, since they are not artificially treated.
Natural raisins are produced mainly in the Mediterranean, South Australia, California and in Asia Minor, there are appropriate conditions for growing and drying grapes in these countries. The production technology of raisin in a natural way will include 7 stages:
- The grapes are harvested and placed in trays in which it lies between the beds for 3 weeks. Before drying, some grape varieties are dipped in alkaline solution for a few seconds to improve its properties.
- Dried grapes shift in the boxes in which he enters the plants.
- At the plants, dried grapes are put on a conveyor belt, on which it is cleared of twigs, washed from dirt, and additionally processed.
- Then the grapes continue to dry until it loses three-quarters of its original weight.
- Ready raisins are packed and sent to points of sale.
It is worth noting that the need to dry the grapes in the sun for 3 weeks after its ripening imposes certain restrictions on the country of the raisin producer. Not everywhere after ripening grapes is a good sunny weather without rain, so some use for the production of raisins temperature or chemical treatment.
Among the artificial methods of production of raisins can be identified:
- Drying raisins in a tunnel kiln with pre-placing grapes in soda solution to loosen the skin and more quickly dry.
- Drying raisins on racks using gasoline and gas burners.
- Fumigation of raisins with sulfur dioxide to protect against bacteria and pests. Also when smoked, the raisins become golden and shiny.
- Raisins grease and glycerin to give it shine.
Although artificial methods of making raisins make it more beautiful and attractive, they also add harmful substances to it, as well as reduce the level of minerals and vitamins. Whatever method is produced raisins, before using it should be well washed, soaking several times in water and draining water.
How to make raisins at home:
To accurately be confident in the environmental and safety of raisins, you can cook it yourself at home. There are several ways to make raisins from grapes at home:
- You can make raisins in the oven. To do this, the grapes must be washed and dried. Put the berries in a colander and dip them for 5 seconds in boiling soda solution prepared according to the principle: half a teaspoonful of soda per 1 liter of water for thin-skinned varieties or one tablespoon per 1 liter of wine for wine. After that, cracks will appear in the skin of the grape, through which water can evaporate.
Then heat the oven to 90 degrees Celsius, put the grapes on a baking sheet in a single layer and put in the oven. The oven door should be slightly ajar. After 10 hours, when the grapes are half dry, lower the oven temperature to 70 degrees Celsius and dry for another 20 hours. The process of cooking raisins in the oven will take about 30 hours in total. After the grapes have dried, you need to put it in a tightly closed box for 3 weeks to even out the humidity.
- Drying grapes in a dark and well ventilated area. If there is a well-ventilated and dark place at home, then you can make raisins there by putting washed and dried grapes in one layer on a wooden or paper surface and leave them for a month.
- Cooking raisins in a home electric drier for vegetables and fruits. In order to prepare the raisins at home in this way, it must be well washed and dried, then put in an electric dryer and set the mode as indicated in the instructions. This method of cooking raisins is the easiest for home conditions.
The benefits of raisins:
Due to the high content of minerals and vitamins, raisins are good for the health of most people. Raisins are rich in iron, thereby helping to fight anemia, which does not rarely occur in pregnant women. Raisins can also be very useful for children from one year old, as it contains calcium, which is involved in the formation and strengthening of bones and joints. There are many antioxidants in the raisins that kill the infection, so raisins are useful as a means of improving immunity.
Raisins help improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system and normalize the functioning of the nervous system. In general, raisins are useful for the human body, but it is impossible to use it excessively, except that it has a number of contraindications.
Harm of raisins:
Since raisins contain a lot of sugar and enough calories, it can be harmful to people suffering from diabetes and obesity. Contraindicated raisins and people suffering from gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as people suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis.
With particular caution it is necessary to use raisins and nursing mothers, although raisins contain many useful substances for mother and child, excessive consumption of it can greatly change the composition of milk and adversely affect the child.
To use raisins well in moderation, excessive use of them can harm the human body, for example, lead to excess weight and obesity, because raisins are very caloric. In addition, one should not forget that before using raisins, it is necessary to soak and rinse well in order to avoid infection that could have formed on the skin of raisins during drying.
Making raisins at home
In order to make the raisins tasty and fragrant, you need to carefully consider the quality of the raw materials, that is, the grapes. Berries should be juicy, ripe, but not overripe, have intact skin. You need to carefully examine the clusters to identify rotten and pest-prone fruits. Using small scissors to cut the berries from the twigs.
Then grapes should be poured into a basin and pour cold water. All debris will float to the surface and can be easily removed. The procedure must be repeated 2-3 times until the water is completely clean.
In a separate saucepan, boil 1 l of water. Add a teaspoon of soda.
Pour grapes into a metal colander and dip it in boiling soda solution for 30 seconds.
After half a minute, the berries along with the colander must be moved to cold water to stop their cooking. The purpose of this procedure is as follows. A weak alkaline solution and a contrasting temperature drop destroys the thin skin on the berries. It forms microscopic breaks. After that, the time of drying of the grapes is reduced by 2-3 times, because moisture cracks more quickly through the cracked skin.
Next, you need to thoroughly dry the berries. To do this, they can be laid out on a towel or scrolled in a special dryer with a centrifuge. Then grapes need to shift to the tray. Berries should lie in a single layer.
Drying raisins should be carried out in a well-ventilated, dry room or under a shed. Periodically (2-3 times a day), the grapes should be agitated.
If the trays are placed in the shade, then the raisins will preserve their coloring better, but it will take longer to dry. As the moisture evaporates from the berries, they will decrease in size and can be poured from several trays to one.
Can I make raisins from grapes at home?
For those who have never come across homemade blanks, the technology of drying grapes is a complex process that requires special equipment and professionalism. In fact, you can make raisins from fresh fruits at home by yourself. There are various recipes, following which, anyone can master the technique.
The best types of grapes for drying are called sweet varieties, such as black, white, or Kishmish pink. Another advantage of this grape is the small size of the grapes, which allows them to speed up the drying process. The dried product loses up to eighty-five percent moisture, while retaining the full amount of sugar.Raisins on a plate close up
Способы получить изюм
Сначала необходимо собрать урожай и подготовить его к процессу заготовки. Ягоды должны быть зрелыми, лишёнными различных повреждений. Сушить виноград можно по-разному. It is worth getting acquainted with various ways to choose the most convenient one. The main methods include:
- Natural drying,
- In the oven,
- In the electric dryer,
- With the use of alkali.
Production in direct sunlight
This method is not the fastest, but economical and affordable. The entire crop should be inspected, get rid of rotten, damaged berries, and then spread it out on a dry surface in the sun. Grapes do not need to shoot with brushes. Periodically, every few days, the fruit is turned over by the other side. The method involves drying to three weeks.Making raisins natural drying. Grapes dries from the ceiling on the ropes.
This method requires the removal of the fruit from the branches after the clusters were thoroughly washed with cool water. Excess moisture is brushed off from the brushes, after which healthy ripe berries are selected for cooking. Fruits to be removed:
- Affected by pests and diseases
Selected grapes descend into boiling soda solution for 5 seconds. This technique is needed for cracking the skin, resulting in moisture will evaporate faster.
After drying the grapes with a towel, they spread it on a baking sheet covered with baking paper. Drain the product when the oven door is open, setting the temperature to 50-60 degrees. The duration of the procedure is a total of 10 hours. Periodically it is necessary to take breaks, letting the berries cool.
Drying in the electric dryer
Washed grapes in a single layer laid out on the trays of electric dryers. The first stage of drying lasts eight hours. And every hour you need to change pallets. After turning off the device, you need to let it cool down and start the process again for eight hours. For large grapes of the two stages a little, you will need another one.
Some people use a different method: they increase the number of approaches, reducing the drying time to four hours. Break with this option is 2 hours. The total drying time varies from twenty to twenty-five hours, depending on the size of the berries.Making raisins in an electric drier
The method consists in the use of alkali. Grape bunches, if possible, fumigate with sulfur or sink for 10 seconds into the boiling alkaline solution. 40 grams of baking soda are used for 10 liters of water. After you need to quickly remove them, rinse with cool water and dry. Treated twigs with berries hang in the room. Boxes are set under them so that the ready-made raisins, falling from the brushes, fall into them. When drying by this method, direct sunlight should not be allowed.
This technique compared to natural drying in the sun reduces the cooking time by 3-4 times. After 5 or 10 days the fruits are ready for use.
How to determine the readiness of grapes
It is impossible to understand that the raisin was prepared, focusing only on the time indicator. The duration of drying varies depending on the type, size, method used.
The product at the outlet has the parameters by which its readiness is determined:
- The berries should not be sticky,
- The total weight and volume of the products obtained is several times less than the initial characteristics,
- When squeezing the raisins with your fingers, it does not emit any liquid.
For better preservation, dried fruits are kept at a temperature of 5-6 degrees and relative humidity of 60 or 70%.Check readiness raisins, hung for drying indoors
What is the best drying method?
The choice of method is influenced by many factors. For those who have their own vineyard, it is better to turn to sun drying or alkaline method. In the limited space of a city apartment, it is more efficient to get raisins using an electric dryer or oven.
To save dried fruits as useful as possible allows the method used in Asia. Winegrowers build special ventilated earthen houses in which clusters are dried in the shade. But before drying, such buildings are also treated with sulfur, because it can be called a kind of alkaline method.
Self-drying of grapes has advantages over its purchase in the store. The raisin obtained by this method meets the taste requirements of the person who procures it, and is also an eco-friendly, clean product.