About bird cherry ( Padus ) there are different opinions - and good, and bad. In the old days they even used to say that it attracted evil spirits. No wonder that during its flowering a cold snap always occurs.
At one time, a real persecution began on a bird cherry - by the sign of the cross by the cross, people cut down trees with the words: “Go away, unclean!”
What scary? Do not be afraid. Even in the depth of the centuries, traditional healers knew about its medicinal properties, found an exile and prepared decoctions from all its parts — fruits, leaves, branches, and even bark.
For gardeners, it is interesting that bird cherry is often used in gardening to control pests: caterpillars, aphids, bugs. For this well helps infusion of young twigs and leaves of bird cherry at the rate of 0.5 kg of raw materials per 10 liters of water.
The disinfecting properties of this plant are well known - drop a fresh sprig into a glass of water, and all the harmful bacteria will die and the water will become fragrant.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to get a bird cherry on your summer cottage simply because of these wonderful properties.
In addition to benefits, we, gardeners, are also interested in beauty - after all, our garden should be attractive, and not at all for evil spirits, but for good people who love all life. Well, the bird cherry is endowed with external beauty - openwork crown, light foliage, regular, slightly sprawling form.
And flowering is like a dream, so unreal is the picture of what is happening: drooping racemes of brush, covering the entire crown with white veil, awaken the imagination. What is it? Snow at the end of spring as an addition to “bird-cold frosts”?
This snow splendor is accompanied by an unforgettable scent, which then lives in us for a year.
Rod Bird cherry has about 20 species. In nature, it is a rather large tree, with a height of 15 to 25 m. In central Russia, the most popular bird cherry, or bird cherry (Padus racemosa). This is a large tree with a uniform crown. Among the garden representatives can be identified Bird cherry Maak (Padus maackii). You can distinguish it by the unusual golden-amber bark, carved small-sized leaves, beautiful crown. Owners of a winter home and a large plot of this type is just right: the bright color of the bark attracts attention in the winter.
Popular varieties of bird cherry:
- Plena - large semi-double flowers.
- Albertii - abundantly blooming, with a cone-shaped crown.
- Purple Queen, Berg Redleaf, Summer Glow (Wandell) - red-leaved cultivars.
Experienced gardeners choose virgin cherry for their plot (Radus virginiana).
Under culture, it can be grown as a large shrub up to 6 - 7 m high.
She differs from the sisters even more unpretentiousness and winter hardiness. The fruits are particularly striking - large, red, darkening as they mature, with tasty, juicy flesh. It is the choice forms bird cherry virgin used for breeding full fruit cultivars.
Today, very unusual, attractive varieties have been created, which, if desired, can be purchased in Russian nurseries.
This krasnolistnye cultivars: bird cherry Colorata and h virgin Schubert. At the first when blooming young leaves shine with royal purple. Add to it unusual for the cherry cherry intense pink flowers, and you will understand how effective the picture. The truth is later, when the flowers fall off, the purple will also somewhat fade and change to a dark green, almost brown color, which is interesting in its own way. In the varieties of bird cherry Schubert Schubert burgundy foliage lasts throughout the season, but the flowers are typical for bird cherry - white, sometimes with a faint pinkish tinge.
In addition to these two famous cultivars, there are many interesting things in the world of bird cherry trees - these are attractive plants with weeping and pyramidal crowns with yellow, orange, maroon and black fruits. Well, if you search, you can find other decorative forms: with yellow spots on the leaves (wild cherry Aucubaefolia), with double flowers (part ordinary Plena), with dense, compact brushes (bird cherryAlbertii), with long, many-flowered brushes (hand cherryWatered).
It should be noted that the bird cherry is a large tree.
Not everyone can afford to land it on their site. True, the hybridizers have taken care of the owners of modest gardens - there is already a dwarf variety of h. Virginskaya (Raduavirginianavar.nana).
True, the bird cherry has unpleasant features: it is loved by pests - aphid, bird-cherry moth, bird-cherry moth and bird-cherry sawfly. It is necessary to fight this evil with the help of insecticides. Least of all they are affected virgin cherry. But the leaves and flowers of bird cherry emit so much volatile phytoncids that they purify the air around them, killing pathogens and even small insects - mosquitoes and ticks.
So “think for yourself, decide for yourself, to have or not to have.
All species of bird cherry can easily take pride of place in our list of plants for lazy gardeners, as they are unpretentious. Planting and caring for plants is no different from the farming of other trees and shrubs.
The bird cherry picks rich, moist soils, shading can endure, but the best place for it is a sunny meadow.
In the photo above - on the left is the Colorata bird cherry, on the right is the ordinary bird cherry.
Folk signs associated with the flowering of bird cherry
The tree blooms in May or early June. Flowers collected in oblong buds smell good and attract bees. Bird cherry beautiful melliferous. This is another of the reasons why they tried to plant them near houses or in private plots. The tree or shrub is widespread throughout Russia: from the European part to Siberia and the Far East. That is why, along with birch, can be considered a symbol of the Central Russian plain.Bird cherry in bloom
The most common type of bird cherry is also called wrist. She throws a brush of white inflorescences. Of the 20 varieties of wood in our area are cultivated 7. Of them stand out decorative species. Their unusually beautiful inflorescences, from yellowish multi-colored to terry pink, are used in landscape design to decorate garden and park compositions and garden plots.
But for most people, fragrant flowering symbolizes the renewal of nature and the spring optimistic mood.
The tree grows up to 15 meters. In contrast to the black-headed bird cherry with black fruits, the Virginian cluster of berries is colored dark red.. Blossoms in white inflorescences. The plant looks especially impressive in the fall. Leaves become maroon-red. It tolerates hot weather and winter. Loves wet soils and light. It propagates from seeds and root processes. A virgin bird cherry has several varieties by the type of fruit (black, yellow, light red). The shape of the tree is short and with lowered branches (weeping bird cherry).
More like a shrub, as it reaches a height of 5 meters. Unusual leaves, painted in spring in shades of purple and red, by the summer become green. In autumn, the foliage becomes red again. But especially beautiful plant during flowering. Lush pink inflorescences with a delicate aroma of almonds. Twigs and bark also have a purple hue. Allows shoots from the root, therefore it is easily propagated. Loves moisture, light, well tolerates winter. Like most species of bird cherry susceptible to spring frosts. Black fruits ripen by August.
The main area of growth is North America, but it took root in the temperate latitudes of our country. Powerful tree with a well-developed crown up to 20 meters . Bright green foliage in the summer, becomes yellow-red in the autumn. "Late" is called, because it blooms 2 weeks later, in late May-early June. Black round fruits ripen in late August. Fruits are two times larger than those of ordinary bird cherry, juicier and have no astringent taste. It is also called "rum cherry", thanks to the dessert flavor. It makes delicious liqueurs. The tree has high self-fertility, tolerates winter well, has a powerful root system.
Amazing shrub with powerful roots, which can live up to 200 years . It is not demanding on the soil, it can grow on stony slopes. Homeland is considered the Middle East and Europe. The value of this variety is that it is perfect for a stock of cherries, plums. Since the bird cherry belongs to the family of plum. The bush is used to strengthen the crumbling slopes. In the bark of the shrub contains coumarin, an aromatic substance that is used in perfumery. Small white blossoms cover the entire shrub during flowering, emitting a pleasant scent.. Fruits are small, black.
Well caught in the middle and northern latitudes. Differs abundant flowering. Dark brown fruits have a sweet-sour and tart taste. High yield and early ripening, winter resistance make the tree suitable for growing in cold climates. The tree height up to 5 meters gives up to 15 kg of berries.
Samoplodnaya and Sakhalin (Siberian cherries)
Early ripening varieties, the berries ripen in July, bred by Siberian breeders. Well tolerated frosts. Give a consistently good yield of up to 20-22 kg . Resistant to diseases. Easily tolerate spring frosts. Trees with a powerful crown up to 8 meters, bloom large white buds. Different varieties taste of berries.
Melkopilchataya Amanogova (Sakura)
The most beautiful flowering is Sakura Amanogova. Prunus refers to the genus of plums, on the basis of species to the cherry. Therefore, the famous Japanese Sakura is also a bird cherry. The small-blade Amonogova decorative dome-shaped tree. White and pink double flowers cover the whole tree. Unusually beautiful flowering and delicate aroma glorified sakura as one of the wonders created by nature.
Sori (Far Eastern, Ainu)
Beautiful powerful tree, reaching from 10 to 20 meters in height. The distribution area of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. When the buds bloom, they are painted in a red-purple color, and later become white. The length of the inflorescence is up to 15 centimeters, with a beautiful bell-shaped flower and a delicate scent. Large berries up to 12 mm.
The healing properties of the tree
In ancient times, healers knew about the healing properties of plants, which are contained in the bark, leaves and berries.
Therefore, actively used for the treatment of:
- phytoncides, which are contained in the bark of the tree, used in the form of decoctions or made tinctures. They shot the bark in thin stripes in the spring. Used as an anti-inflammatory, antifebrile and diaphoretic agent. Good help tincture with rheumatism.
- with lung diseases useful decoction of leaves and flowers. Infusion of colors treats the mucous membranes of the eyes. The bark is used to treat rheumatism,
- fruit storehouse of vitamins and beneficial elements. Vitamins P, the so-called flavonoids, strengthen the walls of blood vessels. Amygdalin (B17, most of all in the pits) is used as an antitumor and anticancer substance. Sugar, citric acid, ascorbic acid, malic acid, essential and fatty oils (in pits), mineral elements, including molybdenum and titanium, are contained in fruits. Therefore, they are used as a reducing agent in many diseases of the stomach, colds. Tanning and astringent fruits of fruits are used to combat diarrhea,
Thanks to these properties, the bird cherry has found application in medicine and home cooking.
Use in cooking
Bird cherry is widely used in cooking. By taste, the berries are inferior to their relatives - cherries, cherries and plums because of its slightly astringent taste and sourness, but they are good for the body and fragrant.
Dried fruit berries grind on flour. Used as an additive to bakery products. Baking gets delicate delicate flavor.
- of the bird cherry flour they bake a cake
- make delicious cherry kvass,
- based on it, make tinctures, liqueurs,
- Fresh berries are a great filling for pies,
- make jellies, fruit drinks, syrups,
- young leaves can be used for salads,
- make tea
- cooked jam.
Bird cherry tree is especially valuable for northern areas.where they cannot ripen berries that can be grown in temperate latitudes.
Prunus is widespread throughout our country. She pleases with flowering and delicate aroma. Used in medicine and cooking. Gardeners planted varieties of new breeding. In landscape gardening using decorative types of trees. With warmth and love poets and writers wrote about bird cherry trees.