All grape varieties have their own distinctive qualities, for which gardeners love them.
This concerns not only the taste characteristics and size of the clusters, but also zoning, growth, ripening and removal times, and rules of planting and care.
It is about these characteristics of the Kodryanka grape variety, which is considered the earliest variety, and we will tell you below.
We focus your attention on all the most important points that you need to know when starting to grow grapes, and also tell you about the beneficial properties of this variety.
Grape clusters "Kodryanki" - what is famous and what is different?
Attentive and vigilant gardeners of the Kodryanka grape bush will delight with very large bunches of grapes. In this way, the weight of one bunch on average is about 500-600 grams, but individual clusters can 1500 grams.
At the same time, in spite of their impressive mass, they are very firmly attached to the bush, so they can hang on it for a long time already in its mature state. It is worth noting that the berries are placed on the cluster moderately compacted, tearing them from the cluster is quite convenient, without damaging the neighboring ones. Characteristics of berries also deserve special attention.
Sizes of grape berries Codreanka varieties are very large, their average weight is 6-8 grams. The average height of the berries are 3.1 centimeters, and width - 1.9. The shape of the berry is most often found elongated or ovoid. The skin of the grape has a dark purple color, close to black.
The layer of pruine (wax coating that covers the surface of the grape berries) is quite large, but it does not compact the skin, but only serves as protection. Peel is actually not felt when eating berries in food.
Pulp the grape berry Kodryanka has a very good and rich grape flavor. In its structure, the pulp is very fleshy and juicy. Berries are also characterized by the presence of a small number of seeds, which, however, are able without a pipe to separate from the pulp. The content in the pulp of sugars is much higher than the amount of acid in it. Thus, the amount of sugars berries “Codreanka” on average is 18-19%, while acids - 6-8g / l.
Used grapes and winemaking, because it contains a large amount of juice and sugars. Dried fruits are not made from it, because it has seeds in the berries.
On the yield of grapes "Kodryanka"
This variety was fallen in love to gardeners and lovers of grapes, not so much in their taste as in large volumes of crops. And what should have been expected with such large berries and clusters. It is also worth noting that the bush in the Kodryanka grape variety usually has very strong growth and is distinguished by its large size. By the second year after planting or vaccination, it is already able to grow to impressive size and give first yields.
Terms of ripening "Kodryanki" come very early. As already noted, the berries of this variety ripen among the first. Their vegetative period lasts only 110-118 days. At the same time, it is worth paying attention that even before the onset of full ripeness of the berries, they already become fit for human consumption. In particular, already with grape sugar indicators of 12-14%, it acquires a very good taste.
Acidity at “Kodryanki” decreases very quickly. After ripening, the grapes and berries can remain hanging on the bush for a very long period of time, without losing both their external characteristics and taste.
The main advantages of the Codrean grape variety for which he is loved
- The variety is marked by a high degree of resistance to diseases characteristic of vineyards. The degree of damage to his gray rot and mildew is only about 3 points.
- The Kodryanka grape bushes have almost no fear of low temperatures. Even with frost rates of -23ºС, absolutely no damage was noted on the bushes.
- Clusters and grapes have a very high presentation, for which they are very much appreciated. Also, it is well combined with this characteristic that the clusters can be well transported, since the skin of the berries is very dense and they are practically not crushed when shaken. The shelf life of grapes "Kodryanka" long.
- Yields are very high, they occur regularly every year. At the same time, yields are not very susceptible to negative weather conditions, they do not decrease in their total number.
“The Codreanka variety is very well suited for cultivation in private areas.
The shortcomings of the variety and how to deal with them
Despite the fact that the overall yield indicators of the Kodryanka grapes practically do not decrease under any circumstances, yet it sometimes has pea berries may occur. This fact must be taken into account and take the necessary measures to prevent this. To avoid pea grapes, experienced gardeners prematurely use a drug such as gibberelin. With it, you can easily prevent not only pea, but also achieve the growth of large grapes without pits.
It is important to know:
Hornberry berries are considered significant flaws only if the grapes are intended for sale. Because of the pea, it loses its attractive presentation and is not so highly valued. However, on the other hand, thanks to pea berries, they are able to reach a period of consumer maturity much faster.
It is noted that small berries have a much higher concentration of sugar in their composition. Thus, the small berries of the Kodryad grape have much higher taste indices. In addition, they are not so cracked when precipitation is abundant and rot to a lesser extent.
What you need to know about the beneficial and medicinal properties of grapes "Kodryanka"?
Chemical composition of grapes The Kodryanka varieties are simply saturated with various useful vitamins that can positively affect the state of the human body.
- Grape juice "Kodryanki" contains vitamins C, B and P, as well as vitamins belonging to their groups. The skin and pulp of this variety is very rich in pectin. They are rich in carotenes. It is worth noting that in addition to increasing the level of immunity, these substances are able to act and contribute to the process of cleansing the body from radionuclides and other heavy substances.
Thus, this grape is very useful to those people who live in cities near large chemical enterprises. Also, the grapes of this variety is an excellent antioxidant.
- The chemical composition of the grape “Kodryanka” is also rich in substances that have an antiseptic effect on the body, they are human defenders from infection with various infections. These include enzyme, lipase, nitrogenous substances and phytoncides.
- “Codrean” is recommended for fresh consumption to those who suffer from chronic bronchitis, have problems with the liver and cardiovascular system, trying to cure anemia and gout.
We start planting grapes "Kodryanka". General guidelines
It is worth noting that the great advantage of the Kodryanka grape variety when it is planted is that it is not very whimsical to the soil. It can be grown in completely unsuitable for agricultural soils, while the yield of grapes will still remain high and it will very firmly take root in any place.
Moreover, his fame throughout the world was also deserved by his ability to take root and bear fruit in various climatic conditions. Of course, we are not talking about the tropics and the North, but the grapes grow well both in the South of Ukraine and Russia, and in their Central and Northern regions. But still, and starting to plant this variety of grapes should take into account many features.
How and how to propagate grapes "Kodryanka"?
This grape variety mainly reproduces due to the annual sapling. This method of reproduction is considered the most effective and simple, because it does not require much time and labor. But, if you already have grapes on the plot, which you want to replace with “Codrean”, you can use the grafting method. For this, only an annual “Codreanka” cutting will be used, which will need to be grafted onto a specially split stem of a grape bush.
What is the time for planting grapes?
If we are talking about planting a grape seedling, then the best time for this will be either late autumn, before the onset of constant frosts, or early spring, when the snow has just melted, and the buds have not yet started to bud.
It is possible to inoculate the grape cuttings almost all year round, both in spring, and in summer and autumn. Depending on the type of vaccination you choose, the time for when this process should be carried out will also depend. If you want to plant a “black” (that is, not yet bloomed) cutting to the “black” stock, this will be a very early spring.
If the “black” cutting to the “green” stock, then the best time will be both the end of spring and the first days of summer. “Green to green” grapes are planted in autumn, approximately in the first half of October.
Rules and features of planting grape seedlings
- The planting of the Kodryanka grape sapling should be carried out only in advance prepared pit. Its depth should not be great, but at its bottom should be poured the earth mixed with fertilizer to saturate it with nutrients.
- Place the seedling in the pit should be carefully and gradually filled with fertile soil in such a way that in no case will damage the roots of the bush.
- The soil, which is used to fill the pit, can be slightly fertilized with mineral substances.
- It is important to drive a solid support into the soil near the sapling, to which you will need to attach it. With the help of backwater grapes can be sent to the side that will be most acceptable for its weaving.
- After planting the grapes it is very important to water the soil abundantly. Thanks to this, the sapling will start to grow much better and grow faster. If the grapes are planted in the fall, then the likelihood of frostbite of the bush is reduced due to wet soil.
- When planting in autumn, it is very important to spud a seedling, otherwise it will freeze. To do this, you can put a tub over it with a broken bottom and completely fill it with soil.
Planting grapes by grafting cuttings
If you have chosen to plant a grafting method for planting, then the following instructions should be followed in order:
- The stalk needs to be prepared in advance. It must be waxed (only the upper part) and put into the water.
- The lower part of the cutting is cut off in a wedge-shaped manner and placed in a special solution of the “Humate” preparation (10 drops per 1 liter of water), which stimulates root formation.
- The grape bush stem also needs to be prepared by carefully treating the cut to obtain a smooth surface and removing all the rubbish with a wet rag.
- Next shtamb should be carefully split with a small hatchet and a hammer.
- The stem is placed in the split by the part that was cut. It is important that the sides of the cuts appear to be a trunk. Further, this whole structure is very tightly bonded with a cotton fabric and coated with clay.
- For the winter, such an inoculation should also be tucked in the same way as the seedling.
Features watering grapes.
Grapes for good growth need a lot of moisture. After all, the grape bush of the Kodryanka variety is capable of growing very widely and producing great harvests, for which it requires a lot of resources. Therefore, watering the grapes should be carried out regularly, depending on weather conditions. A young bush should have at least 3 buckets of water, a large and an adult should have at least 6.
Proper mulching of the soil around the vine.
To keep the water in the ground for longer and really benefit the grapevine, the soil around it should be mulched. For this, humus or peat is most often used. But to mulch the soil is only in early spring and autumn, because in the summer mulching may cause the roots of the grapes to stumble and start to rot. Laying out the mulching substance should be all over the diameter around the grapes.
Do I need to cover the grapes for the winter?
Although this variety is resistant to frost, in the first years after planting it must be constantly spud and sheltered, otherwise you can completely lose the grape bush. In addition to hilling the soil, you can cover the grapes with hay or straw, putting something heavier on top so that the hay is not carried by the wind.
Pruning grapes - goals and rules.
Cut the grapes in the early years is not worth it. He alone will be able to develop and bear fruit without pruning. But already with the onset of fruiting in the autumn, it is still recommended to prune the young shoots, since they still will not be able to survive the winter. At an older age of the bush in the fall pruning of dried cuttings and those that are not fruiting is carried out. Thanks pruning can properly direct the growth of the bush.
How to fertilize grapes "Kodryanka"?
In fertilizers, this grape variety is practically not required. In the majority, it will be enough for those substances that will flow to the roots from mulching. Once a year, under the spring digging of the soil, organic matter and mineral fertilizers can be applied, while evenly spreading them around the whole stem of the grapevine.
Description of the grape variety Kodryanka
The variety was obtained by hybrid crossing more than 50 years ago in Moldova. It was widely used in the USSR and abroad, where it is known as “Black Magic”. The varieties Moldova and Marshall are the genetic basis of the variety.
Hereditary traits that were acquired from parental forms:
- frost resistance average (-23 ° C)
- the stems of clusters are dense and durable, do not break off under the gravity of the fruit
- load on the main runaway average
- large fruit
- disease resistance
- early ripening (110 - 120 days, August, fructification until the end of September, beginning of October)
- bushes grow much
Individual characteristics of the variety:
- moderate density and arrangement of clusters on a bush
- 500 to 600 g weight of one bunch
- high yield (50 c / ha)
- second year fruit bearing
Grapes in one place you can grow up to 30 years, if you follow the composition of the soil and retain moisture and nutrients as much as possible.
The content of the main elements:
- Sugar content - 18 - 20%
- Acid content 6 - 7.5 g / l
- Water - 79.9%
- Proteins - 0.6 g / 100g
- Fat - 0.6 g / 100g
- 1 - 2 bones in one berry
- fruit weight 6 - 8 g
- the berries do not fall off for a long time when ripe, last up to 25 days
- tendency to small-scale formation of fruits, peas, with unfavorable climate and care
- fruit height 3.2 cm, width 2 cm, elongated, ovate
- dark purple color
- firm flesh
- fine skin with medium wax coating
- taste is simple harmonious
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the variety include, above all:
- high yield
- it is well kept at the optimum temperature and air humidity
- Minimum damage during shipping
- maintains temperature - 23 ° С
- pleasant taste
- early ripening and long fruiting
- resistance to diseases of grapes mildew and gray rot
- with inadequate care small fruits are formed, which reduces the demand in the market. But using gibberellins, this problem is solved.
- requires shelter in regions where the temperature decreases by more than - 24 ° C, which incurs material costs
Grapes are mainly grown by cuttings.
When buying planting material, in particular one-year seedlings, you should pay attention to the appearance of the culture.
The seedling must meet the following requirements:
- the plant should not be visible diseases, tumors and any mechanical damage
- the root system should have a well-developed main root and many small, fibrous roots
- the main shoot should be smooth and strong, exceed the others in height and have a vertical direction
- the plant should be 2 - 3 healthy buds
Basic requirements for the selection of the site:
- the plot is well lit
- relief without obvious drops, possible landing on a slope of 11 - 12 °
- the soil on the site should be not saline
- groundwater is lower than all plant roots
- minimum number of weeds
Planting grapes can be held in the spring, when the soil temperature will be 10 ° or in the fall before frost. Month and number depends on the region.
Saplings of grapes Kodryanka, waiting for their turn planting
- Dig a hole the size of 80 by 80 cm, twice the depth of the root system. In the spring pits dig 14 days before disembarkation.
- Holes set aside for 2 - 3 hours, while watering 3 - 4 times
- With the help of gravel, broken brick, or rubble, a drainage layer of 4-6 cm is created.
- Далее на дренаж накладывается плодородная почва, с добавлением органических и минеральных удобрений. Норма внесения удобрений указывается на упаковках.
- Культуру опускают в яму, разравнивая корни, и засыпают почвой, делая вокруг углубление.
- Abundant watering.
- On top of the mulch layer - the remnants of weeds, straw.
Let us examine two growing schemes:
Private landing method
Culture planted in a row of two plants in a checkerboard pattern. The aisle is 2.4 m, between the plants is 0.65 m. Or just one plant in a row, the aisle is 2.5 m, between the saplings is 1.5 - 2 m. This is a way for growing in field conditions.
Shpaler landing method
In this case, the plant forms a green wall of the vineyard, the distance between the plants is 1.5 m. Suitable for growing at home.
Care for a young and mature vine
Regular watering is performed as rain falls. 5 liters per plant, depending on the weather. Should monitor the soil moisture. Mineral fertilizers: in the spring it is necessarily nitrogen, after 20 days nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, after 30 days phosphorus potassium.
At the stage of the first year of life it is necessary to conduct formative pruning, to create the desired shape of the bush.
Caring for a mature vine is a little different. Watering, fertilizer as well. Trimming is different. Basically spend two types of trimming:
Planting grapes seedlings kodryanka
- Annual pruning, necessary to preserve the shape of the bush.
- The soothing cut. It is carried out to replace old shoots with young ones.
- Sanitary pruning. Removed diseased, non-viable shoots.
Reproduction is done by layering and cuttings. In order to propagate the plant by cuttings, cut off the shoots with 2 - 3 buds, then rooted. For reproduction by cuttings from different parts of the plant, shoots are taken away, they lean against the soil by buds and fall asleep, the roots are formed. After the formation of the roots and stem, the place of cutting is trimmed.
Diseases and pests
Damaged by disease: rubella, bacterial cancer, chlorosis, anthracnose, bacteriosis. Against these diseases there are specialized chemical and biological substances.
Harm insects: spider mite, philoxer. With the help of proper annual tillage, the threshold for insect data is reduced.
At home, using folk remedies in the fight against insects and diseases.
Grapes are an exceptional variety that will always be popular for its irreplaceable qualities and taste. Every amateur gardener can afford to cultivate this crop.
Grape Codreanca: variety description
Berry Codrean is very large, dark purple, close to black. The shape of the berry elongated in length to 3 cm, ovate, with a thick wax coating (pruine), average weight is 7 grams There are not many seeds in the berry, they are easily separated.
The peel of the fruit is quite dense, but not noticeable when used. Kodryanka taste, though simple, but pleasant, juicy flesh.
Bush varieties tall, the vine matures well. Already in the second year after grafting or planting seedlings, the grapes enter fruiting. Clusters are moderately dense, medium weight - 600 grams. Some clusters reach 1 kgbut at the same time they are well attached and for a long time are on the vine already in a mature state.
Characteristics of grapes "Kodryanka" (he Black magic) Is a complex interspecific hybrid of the table form of black grapes, which is distinguished by its very early ripening period.
Early ripening can boast and Kishmish Jupiter, Velez and Super Extra.
Codrians are valued primarily for regular large harvest volumes, even under adverse conditions.
The variety is table, it is often grown for sale, because it can be stored for a long time after ripening and does not lose its commodity and taste qualities. For winemaking, this variety is also suitable due to the high sugar content (before 18%) and juice.
By chemical composition berries Kodryanki considered a very valuable product. This is not only an excellent antiseptic and antioxidant, it contains a lot of useful elements for the body:
The grade differs in good frost resistance - to -22, but for the winter shelter is desirable. In bad years, Codreanca is prone to pea, which is considered a minus when growing berries for sale, because they lose their appearance. Preventing pea can be done in advance with the help of Gibberelin.
Such varieties as Angelica, King Ruby and Ruslan can also show pollen.
The load on the bush, on average, is 17-19 shoots with a short trim.
Photo grapes "Kodryanka":
Planting and care
When planting a variety of great advantage is its simplicity, and the ability to take root anywhere. However, when landing you need to consider some features:
- The grade well breeds one-year saplings,
- The best time to plant is late autumn.
- Immediately after planting the seedling is important to pile up.
The roots of the seedling are carefully covered with earth to prevent damage, and watering is required immediately after planting.
If this method of planting is chosen as a vaccination, then there are several options. In early spring, graft is black to black (this means until the blooming stalk to black stock), in late spring-early summer, black to green, in autumn, green to green.
The basis of any crop is caring for the plant. For normal growth requires a lot of moisture, so watering should be regular.
Despite the fact that this variety shows good frost resistance, it should be sheltered for the winter, especially when it comes to seedlings. At the same time, the seedlings are not only curling with soil, but also sheltering with straw.
The Beauty of the North, the Arched and Pink Flamingo are also frost-resistant varieties.
No need to prune grapes in the first few years. The plant can bear fruit and develop independently. As soon as Codreanca enters the fruiting period, in the fall it is recommended to prune the young shoots that cannot bear the winter. In older age, pruning is done in the fall only those shoots that do not bear fruit or dried.
This variety is characterized by increased resistance to disease, at the level of 2.5-3 points to oidium and mildew. For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is possible to spray 2 times per season with standard means to combat these diseases before flowering and immediately after the berries start to set.
Grapes may require preventive measures against anthracnosis, chlorosis, bacteriosis, rubella and bacterial cancer. Read about them in detail in separate materials of the site.
As for other pests (phylloxera, spider mite), standard agrotechnical measures in the form of thinning a bush and timely removal of old or damaged parts will reduce these problems to a minimum.
Due to its unpretentiousness and durability, the Kodryanka grape variety has become popular with many winegrowers. Even in years with adverse conditions, the variety brings a large amount of the crop. Its berries are always saturated with beneficial trace elements that strengthen the body as a whole and have healing properties. Codreanca is a decent form of grapes for homegrown viticulture that is perfect for beginners.