Raising cattle for meat and milk is a profitable business. In order to increase productivity, the farmer must learn how to choose the right cows, because each breed has its own characteristics. Having information about the form - the rate of weight gain, yield and tolerance of climatic conditions, it is possible to significantly improve performance.
Cattle or cattle can be divided into 3 main types:
- Combined - meat and dairy.
Meat cattle breeds are grown for slaughter. Their distinguishing features are:
- Fast development,
- Low productivity
- Quick weight gain
- Earlier maturation in comparison with dairy breeds.
Meat species are kept both in pens and free pastures. You can recognize them by their special body structure:
- Rectangular elongated body,
- Rounded hips,
- Well developed musculature
- Thick skin,
- Height and weight more than dairy,
- Poorly developed udder.
The beef breeds of cows are divided into 3 main groups:
- Beef cattle direction of high productivity, which is rapidly gaining weight. Oily layer is present from birth. Their meat is juicy and rich in proteins,
- Slow-growing representatives of the meat direction are unpretentious in content, adapt well to the climate, rarely get sick, and are often used in breeding. They have not too fat meat, muscle mass prevails. The maximum height and weight they reach at the age of 1.5-2 years,
- Meat-type cattle, such as, for example, the Yakut individual, whose appearance was influenced by domestic species and the Asian zebu. They grow to a considerable size and feel great in a hot climate.
Meat breeds are fed with grass, hay, straw and compound feeds. Caring for a calf comes down to suctioning. At the age of 2 weeks, a baby cow receives hay and vitamins with additives to accelerate growth. The duration of the suction time affects the weight gain.
The Breed of the Shorthorn Cows is a cross between English, Dutch and Galloway. They are very beautiful, harmoniously folded, have a muscular body. Wool red color. Adults reach 500 kg, bulls - up to 1000 kg. But the head has its own disadvantage - low fertility. These animals are often sick and picky in their food.
Santa Gertrud breed
By crossing the shorthorn with the wild bull zebu, a new type of beef cattle was bred - Santa Gertrude. An Asian ancestor influenced its structure. As a result, a humpbacked cow with a wide and muscular body appeared. Santa Gertrude breed is unpretentious in content and food, perfectly tolerates heat. The humpback look is characterized by a muscular, large-sized body.
Santa Gertrud Breed
These are red cows with a little hump, the adult individual weighs up to 600 kg, and the bulls - up to a ton. A cow with a hump has an average milk productivity, but the meat yield is up to 65%. Humpback goby can be fattened even on poor quality feed.
Limousin breed of cows is well adapted to the climate, low temperatures, and grazing conditions on pastures. Limousin cows are distinguished by high fecundity and unpretentious content. Cows limousine strong body with developed muscles, strong limbs. Color is from light red to brown. In spite of the fact that it is a beef breed of cattle, it is a high-quality one.
Highland - a breed of cows, characterized by endurance, resistance to disease and calm disposition. Miniature cows appeared in Scotland. Externally, the dwarf Highlands are distinguished by large horns and long hair. Scottish mini cows are not only beautiful. Scottish cows are unpretentious in food and are able to find it everywhere. Miniature buren meat is valued for its low fat content and high palatability.
Cow with calf breed Highland
The dwarf look is distinguished by bangs and short legs. The Scottish cow is easily recognized by its yellow, red, gray-brown and white-gray colors. But sometimes the cow is black.
Dwarf cows have a pronounced maternal instinct and a gentle attitude towards calves. Scottish miniature cows are not afraid of the cold. Dwarf cows have a two-layer wool, which reliably protects them from frost.
Meat and dairy types
Meat and dairy species combine the features of meat species, but their indicators are more modest. From these individuals should expect good milk yields. Depending on the species, certain traits prevail.
The main characteristics of meat and dairy species:
- Harmonious physique
- Wide back
- Developed muscles.
Krasnogorbatovskaya breed of cows has a milk-meat orientation. This species was created by breeding Tyrolean cattle and livestock inhabiting the Oka river tributaries. Red Gorbatovskaya is distinguished by high immunity and excellent health, it is well adapted to the climate. Krasnogorbatov cows give up to 2755 liters of milk per year and have a good meat yield - up to 62%.
Red Gorbatovskaya found exclusively red suit. The bulls have a more saturated color. Representatives of the Gorbatovskys are not tall, but with a strong build. Red Gorbatovskaya unpretentious in food and conditions of detention.
Sychevskaya breed of cows - one of the most productive. Externally, the Sychevsk chick is easily recognizable by its spotty and light red color. But sometimes it's a red cow. Sychevskoy breed inherent strong build, wide back and large udder.
Sychevskaya breed of cows
Sychevskaya breed of cows reaches 600-1000 kg. These are high-lethal animals that rarely get sick and tolerate temperature drops well.
Bestuzhevskaya breed of cows - the oldest representative of the meat and dairy species. It appeared when breeding black-and-white, short-horn and simmental breeds. The bestuzhev breed has a dark red color, but it can also be light.
Bestuzhevskaya breed of cows
Bestuzhevskaya breed of cows has good meat qualities, and with proper feeding gives excellent milk yield.
The Yakut breed is short and massive with strong legs. Wool in Yakut cows is 3 times longer than the others. Yakut cows are unpretentious, withstand temperatures up to minus 60. Yakut Burenka has strong immunity against leukemia, tuberculosis and brucellosis. Yakut breed gives 60% meat yield. Yakut Burenka grows up to 300-500 kg.
Dairy types of cows, such as the red steppe, can be grown in a limited area. But they need high quality feed. Milkiness is passed along the line of the father.
Farmers know how to choose a cow. They estimate them by the size of milk yield per year and the fat content of the produced milk. They slowly grow, but their meat is quite suitable, therefore, when they reach 1 year, most of the animals go for slaughter.
The description of dairy cattle is as follows:
- Long torso
- High legs
- Smooth back with oblique ribs,
- Movable folded neck,
- Poorly developed muscles,
- Tightened belly
- Developed udder, digestive system, lungs and heart.
Burenka with calves will have to be separated from the first days. Youngsters are sucked from their nipples or buckets to maintain productivity.
The Dutch breed of cows has a strong, proportional figure, short legs and a large udder. Usually there are black and variegated. Breed refers to early maturity and productive. During lactation milk yield can reach 5000 kg of milk. Its fat content is up to 4%. The Dutch breed of cows is also productive in terms of meat.
Dutch cow breed
Dutch cows as well as other Dutch breed, Holstein, are demanding on the quality of food and conditions of detention. With poor care, they start to hurt, especially susceptible to leukemia and tuberculosis.
The Guernsey breed of cows was bred in England as a result of the interbreeding of the Norman variegated and red species and the British small red cattle. Guernsey cows have a dense build and thin bones. This is a brown, reddish or red cow, belly and legs, which is usually light, white. The Guernsey view is characterized by medium milk yield and production of full-fat milk.
Montbeliarda breed of cows belongs to the elite. She quickly adapts to any climate and is unpretentious in food. The Montbeliard breed of dairy cows is distinguished by its large size, powerful skeleton and proportionality of addition. Monbeliards are easy to recognize, as this breed of cows is usually red-mottled. Montbeliard cows are characterized by high milk yield and high quality milk.
The steppe breed of cows or the red steppe is unpretentious, quickly gets used to the climate and gives high milk yield. For individuals of this breed is characterized by a reddish color. A distinctive feature that has a red steppe - oblong, angular body. Steppe breed of cows with proper feeding gives up to 5,000 liters of milk per year. The red steppe is early ripening, but both calves and adults have mediocre meat qualities, even if they are well fed.
Black motley breed
The black-and-white breed of cows has a powerful proportional physique, a long head and an elongated face. Black and motley cows living in the central regions of the Russian Federation are larger and are often used as meat. Variegated individuals from the Urals are distinguished by a dry constitution. The black motley Siberian Siberian cow has more compact dimensions.
Fluffy Cow from Iowa
A fluffy cow from Iowa is different komolost, and does not apply to either the dairy or the meat. This hornless breed is decorative. Small fluffy individuals look like plush toys, and the description resembles pandas.
Fluffy Cows from Iowa
This beautiful animal is rarely found. Komoly cow participates in exhibitions. For a fluffy fur coat, care is needed - it is sheared in a special way. For small cows, light brown, black, red-brown, black or light brown with white color is characteristic.
Little beautiful burenka
Little beautiful burenka grows up to 135 cm, but its weight can reach 550 kg. The hornless bull will tighten on 800 kg. Komolye individuals are not adapted for milking.
The Watusi African cow is a wild species derived from extinct primitive tours. It has horns that reach a length of 1.8 m. The peculiarity of the wild breed is that the cooling of the body is done precisely by the horns. They have a network of vessels. Moving through them, the blood is cooled by air flow. And, returning to the body, it cools him. African cows are able to assimilate the coarsest food. This helped them survive in the wild in Africa and spread to other continents.
Recommendations for choosing
It is important for a farmer to know how to choose a cow in order to increase the productivity of his household and to establish meat or dairy production.
When choosing a calf or an adult breeding individual, you first need to decide for what purpose the animal will be raised. If to get milk, then you need to pay attention to what a young cow looks like. Her build should be strong. If the tribal heifers have coarse bones and skin, a narrow head and muzzle, a loose constitution, flat ribs, tense shoulders in the back, there is shilozadost and clawiness, then you should not take them. The main feature of a high dairy cow is a well-developed udder.
Many people do not know what a fodder cow is. Forage or dairy animals are called those individuals who currently give milk. There are also dry-lived individuals - those that should soon give birth. The dry period begins 2 months before the calf is to be born. Some believe that the dry-haired individual can be fed less and worse food, but it is not. Her health depends on how thoroughly she leaves during the dry period.
For successful breeding of livestock, timely detection of barley is important. Barrel is barrenness. A cow is one that has not become pregnant for 3 months after giving birth. Moreover, these individuals are fodder, they can be milked. In identifying a juvenile specimen, it is usually culled.
When buying breeding heifers of meat and dairy breeds take into account their characteristics:
- Mother's fertility,
- The quality of milk.
According to their development, cows and calves must be age appropriate. Buying an adult, pay attention to its health. A sick animal will not give much milk.
Choosing cattle of the double direction, you need to decide which qualities are in priority. From this will depend on the diet and conditions of detention. Of the universal breeds, the red cow is especially popular because of its unpretentiousness and good adaptive abilities.
White suit Charolais
Charolais breed bred in France. It is most common in Western Europe, North America. Charolais is diluted due to the high productivity of meat. Animals have a light color. The bulls are dark, gray-colored wool. The cow is white or gray, the coat color of the calf is of a clean, bright white color.
Charolais has a strong build, muscular body. Height at withers - 165 cm. Animals have a powerful chest and a wide back. The weight of a bull reaches 1500 kg, cows - 1100 kg. Charolais - hardy, eat any food. 3 months before slaughter, bulls are put on fattening. Meat is low in fat. It is lean. The fatty layer in animals is thin. It is recommended for children and adults who adhere to a dietary diet.
White cows have high fat milk up to 4%. Milk productivity of Charolais is no different. On average, 2700 kg of milk is produced annually. It is usually not allowed for sale, and is used for feeding the young.
Breed differs in good immunity. Animals rarely suffer from viral and infectious diseases. Caltrops pass without complications, despite the large fruit. The weight of the calf reaches 45 kg. The survival rate of the French breed of cows is 100%.
Charolais requires a lot of feed, but farmers note the effectiveness of feeding. The ratio of feed units to weight gain is 1: 5. This is considered a good indicator. Calves quickly gain weight. The increase per day is 1200 g. 2 calves are often born to cows.
White suit auliekolskoy breed
Auliekol cow has white color. The bull is white, has a thick coat. By winter, the undercoat becomes thicker. Animals tolerate cold and extreme heat. Auliekol breed was bred by crossing Charolais, Kazakh white-headed cow and Angus bulls. Externally, animals look like French Charolais. They have a powerful body, short limbs, have good endurance.
Auliekol breed of cattle has a meat orientation, but cows can produce milk up to 22 liters per day. The weight of a bull in 15 months is 1095 kg. Chick weight - 950 kg. The meat is marble, like that of the Angus. Fat layers in the fibers of muscle tissue form the corresponding pattern. This achievement of selector work of experts of Kazakhstan.
Milk has a high percentage of fat - 4.49%. It is used not only for feeding calves. It is eaten. It has a delicate pleasant taste. When growing auliekolsky breed of cows do not use supplements with antibiotics. Use feed and supplements without synthetic drugs. There are no antibiotics in milk.
Breed Cows Auliekolskaya
Calves are born with low weight, 22-25 kg. In the day they are gaining 1200 g. Youngsters need to walk in spacious pens since birth. Adult animals and calves should move actively. The quality of meat depends on it. Fattening bulls usually do not put so that muscle fibers do not accumulate fat.
The Aquitanian breed of KRS has a white suit. Some individuals have a light wheat color. Animals are strong and hardy. Muscles are clearly visible through the skin. The skin has a high elasticity and durability. It is used to make clothes and shoes. On the neck there are numerous folds of the skin. Animals have a long body, straight and wide back and chest. Legs strong, but short. Aquitanians withstand long pastures on pastures. Breed is estimated as meat.
The weight of bulls reaches 1.5 tons. Cows do not have such large size and weight. Their weight is 850 kg. Meat yield at slaughter 70%. This is a high figure. Calves are born weighing up to 50 kg. Per day they gain up to 900 g. In food, animals are unpretentious. No special care is required. Farmers use seasonal feeding. In the warm period they are left in open pens. In winter, they are transferred to warmed rooms, but they contain Aquitaine more often in a loose manner.
A cow of white Aquitaine milk of high fat content - 5%. For the year she gives up to 11 thousand kg of milk. This is a high rate for meat breeds of cows. Udder has a small bowl. Milk is used for growing calves and for sale.
Kostroma white color
Kostroma breed of cattle has a meat and dairy orientation. Animals love peace and constancy. They will show their high productivity if walking, feeding and milking will take place at the same time. Так же как и другие породы коров, костромская имеет крепкую и массивную конституцию. Животные способны найти себе корм в местах, где особи других пород его не отыщут.They eat not only grass, but also dry leaves, small branches, tree bark. However, they require certain care.
Cattle Kostroma breed well withstands cold and heat, but their productivity decreases. Experts recommend the use of seasonal feeding. In winter, animals are kept in a tethered way in equipped hangars. The temperature in the stall should not exceed + 10 degrees at a humidity of not more than 65%. The room must be dried. In the summer, the herd spends the whole day on pastures, but at the end of walking it is sent to closed pens. Animals do not differ wayiness and clearly follow the rules once and for all.
The weight of the Kostroma bull reaches 1200 kg on average. Cows have less weight - 800 kg. Milk has a high percentage of fat - up to 4%, provided that the animals are properly fed and kept. The daily diet consists of succulent and coarse feed. Vegetables, silage cow should receive 20 kg per day. She is given at least 6 kg of dry food and hay.
She drinks a lot of water, more than 70 liters per day. In the year Kostroma cow gives 10 thousand kg of milk. Her productivity remains high for up to 20 years. For breeds of cows meat direction is considered a high figure.
Different breeds of cows with photos and characteristics
For beef cattle, the medium or large size of the body with well-developed muscles, as well as a long, wide and deep body with rounded thighs (barrel-shaped), are characteristic. Top and sides of the body resemble a rectangle. Meat cows have thick, loose skin, with developed subcutaneous connective tissue. Examples of beef cows are shown in Figure 3.
Note: The Kazakh white-headed and Kalmyk beef cattle is adapted to the maintenance of dry steppes and semi-deserts in the regions. Animals are very hardy and have the ability to quickly accumulate internal and subcutaneous fat. Such a cattle for a long part of the year can remain outside the cowsheds, makes good use of pastures and is not demanding to feed, and is also distinguished by good quality of meat and high precocity of meat.
The meat breeds of Great Britain cows (Shorthorn, Highland, Galloway, Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus) are adapted to be kept on pastures, which must be located in certain climatic areas (coastal, continental). Animal data feed well from an early age. The meat has a high taste and nutritional properties.Figure 3. The main meat species: 1 - Kalmyk, 2 - Kazakh, 3 - Santa Gertrude, 4 - Averdin-Angus
Italo-French (Limousin, Kian, Sharolez) against the background of all beef cattle stand out for their large size and rapid growth. For example, a Kian sometimes can reach almost one ton of live weight, and manufacturing bulls weigh up to 1,800 kg.
Cattle species - Santa-Gertrude (bred in the USA) is very well adapted to stay in humid and hot climatic regions, and also resistant to infection with blood parasitic diseases. However, the milk productivity of this species is at a very low level and may not exceed 2 thousand kg over the course of a year. Growing calves is carried out using the suckling method (finding a calf near the mother cow until eight months of age).
Dairy types of cows are considered to be the most common in our country:
It was bred during the crossing of the Ural cattle with Kholmogory, the Dutch and Yaroslavl. Appearance resembles Kholmogory animals. The average live weight is 480 kg, and newborn calves up to 35 kg. Meat quality at a satisfactory level. It has high dairy efficiency in the presence of good feeding.
It differs well adapts to poor climatic and weather conditions, and also has a high resistance to various diseases. The drawbacks of animals are the significant heterogeneity of constitution and shades of color, the presence of external defects and the low level of habituation to the household.
Animals have a good adaptability to the peculiarities of climatic conditions, undemanding to the quality of feed used, have good productivity and fertility, resistant to diseases.
The Latvian breed of cattle was created as a result of long-term measures for crossing of cattle of low level of productivity with individuals of angelic and red Danish breeds. They are widespread in Latvia. The appearance resembles the red steppe, but they have characteristic milky signs, as well as angular forms of the body with thin bones. Red skin tint may differ in color saturation, and the head, neck and legs are dark. Animals have a high level of milk production, and milk has good taste. However, in milk production, it is inferior to black-and-white cattle.
Note: The animals are adapted to the climatic conditions of the Baltic States, and also well acclimatized in the southern regions of the country.
On the territory of our country, there are also other animals of red cattle, which are similar in origin and appearance. These include:
- red estonian
- red polish
- red Lithuanian
- red tambov
- Red Gorbatovskaya
- red belarusian
In addition to the above breeds, in Europe there is an Angel and a red Danish breed, which is characterized by high milk fat. They also have a high breeding importance and are used to improve all red breeds.
In our country, the red steppe breed is widespread and has more than 13 million units of livestock (located on the 3rd place after the black-and-white and simmental). During the creation of this species of cattle the following breeds were used:
- Gray ukrainian
- German red breed bulls
- Hybrid most common breeds in a particular area
The animals have a strong harmonious constitution, in which the bones are strong and light, and the body has bright signs of high milk productivity. Figure 4 shows examples of the red steppe breed.Figure 4. Red steppe breed of cows
Red steppe cattle has proven itself in the southern regions of the country, as it tolerates hot dry weather, is resistant to diseases and has a higher endurance compared to other types of cattle. However, animals can have disadvantages such as extrinsic defects and low body weight. In addition, the body of the animal may be angular, and the muscles are underdeveloped, which causes the unsatisfactory development of meat qualities.
Next, we consider the most popular breed of cattle meat and dairy direction of productivity.
Black and Motley Cow
It is the most common and highly productive breed in the world. It is bred in all CIS countries, because the livestock is very good physical shape: a wide back, a straight back, a straight leg setting and a strong skeleton, an enlarged glandular udder with pronounced milk veins (Figure 10).
Note: The weight of an adult black-and-white individual exceeds 600 kg, and at birth calves weigh approximately 40 kg. Animals eat green fodder from pastures, silage and haylage. They also very quickly adapt to a variety of climatic and natural conditions.
The pronounced affinity of this breed is manifested in the Estonian and Lithuanian black-and-white breed and in a number of others that have a characteristic tribal value.
However, such sub-species have the greatest tribal importance:
- Danish black and motley
- Swedish black and motley
- German black and motley
- British Friesian
The listed dairy types of cows are very similar in appearance. The disadvantage of this breed is a low level of proteins and fat in milk, however, the differences in this trait depend on each animal individually.Figure 10. Kinds of black and motley breed: 1 - black and motley, 2 - Holstein-Friesian, 3 - German, 4 - Dutch
When carrying out measures for the crossing of various dairy and dairy-beef breeds with bulls producing black-and-white breed of cattle, as a result of the born offspring, increased milk production is noted, the shape of the udder and teats is improved.
Cow of the Kholmogory breed
It is the oldest and most productive dairy breed. She was bred by continuous selection of northern cattle and crossbreeding them with the Dutch black-and-motley bulls. Externally, Kholmogory specimens are similar to black-and-white, but they have a more angular torso and less developed musculature (Figure 13).Figure 13. Dairy cows: 1 - Kholmogory, 2 - Tagil, 3 - Brown Latvian
The live weight of individuals may exceed 550 kg, and calves born 38 kg. For animals, a characteristic feature is disease resistance and good endurance, as well as they are adapted to the climatic conditions of the north-western and northern regions, they know how to use pastures effectively, they are unpretentious to the conditions of their keeping.
The species was obtained by crossing Hereford bulls with Kalmyk and Kazakh cows. The main quality is considered to be developed muscles and strong bones. Such indicators are signs of beef type cattle. The majority of representatives of Kazakh white-headed birds have a barrel-shaped body and a smooth upper line (Figure 19).
Advantages of white-headed breed:
- Good adaptation to different climates,
- Disease resistance,
- Good stamina
- Quality meat,
- Undemanding to feed.
In this breed emit generations of meat and dairy individuals, which give both meat and milk.
Representatives of the Santa Gertrude species have a broad muscular body with a well-developed dewlap, a deep chest and a slightly lowered butt. Dry and strong limbs, hoofs black. Ears are drooping, the back is straight, folds around the neck. The suit is red, it is darker and lighter (Figure 20).Figure 20. Santa Gertrud's Meat Cows
Cattle have a strong immunity to blood parasitic diseases. They tolerate heat well and are resistant to any climate change. For a long time they can eat dry grasses on pastures and do not require special care. Undemanding to the conditions of detention, so you can grow outdoors.
However, females of this species have low fertility, therefore it is difficult to breed them.
The Shorthorn breed comes from the Tisvaterskoy, which had dual uses - dairy and meat. She received the name “Shorthorns” because of her small horns (Figure 21).
External signs of shorthorn animals are:
- Torso rounded, wide,
- The head is small, dry, proportionally folded, the horns are small,
- Short muscular neck
- The chest is wide, deep, with protuberance,
- The back and loin are straight, muscular,
- The back is well developed,
- The hip part, sciatic tubercles and the sacrum have good musculature,
- Limbs short, set correctly
- Udder mean.
The colors of animals are varied: red, white and red-and-variegated colors.
The positive qualities include high milk and meat productivity. They are early ripening, growing rapidly with high productivity. The meat has good taste. Slaughter output is high.Figure 21. Representatives of the Shortgonese breed
When crossing, the shorthorns convey to other forks such qualities as ease of calving, good behavior, and rapid growth.
The disadvantages include: low fecundity, demands on living and feeding, vulnerability to diseases.