Each owner of a particular type of farm animal is interested in the rational use of feed and obtaining the greatest profit. In the poultry industry, growing broilers at home is becoming increasingly popular. This is explained by the fact that with proper care and nutrition, the period of fattening broiler chickens is only two months, while the percentage of meat output is quite large. How to start growing chickens, what they need to provide in the first place, what care is needed, we learn from the article below. Information about growing broilers at home to novice poultry farmers will be especially useful.
Contrary to popular belief, a broiler is not a breed of chickens. So called young livestock poultry and animals that are grown to produce cheap meat in large quantities. Broil in English means "roast on a spit." When growing broilers at home, meat from one chicken is received more than from adult poultry of another breed, besides, it compares favorably in quality.
The first broiler chickens were bred by English farmers. They crossed two breeds of large chickens and got chickens, which they began to call them giants and carry them to a larger breed. However, at home, the bird multiplied poorly, and after only one generation the chickens turned into the most ordinary.
Soon, farmers realized that getting large chickens is only possible in a hybrid way. To create such a bird, the following meat chicken breeds are most often crossed:
Professional breeding of broiler birds can be practiced only in special farms. Every year, breeders create all new hybrid forms, the so-called crosses. They inherit the best qualities from their parents: precociousness, high slaughter weight, immunity to various diseases.
Chickens broilers favorably differ from chicks of the same age of ordinary breeds. The first, by the age of one and a half weeks, are capable of gaining up to 1.5 kilograms of live weight, while ordinary chickens gain no more than half a kilogram. The weight of adult chicken hybrid breeds reaches 4 kilograms, and the weight of some males - 5.5.
Broiler chickens have a rather compact body, short legs and wings. The bird is inactive, has a calm disposition and phlegmatic character. The color is usually white, like the plumage of the parents.
When grown at home, broilers build muscle mass relatively quickly. The minimum weight of the bird carcass is 2 kilograms. In this case, the bird feed is eaten a little: about 2-3 feed units per kilogram of weight. Egg production in chicken broilers is poorly developed, but the instinct of motherhood is excellent.
Breed of broilers KOBB-500
A distinctive feature of this bird from other breeds is yellow skin. In the consumer market such meat is always more in demand. Chickens at the age of 6 weeks reach weight from 2 to 2.5 kilograms and are suitable for slaughter. COBB-500 has persistent immunity to various diseases, as well as 100% survival. Broilers have large legs and a wide breast, which is undoubtedly an advantage when growing broilers for meat at home. One of the advantages of this cross can be considered the fact that all birds have almost the same weight and height.
Broilers are notable for their intensive growth, during the day the nestling gains about 60 grams. The period of rapid growth is in the first weeks of life. The bird is a pale-colored bird, but the breast is much wider and fatter than that of COBBs. A feature of this cross-country is the relatively good egg production.
The latest breed of broilers takes a leading position among other types of crosses. It is distinguished by its incredible precocity, the chicken at a month of age reaches quite large sizes and weighs about 2.5 kilograms. Skin color, these broilers are similar to COBBs, but do not always have time to get such a shade.
Growing broilers from scratch at home
Before you start buying chickens, you need to prepare them a place in which they will grow healthy and gain weight well. While the chicks are small, a plywood box can be adapted as a house for them, the main requirements for which are: heat, light and the absence of humidity. Later, when the chickens grow up a bit, they can be placed in a specially prepared room.
Where to buy chickens
Experts recommend, especially for beginners to grow broilers at home, to buy poultry only at poultry farms, where they strictly observe sanitary standards and carry out comprehensive care for the young. You can also purchase chickens from the market, but in this case there is a possibility that you will acquire an unhealthy or outbred bird. When buying chickens, it is necessary to pay attention to the behavior and appearance of chicks:
- clean feathers
- clear look
- react to noise
- soft tummy.
Keeping small chickens
Plywood house for kids must be kept in a warm place, especially if they were purchased in early spring. Under the box lay a warm cloth, you can use the old mat. Care should be taken to avoid drafts. By the way, when choosing a box you should know that one chicken needs an area of at least 30 square centimeters. Very often special brooders are made for little chicks, which is without doubt the best option.
On the first day after the birth of chickens it is necessary to provide uninterrupted lighting. Ultraviolet light is also necessary for the bird, so if you can, be sure to purchase such a lamp. For chickens, and adults, the temperature is very important.
Age of broilers in days
Indoor air temperature
Air temperature at the heater
Technology of growing broilers at home
Poultry for meat can be grown in two ways: intensive and extensive content. In the first case, chickens from the beginning of life are fed with complex feed, which is intended specifically for broiler crosses. You can buy such food in almost every veterinary pharmacy. With this method, one more secret of growing broilers at home can be considered the limitation of birds in motion. If you choose this method of keeping, then the bird should be raised in special enclosures of a small size. It is worth emphasizing: if necessary, more intensive growth of chickens use a more compacted content, where on average there is no more than one square meter per 12 heads. One of the most important factors in the care of chickens is considered to be cleanliness in the hen house. Broiler crosses are unusually sensitive to contaminated bedding and air. If the chicken coop is not regularly cleaned, the chances of poultry disease are very high, which ultimately can even lead to its death.
In the event that the second method of growing broilers at home is chosen, feeding and care for them continue for 4 months during the warm season. At the same time the bird is fed feed, cooked with his own hands. It should be remembered: new types of feed are never introduced into the diet in one day, it should be done gradually. All wet mash must be eaten by the bird for 35-40 minutes, if left in the hen house for a longer time, the product may become sour, insects may be inseminated with eggs.
When keeping chickens, it is very important to have clean, dry bedding. The best is the husk of seeds, which can be purchased at any oil mill. In the event that there is no such possibility, it is recommended to use straw, fiber peat or sawdust. Must be remembered: the presence of wet litter is unacceptable.
The use of feed for broilers
For more intensive growth of broiler chickens, feeding and growing at home is recommended to use specialized feed, which can be purchased in ready-made form or prepared by yourself. This feed fully meets all the physiological needs of broilers. Especially high rates of such a diet brings in the first four weeks. Ready feed for broilers varies in composition and particle size. For the convenience of perception, the information on the required feeds will be presented in a table.
Compound feed "Broiler start", grams
Compound feed "Broiler growth", grams
Compound feed "Broiler finish", grams
Chalk, calcium, phosphate
Consider the features of growing and feeding at home broiler chickens. In all broiler breed chickens, intensive growth is laid genetically. Therefore, they must be provided with high-grade and high-quality feed in the required quantity. It is believed that the sooner the baby starts feeding, the faster the broiler will grow. If in the first days one of the chickens cannot peck, it must be fed with a mixture of yolk and cream using a pipette.
The peculiarity of growing broilers at home is considered intensive feeding, which starts from the first days. For the first week and a half, small chickens are fed at intervals of two hours, about 7-8 times a day. A break in feeding should not be more than six hours. For good growth in the diet of chickens it is necessary to include easily digestible protein - milk, cottage cheese and boiled egg. The last product from the age of five days can be given with a shell (crushed). Further, the diet is gradually replenished with corn grits and crushed wheat. And already from ten days of age they are transferred to feeding with a vitamin-grain mixture:
- corn grits - 50%,
- wheat - 25%,
- barley flour - 10%,
- oatmeal - 5%,
- nettle (scalded. boil.) - 10%.
When grown at home, broiler chickens from 15 days of age begin to be fed with grated carrots, boiled meat, and greens. At the same time, an additional feeder for mineral feed is put: chalk, bone meal, crushed shells, and gravel.
With particular care should be taken to the water supply of chickens, for one bird you need about 40 ml of water. Experts do not recommend giving raw water, it is better to replace it with a decoction of chamomile or rosehip, which will have a beneficial effect on the digestive tract of chicks. Once every two days you can give boiled water with the addition of potassium permanganate - for the prevention of gastric diseases. The color of such water should have a pale pink shade. If there is not enough water when growing poultry, the chickens may become dehydrated, which without certain treatment can lead to their death. When growing broilers at home, the three-stage feed system is most often used, which is calculated by the age of chickens from birth to slaughter.
It should be noted that such feed is more expensive than home-made feed, but it significantly improves all the performance of the growing population. Simplifies the cultivation, feeding, control of food consumption and, in general, the entire care of broilers. At the initial stage, such food enhances immunity, creates the prerequisites for rapid growth and good health of the bird. In the period of active growth of chickens feed is a source of protein, fat, calcium and vitamins, which provide rapid growth of the backbone and build muscle. Closer to the slaughter to increase the fatness injected into the diet finishing mixture. All this increases the profitability of growing broilers at home.
Disease prevention and treatment
As you know, prevention is the best way to prevent broiler disease. Therefore, the main and main rule will be disinfection activities in the room where chickens live. Cleanliness prevents the appearance of all sorts of infections. The smallest broilers are recommended to immerse the legs in a disinfectant solution for 3 days. From 3 days old, experienced poultry farmers advise chickens to give Enrofloxacin solution at the rate of 1 cube per liter of water.
To strengthen the immunity, broiler chickens are given water with ascorbic acid (1 packet per 3 liters) dissolved in it - this will compensate for the lack of vitamin C in the body. prevention of vitamin deficiencies. The duration of taking vitamins is 10 days.
Among young broilers is often found such a thing as cannibalism (popularly, "pecking"). In order to avoid such trouble, you should carefully observe the behavior of chicks. The main reasons for biting can be considered too bright light, close to the content of chickens and lack of protein or gravel in the diet. In the event that a pecker did occur, it is necessary to add a little citric acid (acidify) to the water for drinking, to anoint the wounded chicks with brilliant green and to set it apart separately. Otherwise, the peck can continue - curious chicks will peck at the green crown.
Growing birds in cages
Increasingly, poultry farmers choose to grow broilers at home cages. There are several advantages to this content:
- Chickens are gaining weight quickly due to a sedentary lifestyle.
- The risk of various diseases is reduced due to the fact that the bird is not in contact with the droppings.
With this content in one cage with a floor area of 0.5 m 2 10 birds are settled. The very microclimate in the coop has the same requirements as other cultivation methods.
In the room where chickens-broilers are kept, it is necessary to install the hood, because this bird especially needs fresh air. The exhaust must necessarily be with a thermostat and turn on and off at a certain point so that the bird does not freeze.
We propose to get acquainted with the peculiarities of growing broiler chickens at home by watching the video.
Walking for broilers
If desired, for broilers you can do a little walking, but you should not make it too spacious. While the chicks are small, they can be released into it for several hours. When broilers are well supported, and the air temperature outside will not fall below +18 degrees, they can be settled in a separate house. It is only necessary to ensure that the chickens are warm and without drafts. Indoors it is necessary to make the floor and lay it with straw. For additional heating you can hang lamps in it. Chickens should not be made too large, as long as it is easy to clean. At night, the chicks are left to sleep in the house, and in the afternoon they are released into the pen.
Breeding as a business
Growing broilers at home, according to many owners, can be turned into a source of additional income. First of all, even before buying small chickens, you need to make a business plan and find a market for the finished product. Broilers can be offered to individuals or enter into a contract with online stores that sell natural products. Such cooperation will be beneficial to both parties: for the owner of broilers - this is the appearance of the wholesale buyer, and the benefit for the store is a constant percentage of the profits.
Broiler meat can be offered to owners of small kiosks where they sell fast food: shawarma, grilled chicken, pies. Or supply chicken meat to catering establishments. Broiler breeding can be considered a profitable business both for your family and for the purpose of earning income.
How to grow broilers
There are two ways to grow broiler chickens: intensive and extensive. Intensive method means keeping chickens on deep bedding in crowded conditions - per 1 square meter. meter placed 12 goals. When the cellular content and the denser - 25 chickens per 1 square. meter They are fed with high-grade industrial feed. With this content, the bird in 60 days has a meat yield of 1.5-2 kg, but it is dense and not very tasty. Its cost is high.
With extensive broiler farming at home, the mass of chickens is gaining in 3-4 months, the meat has excellent taste, and the material costs are relatively small. Growing broilers will require a warm, dry room, a sufficient amount of feed and patience.
Growing broilers at home
If you took daily chicks in the spring, you have to hold them in the house, the kids need warmth, at least 32-35˚C. At the age of one month they need 18-20˚C. Take two large cardboard boxes, connect them with glue, double-sided tape or stapler. In the adjacent walls cut a hole - you get a "two-room housing." In one half there will be a kitchen, in the other a bedroom. On 1 square. m place 13-15 chicks. When crowded, they develop poorly and are easily affected by various infections.
As a litter, use newspapers, or sawdust, or bran. Change the litter regularly every 2-3 days. The first two weeks of chickens should be lighting day and night, then reduce daylight hours to 16 hours. Для укрепления иммунитета пропоите птенчиков тривитом (тетравитом) – по 1 капле через три дня в течение 2-3 недель.
Ежедневно выпаивайте цыплятам витамин В12, на 50 голов разведите одну ампулу в литре воды. To prevent diarrhea, water broilers with water, tinted with potassium permanganate or dilute chloramphenicol in it (1 tablet per liter of water). Do this for 1-1.5 months - broilers can have diarrhea at any age. They react to changing diet, changing weather, dirty litter and dishes. For normal operation of the ventricles, chickens should always have a shell, chalk (can be replaced with red clay). It is undesirable to give the chicks up to two weeks of age with raw water, it is better to make decoctions of onion peel, chamomile, and wild rose.
Podroschennyh chickens contain in pens or cages, planting density 4-6 animals per 1 square. In the daytime, ensure free-walking for broilers, if there is no such opportunity, then let them out for a walk for 1.5-2 hours. Of paramount importance for the preservation of livestock and good growth of the bird is nutrition.
What to feed broilers
Feed broiler chickens up to five days with starter feed or a mixture of millet, corn and barley grits, with a hard-boiled egg. From the age of five days, give wet mash: in the cereal mixture, mix cottage cheese, yogurt, fish and meat boiled waste, finely chopped dandelion greens, onions, nettles. Add grated carrots or pumpkin. Egg fed with the shell.
At two weeks of age, give crushed wheat steamed with boiling water. Mix bone and fishmeal into the mash. Mix the soup in small portions, but often. In the evening feeding, give only dry food. At the age of three weeks add mashed potatoes and bread to the mash. For the good development of broilers is important the first month of life. If at this time the bird received high-quality food in sufficient quantities, then with further growth of hens there will be no problems.
At the age of one month, chickens are given both crushed grain of wheat, corn, barley, peas, oats, and whole grains, 50% of which can be germinated. Also broilers willingly eat steamed grain. Food additives, grass, beetroot and cabbage leaves are suitable as a food additive. Feed broiler chickens should be plenty, the feeders should never be empty.
How to choose eggs for growing
Choosing eggs for incubation is an important part of the broiler breeding process, because the percentage of chickens leaving depends on how healthy the offspring will be, how often they will get sick or not hurt at all, how quickly they will gain weight, etc. Whether you remain profitably or at a loss depends on the right choice for laying eggs.
The egg must be uniform in color. It is advisable to choose medium-sized, because of the small eggs obtained from the same offspring.
Large have a thin shell. Therefore, the appearance of microscopic cracks through which penetrate into the germ of infection is not excluded. In addition, chickens simply will not grow from many eggs of this size.
Egg weight is also selected, if possible, the same. Then chickens are born with a slight time difference.
Eggs are taken from the nests several times a day. Do not overheat or cool them. It is advisable to store them in a warm, dry room, in which the permissible temperature drops do not exceed 5 degrees.Laying eggs in an incubator
The maximum storage period between the recess from the nest and the laying in the incubator is two or three days. If this period is exceeded, the probability of negative consequences for their healthy development in the future increases.
The correct, competent approach to the process of selecting eggs for their laying in the incubator is the key to a successful result.
The maximum age of the hen from which eggs are taken for the incubator is limited to 2 years.
Advantages and disadvantages
Broiler chickens are poultry breeds. It is characterized by a horizontal position of the body and short legs, wings. As already mentioned, this breed is not whimsical to the conditions of detention. If the area used allows you to place a large number of chickens on the plot, then their breeding can be made outdoor. If this is not possible, then broilers can be kept in cages.
It is worth noting the advantages of this bird:
- Impressive weight. It can reach about 5 kilograms.
- Fast weight gain 1.5 months after the bird has been spitting up the shell, it can be sent to slaughter. It is not worth keeping individuals longer than the specified period, their weight will not increase from this, but the taste of meat may suffer.
- Not fastidiousness, calm.
As for the disadvantages, we can single out one, but the main thing is the low egg production.
Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the adult rushing. This should be done in order to select several layers that will carry eggs for further breeding.
How to start breeding broilers? With the purchase of chickens. It is recommended to take both chickens and roosters. This will allow in future to receive eggs from which chickens will be hatched.
The place of purchase and the age of broiler chickens should be given attention. Buying young stock from the hands of an unknown person is not the best option. It is better to contact the breeders or the farm for growing birds.
Take preferably chickens at the age of 10 days from birth. During this period they got a little stronger and the probability of their incidence and mortality was reduced compared to earlier chickens. If a bird, which was born less than 10 days ago, was bought, special conditions for its maintenance may be required.
Novice poultry farmers need to understand that when buying chickens you need to understand the purpose of their cultivation - to get meat or eggs. After all, there are no universal broilers that can provide both.
What chickens are recommended to buy:
- With shining eyes.
- With a soft, not swollen belly.
- With uniform plumage.
- With wings pressed to the body.
- With a good response to the sound. You can check it out by tapping the box.
To determine the sexual characteristics of the bird, it is enough to straighten the wing and study it. Roosters have feathers of predominantly the same length, while the chicken has different.
Features of growing
Breeding broilers at home for beginners is possible in two ways:
We will understand what their differences are. In the first case, the breeding of chickens at home is carried out seasonally. Young stock is purchased in the spring, and by the middle of summer it is sent to the face. In winter, the bird is not divorced.
In the second case, the bird is bred all year round. Every three months is the purchase of young. The bird is sent to slaughter 1.5–2.5 months after purchase.
If you miss this time, you may be faced with the fact that feed costs will be increased, and this will not affect the weight of individuals.
If you plan to breed broilers in the country, it is necessary to assess the area for poultry. Given this area, the bird can be bred in two ways:
- Outdoor breeding.
- Cell dilution.
For outdoor broiler breeding, you need more space than for the cell. You can put them in a small building. If you plan to year-round breeding birds, you need to take care of the insulation of this room. You can use the heating devices.
The rules of floor keeping birds, which must be followed:
- The floor in the house must be covered with a layer of lime. A 10-centimeter layer of sawdust is laid over it - this material absorbs moisture well and is quite economical.
- For day-old chickens, the house should be lit for 24 hours a day.
- Indoors must have good ventilation.
- The first 2 weeks of the bird’s life in the house should have a corresponding temperature - no less than +26 and no more than +33 degrees.
- A bird that has grown to one month old is in the house at a temperature of +18 to +20 degrees.
- The humidity level in the room with chickens is maintained at 65–70%.
The bird is very sensitive to changes in temperature, especially when it comes to sudden changes. Therefore, its performance needs constant monitoring. More attention should be paid to this point in the winter when the ambient temperature is low.
In order for the chickens not to start to hurt, there were no problems with growth, a layer of sawdust in winter can be made twice as thick, and the house itself can be equipped with heating devices. There should be drinkers and feeders.
Content of broilers in cages - This is the best option in the case when the area used area is small. Cages can be placed in one tier or in several, which is important for breeding a large number of birds.
The advantage of cage content in young stock is savings on litter materials. Since this bird is not mobile, it easily gets used to limited space. Therefore, the cells do not need to be made too large. On one square meter it is possible to place 18 chickens or 9 adult individuals.
When growing birds in cages, it is necessary to adhere to the recommended temperature regime - from 34 to 35 degrees. Ventilation must be provided in the cages. In all other respects, the requirements for broiler cell breeding do not differ from floor content.
Broiler breeding in an incubator
Breeding broiler chickens at home is also possible by laying eggs in the incubator. This will reduce the cost of buying young.
In order for the offspring to be healthy, it is necessary to choose the right eggs for laying in the incubator chamber. To do this, it is recommended to take them from under a chicken, whose age does not exceed 2 years and it does not suffer from infectious diseases. It should be noted that sexual maturity of this species of poultry does not occur earlier than 7–8 months of age.
Requirements for eggs for incubation:
- The average size. If you take small eggs, then there is a high probability that the young will not be distinguished by large weight and size. In the case of large eggs, you can face their damage, the formation of cracks in the shell. This happens because the shell of large eggs is not strong enough.
- The correct form.
- Same weight.
- Uniform color.
Before taking the eggs from under the hen and until they are laid in the incubation chamber, no more than 3 days should pass.
All this time, eggs are stored in a cool dark place. The incubation period is 21 days.
Despite the fact that females of broilers weakly carry eggs, they are good chickens. Therefore, it can easily cope with the incubation of offspring. Only in this case the number of chicks raised will be significantly less than in the case of an incubator.
After the chicks have appeared, they need proper nutrition. It is able to ensure their rapid growth and weight gain. With proper nutrition, after 1.5 months the bird can be sent to slaughter.
What should be the food of broilers bred for meat, depending on their age:
- 1-3 day - protein. The menu should beat dairy products, cottage cheese and boiled egg. Chickens can be given both white and yolk.
- 4 day - greens. Dilute the diet depending on the time of year. In the summer it can be shredded nettle (up to 20% of the entire meal per day). In winter, an alternative to fresh grass will be germinated grain (10–15% of the total diet) or grass meal (no more than 5 grams per day).
- 5 day - mineral substances are introduced. This may be a shell, or limestone, chalk. The daily rate of mineral intake per individual is not more than 3 grams. A bird can be given a crude peeled boiled egg.
- 15 day - the diet is diluted with carrots, meat. During this period, you can give millet, oatmeal, corn, wheat grits. 60% of the diet is grain.
- 3 weeks - the bird is prepared wet mash from products that were introduced into the diet previously. Wet and dry food alternate. If from the 15th day 60% of the broiler ration was grain, now this norm is reduced by 20% and replaced by boiled potatoes.
- 1 month and older - the maximum ration is enriched with herbs, while protein intake is minimized.
In addition to observing the correct diet, it is important to know how many times a day you need to feed animals:
- 8 times a day - in the first week.
- 6 times a day - from the second week.
- 4 times a day - from the third week.
- 2 times (in the morning and in the evening) - from a month.
Water for birds is no less important than proper nutrition.
Until the chickens have reached 2 weeks of age, it is advisable to boil water or pour into the drinkers a weak broth of rose hips, chamomile.
You need to monitor not only the purity of the water, but also its temperature. It should not be higher than 30 degrees. Otherwise, broilers will refuse it. And it can provoke dehydration, which requires special treatment. A bird should drink at least 40 milliliters of water per day.
When we start to do something new, you always want to protect yourself from mistakes. This also applies to broiler breeding. After all, if at the very beginning to exclude all sorts of mistakes, then it will be possible to avoid pain and death of the bird, to accelerate the process of its growth.
What you need to know about broiler breeding:
- When the birds are kept on the floor, it is better to install the troughs and feeders in a specially designated place (it is possible to pour a small section of the poultry house with concrete). After all, if you install a water bowl and a feeder directly in the place where there is a layer of flooring, it will get wet. This will lead to the development of mold or mildew.
- With floor breeding, litter changes frequently. In the case of the cage content of poultry, cages are regularly cleaned from litter. In both cases, the premises are disinfected. This will help prevent the development of infectious diseases.
- Feeding birds should be varied and age appropriate. Because of this, they will be less sick, grow faster and give healthy meat.
- The bird must be fed at the same time. As for chickens that have not yet turned two weeks old, they should be fed in a lighted house.
- It is necessary to vaccinate birds, especially in cases where at least one individual can be traced symptoms of an infectious disease.
Broiler chickens start to ache if they are not properly fed or cared for. This question should not be ignored. At the first signs of a disease, you should seek help from a specialist. If you do not do this, you can lose all the broilers.
What diseases can broilers suffer from:
- Helminths in the intestine (heterocidosis). To prevent the development of this disease is possible, paying due attention to the cleanliness of the house.
- Arthritis is a disease that affects the condition of the joints of a bird. She begins to move less, most of the time is in a sitting position.
- Ascites - its development can provoke improper diet, in particular, the lack of greenery in the diet. A bird in the abdomen begins to accumulate fat, it becomes difficult to walk.
- Stomach upset.
- Psevdochuma - a bird can catch it by eating an infected egg shell. Having identified this disease, the infected individual must be transplanted from the common herd, and the house should be disinfected.
- Poisoning - occurs due to the use of poor-quality or stale feed by the bird.
Broiler breeding is a profitable business, but it requires attention and effort. If you follow the recommendations in this article, it will certainly become successful.