Many suburban areas today resemble experimental sites. Vegetables on their beds, the cultivation of which has long become a tradition: cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, onions, potatoes - are safely alongside exotic cultures. A close relative of the mallow, the okra, whose homeland is hot Africa, will appeal to lovers of such experiences. The plant is also known under other names - ladies' fingers, edible abelmosh, okra or gombo.
Conditions of detention
Southern origin of okra is the cause of its intolerance to the cold. This culture is one of the most thermophilic. Its cultivation will be successful only in those regions where eggplant and peanuts fruit well in the open field. In the south of the country, you will not have to worry about okra, it will be enough to provide her with easy care. In areas with a temperate climate, it is bred either at home or by placing seedlings obtained from seeds on the beds.
Okra loves light, loose soil rich in organic fertilizers. Important for her and good drainage. Heat and light - these are the main conditions for its full development. Okra beds are best done on the most open and sunny part of the garden. The southern slopes are optimal for its cultivation. The culture is afraid of drafts and northern winds, therefore it is recommended to plant it in places which are reliably protected from them. They act badly on her and cold. Until the probability of sharp fluctuations in temperature becomes minimal, the landings are protected from them by a film. Duration of daylight does not matter for her.
Will be pleased with the rich harvest of okra in the areas where plants from the pumpkin family were located last season. Its landing after legumes is allowed. It develops badly only after its relatives, other malvaceous cultures.
Place for okra is prepared in advance. During the autumn work in the garden carefully dig up the soil. In the spring, it will need to be deeply loosened, having previously spread mineral preparations with a high content of phosphorus over the site.
How to get viable seedlings
Growing okra seedling method has significant drawbacks. Seedlings obtained from seeds at home are more likely to get sick and bring less yield. It will take more time and effort to care for them. But in regions with a temperate climate, there is simply no way for women to grow fingers in the open field.
Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out at the end of winter or at the very beginning of spring. It is convenient to use for this peat cups. They are filled with fertile soil and 3 okra seeds are placed in each. So that they will sprout faster, they are soaked a day before sowing. From above they are covered with a 4-centimeter layer of soil.
Temperature is important for seed germination, the air must be heated to 18–21 ° C. It is necessary to create greenhouse conditions for them. Immediately after planting, the okra containers are covered with a film, and even better with glass. Condensate will accumulate on its surface, which must be disposed of every day. To do this, just turn the glass.
It will take about 2 weeks, and the okra will sprout, then the shelter is removed. In the first 5 days, the care of sprouts involves ensuring coolness, the optimum temperature will be 13 ° C. Then it is gradually increased to the previous level. Seedlings are given a little to grow, and then they choose the strongest of them, they leave it to develop further, and the rest are spit out. Only with this approach can you get viable seedlings of okra. Grown in a common tank seedlings when placed in open ground most often die. The root system of them is pivotal, it receives severe damage during transplantation. If they take root, their development will be very slow.
Planting seedlings on the beds
In the open ground, seedlings of okra are placed at the age of 40-45 days. By this time, they are stretched to a height of 10-15 cm. Usually they are planted in early June, when the earth warms up well. A scheme is used for it, according to which plant seeds are sown in open ground. Beds for seedlings are prepared in advance, choosing weeds from the soil and fertilizing it abundantly with humus.
Planting okra is a responsible process. It is he, as well as competent care, determines the successful cultivation of culture. Complete the seedlings by consistently performing 3 procedures:
- abundant watering
- soil surface mulching,
- tensioning the film to protect against cold weather and wind.
Okra grows well in greenhouse conditions. It needs to be watered less often, since water from the soil under the film evaporates more slowly. But if the greenhouse is not ventilated, the air in it becomes too humid, which can ruin the plants. Therefore, the film is regularly raised. Care of seedlings involves and control the temperature inside the greenhouse, it should be in the range of 20-30 ° C. Overheating to young okram will not do good.
Other breeding methods
In the south of the country, sowing seeds of okra will be led immediately to the beds. Embark on it in the spring, when the heat is finally established. To correctly determine the landing time, you will have to arm yourself with a thermometer. The time has come, if the 10-centimeter surface layer of the earth on the plot has already warmed up to 15 ° C.
The optimum depth for okra seeds in open ground is 3-5 cm. It depends on the structure of the soil. Their landing is carried out according to the following scheme:
- the row spacing is equal to 60-70 cm,
- neighboring plants have an interval of 25-30 cm
You can wait from the seeds of friendly shoots if the temperature does not fall below 20-22 ° C. This is the main condition for healthy development, rapid growth and high yield of seedlings. For young, not yet formed plants, cold snaps are destructive. Adult okras are more stable, they are able to withstand even small (up to -2 ° C) frosts. But low temperatures are bad for their growth - it temporarily stops.
Having decided on the cultivation of okra at home, you need to choose dwarf varieties, up to 40 cm in height. Care will not cause them. The most important thing for room okra is choosing the right place. The plant loves space and good lighting. If you put pots with him on the window-sills of sunny windows, the okra will delight with flowering and even harvest.
Growing okra can not be called difficult and time consuming. Caring for her is in procedures familiar to most gardeners, including:
- top dressing
- loosening the soil between rows
Okra does not need frequent watering. If the plants do not bear fruit, the beds moisten only in dry weather. During the harvest, watering planting 2 times a month. It is important not to overdo it with the amount of water applied. The stagnation of moisture at the roots of the plant will harm it much more than the long drying out of the soil.
When the height of the main stem of the okra is 40 cm, it is necessary to pinch its upper part. The procedure stimulates rapid growth and active branching of its lateral shoots. At the same time they begin to fertilize the okra. Care in the form of dressings is carried out regularly, with a frequency of 2 weeks.
Best of all okra reacts to complex mineral preparations. At the stage of intensive development, budding and flowering, nitrogen is harmful to the plant, but a lot of phosphorus and potassium are needed. A suitable composition of the fertilizer is carefully dissolved in water (in the ratio of 20 g of the drug to 1 bucket of liquid) and watered by planting. It is good to use wood ash for fertilizing.
Tall okra can reach a height of 2 m, and its stems strongly branched. To facilitate the care of the plant, it is tied to supports, as necessary, repeating the procedure.
If you strictly follow the recommendations on the agrotechnical culture, the cultivation of okra will end in a rich harvest. The early ripening varieties of okra are covered with flowers as early as 2 months of age, and 5 days after that, the first bright green pods can be removed from them. In the southern regions of the country, okra crops are harvested daily. In regions with a temperate climate - once in 3-5 days. You can not be late with the collection time: over-ripe pods become tough and rough, they are unsuitable for food.
The stalks and leaves of okra cover small setae, which can cause skin irritation. Therefore, the harvest should be carefully, trying not to come into contact with the shoots. Cut the pods with a sharp knife. In room conditions, they can lie for up to 10 days if they are placed in a dry cardboard box, making holes for ventilation in it. It is much more convenient to store the fruits in the refrigerator, where they will stay fresh longer. To obtain okra seeds, the pods are left on the plant until fully ripe. Fruit okra until autumn, until frost occurs.
Okra is an interesting culture. It has a long history of breeding, and its fruits are widely used in cooking and medicine. Salads, sauces, side dishes, and soups are made from okra pods. They can be fried, boiled, dried, pickled, frozen, canned. They even make flour. The crushed seeds of okra have long been used as a spice, and the beverage prepared from its roasted grains can perfectly compete with traditional coffee to taste.
Growing this crop on the site will require some knowledge, but there is nothing difficult in it. Some difficulties are caused by its exotic origin, but they are completely surmountable. It is necessary to provide the plant a sufficient amount of heat and light, and it will thank for the care and attention with an abundance of useful fruits.
Okra growing from seed
If you are keen on the agricultural crop of okra, or ladies fingers, you should adhere to several growing conditions. The first rule that you need to remember: okra dies at low temperatures. This is a very thermophilic plant, so the okra seeds should be sown first in peat cups. This process should begin in mid-April. Land before planting seeds must be carefully fertilized with mineral fertilizers. It is worth not more than 4 cm to deepen the seeds of okra. When watering, one should take care not to form a crust on the ground. Excess moisture is also fraught with the death of the plant. Seedlings should be at home, you can put on the balcony.
Important! The most important thing is that the temperature does not fall below 15 degrees Celsius. If these recommendations are observed, the first shoots of okra should please the agrotechnics after 15-17 days.
After the appearance of the first shoots, the plant must be fed. For the first feed use phosphate fertilizer. Throughout the development of okra sprouts must be fed.
Note! When growing okra at home, or in greenhouses, you should know that the place where the seedlings are located must be constantly aired to prevent overheating or over-humidification of the air.
Okra planting and care
Planting okra in open ground and caring for it require that the necessary conditions be met. Protection against pests, to which okra is very susceptible, also requires the correct action. Therefore, when planting, the plants should be treated with a solution of copper sulphate. During the flowering period, the plant cannot be processed, but watering should be done every 10 days. In very hot weather, you can once a week. It is necessary to establish a support near the plant so that its branches do not lie on the ground, and, accordingly, the fruits do not rot. If for some reason the growth of okra has slowed down, it should be fed with mineral fertilizer.
Note!When caring for okra, which is planted in the greenhouse, it is recommended to maintain humidity near the mark of 70. The temperature in the greenhouse should not fall below 20 degrees.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Planting okra in the open field and caring for the plant require certain sequential actions. It is possible to plant seedling okra in the first decade of June, since at this time the ground is already sufficiently heated. You can plant in peat cups, so as not to damage the long root. Peat cups eventually disintegrate and become humus. You can not plant densely, between rassadnymi sprouts should be at least 30 cm, and between rows - 50 cm
Okra does not tolerate either over-wetting or drying out. To do this, after planting, you can mulch the soil with humus. This will allow the plant to be watered less often, and the mulch will be able to keep the resulting moisture for a long time, which will not allow the soil to dry out. Throughout the growing season, the land in which okra is planted needs cultivation. This condition will allow the plant to grow at the right pace and bring a good harvest.
Okra exists undersized and tall. Low-growing - reaches a height of not more than 45 cm. Tall - about 1.7 m. In order for the okra to grow a bush, it should be pinched at a distance of 40 cm from the ground. Next, near the plant you need to install a support.
Female fingers slowly grow only when sowing seeds, but if the seeds have already grown, then the first fruits can be seen in 2.5 months. When flowering, the plant must be fertilized with potassium nitrate. You also need to make sure that okra is not spoiled by pests. Like any other agricultural culture, okra is also subject to their influence. Therefore, before the okra began to bloom, it must be treated with insecticides.
Important! For okra terrible Medvedka. It feeds on seeds and small shoots. Medvedka is located on the back of the sheet, which makes it invisible. A slug can damage the fruit of a plant.
You can save seedlings in several ways:
- Soap solution. To do this, a piece of laundry soap, weighing 150 grams, is dissolved in a bucket of water. It is necessary to water the plant once every 3 days with this solution (provided that the main irrigation will not take place), until the medvedka perishes. Instead of a piece of soap you can use liquid potash. You can buy it in a pharmacy,
- Placement traps. Traps are placed between plants, and salt is strewed around the plates. Slugs, eating it, fall into the trap. Then they are collected and fed them bird
- Superphosphate. When superphosphate gets on the body, Medvedka begins to secrete large amounts of mucus in order for the fertilizer to stop baking. After the first contact of the bear with superphosphate, the pest can survive. But the second hit guarantees death.
What is okra: biological features of culture
Okra is an annual plant of the family Malvaceae. In the near "relationship" is cotton and garden mallow. Like many members of this family, okra is a tall plant.
Dwarf varieties do not grow more than 40 cm in height, and grow them mainly for decorative purposes. To get the crop planted tall forms of plants that grow to two meters.
Okra as a vegetable is used in the diet. In the food are young fruits. These are long green pods ranging in size from 5 to 25 cm, similar to green pepper. Fruits grow very quickly, and if they are not harvested at the age of 3-5 days, then they grow coarse, lose their color, taste and useful qualities.Fruits are allowed to ripen, mainly for collecting seeds for planting. They are also used in medicine and cosmetology to obtain the essential oil and coffee substitute. Immature seeds can be eaten instead of green peas.
Okra moderately moisture-loving, but does not tolerate waterlogging and salinization of the soil. The plant quietly endures short-term dry periods, but it also reduces the quantity and quality of the crop.
Okra is a heat-loving culture, in this aspect very close to eggplant. Seed germination occurs at a temperature not lower than 16 ° C, and the optimum conditions for the active growth and development of the plant are 24-25 ° C. If the temperature falls below 16 ° C, the development of okra is delayed. Frosts affect culture in a destructive way.
It is light-requiring and responds well to watering and feed. If a cold summer is issued, then without covering with a film you cannot achieve a good harvest.
Okra grows on most soils. Does not tolerate sour and poorly drained soils, in preference light and rich in organic matter. Most varieties bloom with a short light day.
Start of flowering can occur even at the earliest growth stage, even when daylight hours last less than 11 hours. With a long bottom, flowers tend to abort. The growing season lasts 3-4 months.Okra is so useful and nutritious that this plant is called the "vegetarian dream." Its fruits have a high content of iron, calcium and potassium, protein, vitamins C, B6, K, A, dietary fiber, and with all this, only 31 kcal.
The beneficial properties of okra are beyond the scope of a culinary product only. It is especially recommended to eat this vegetable in the position, as it contains a large amount of folic acid. It has a positive effect on the formation of the neural tube of the embryo in early pregnancy.Okra is a natural regulator of blood sugar levels. Her plant mucus and dietary fiber are absorbed in the small intestine. Особенно рекомендуется употреблять блюда с бамией людям с проблемами желудочно-кишечного тракта.
В последнее время многие диетологи в восторге от того, что такое растение, как окра – это просто идеальный продукт для похудения, не причиняющий вреда здоровью.
Это замечательный помощник в борьбе с депрессией, хронической усталостью и даже бронхиальной астмой. Прекрасно подходит для рациона больных, страдающих атеросклерозом, и укрепляет стенки мелких сосудов.
Okra removes excess cholesterol and toxins from the body. It has an auxiliary effect on the treatment of gastric ulcers. Scientists are conducting further research to know what else okra can be useful for.
It turned out that it can prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the appearance of cataracts. Vegetable also serves as a good doctor of male sexual weakness.
Time to plant seeds for seedlings
To determine the exact timing of planting okra is quite difficult. It is usually carried out in early summer, when the ground is already well warmed, but in the middle lane the onset of this stage is very blurry.
Experienced gardeners plant okra seedlings in early summer. At this time, the ground should already be well warmed up. Planting okra seedlings carried out in the month of April.
Capacity for growing seedlings
For planting okra from seed to seedlings, peat pots or disposable cups are remarkably suitable as a more budget option. Such capacity is taken because of the long root of the okra.This will protect you in the future when transplanting seedlings into open ground. For each plant, you must select an individual pot. The potted seedlings have a poor survival rate, since during transplantation there is a strong damage to the stem root, and this leads to a halt in the growth of okra.
Conditions for sprouting and caring for crops
After the okra seeds have been planted, they should be watered gently so that the upper layer of the earth does not form a crust, and that the plant does not die due to an excess of moisture. After 15-20 days, the first shoots of okra will appear.
In order for them to rise during this period, it is necessary to keep them at a temperature of 15 ° C If the temperature is lower, the seeds will germinate more slowly and will be weak. This is the most crucial stage in which okra especially requires proper care.
Time for planting seedlingsSince okra is a thermophilic plant, planting seedlings in open ground should be carried out only when it is fully heated, and especially when the risk of spring frost is eliminated.
The choice of location and good predecessors
Okra, or, as it is also called by our people, “ladies fingers”, is a very light-loving plant, therefore, it is necessary to plant seedlings only in a warm place.
The soil for planting should be very fertile and rich in mineral fertilizers. The ideal soil for okra is permeable and enriched with humus. Best of all, it grows in beds where previously cucumbers, radishes and potatoes were planted.
Watering, weeding and loosening between the rows
Okre need moderate watering. Overmoistened or, on the contrary, too dry soil adversely affects the growth and development of young plants. Okra has a long enough root, so the soil should be well hydrated at a depth of up to 40 cm.Despite the drought tolerance, on hot summer days it needs to be watered even more and more abundantly. But remember that an overabundance of moisture in the ground is also unacceptable.
In order for the plant to branch more actively, and the lateral shoots grow more actively, you need to pin the apical stalk of the main stem when they reach a height of 40 cm. When the okra grows high enough, you will need to build a support for it. As they grow for okra build support.
FertilizingFeeding "ladies fingers" should be combined mineral fertilizers. The proportion is as follows: 2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. In the fertile period, potassium nitrate is introduced in the same doses.
Fight against diseases and pests
Mealy dew a rich white bloom covers the leaves of okra on both sides, gradually moving to other parts of the plant. This disease reduces the ability to photosynthesis, as a result of which the leaves dry up, the fruiting is interrupted, and as a result, if left untreated, it dies. The pathogen survives the winter on the remains of the plant.
Control measures: Plant residues should be removed in a timely manner and placed in special compost, as well as proper crop alternation should be observed. The next step is to disinfect the inventory, and if the okra was growing in the greenhouse, then carry out the procedure in it. At the end of the vegetative period, the greenhouse needs to be fumigated with sulfur blocks for a day at the rate of 30 g / m3. Doors and vents must be tightly closed and sealed.
In preventive measures, before sowing, the seeds of an okra must be soaked in a solution of Fitosporin M (1.5-2 g per 1 l of water). It is possible during the growing season to carry out spraying with “Kumulos”, “Tiovit Jet” (2-3 g / l of water), gray colloid (4 g / l), and the last spraying a day before harvesting with Topaz (2 ml / l of water) or "Integral" (5 ml / l).If the disease has progressed greatly, then the procedure should be repeated at intervals of seven days, but not more than five times. The last spraying in this case is done three days before harvest. Try to remove all the weeds that grow next to okra, as they are the first to become infected with powdery mildew and carry the disease to fruit crops.
Brown spot affects okra, growing in greenhouse conditions, if it is too wet. The upper part of the leaves is covered with yellow spots, and the lower - light fungal bloom, which eventually turns brown. In a strongly affected and neglected plant, the leaves eventually dry out. The pathogen also overwinters on the remnants of okra.
Control measures: Do not allow long-term growth of okra in one place, try to alternate it with suitable predecessors. Carry out decontamination of greenhouses with sulfur dioxide in the autumn. Maintain humidity in the greenhouse within 75% by systematically airing.
When you notice the initial signs of brown spot, sprinkle cinnamon decoction (200 g per 1 liter of water) or garlic cloves infusion (15 g per 1 l). To keep the solutions as long as possible on the leaves of the plants and do not run off, add soap to them.
Thrips - tiny insects that survive the winter in plant residues in the ground. The leaves of okra from their pricks become covered with yellowish spots, then turn brown and dry.
Control measures:Remove plant residues at the end of autumn and thoroughly disinfect greenhouses. If thrips have appeared, use infusions and decoctions of insecticidal plants: white mustard seeds - 10 g / l, bitter pepper - 50 g / l, yarrow - 80 g / l, citrus peel - 100 g / l, 500 g / l sweet-bitten l To keep the solution on the plants longer, add soap to the water at the rate of 40 g / 10 l.
During the growing season, you can spray the drugs: "Spark-bio" (10 ml / l) and "Inta C-M" with an interval of 15 days. The last treatment should be carried out 3 days before harvest.
Cabbage scoop - night butterfly with a wingspan of up to 5 cm. It has a different color: from green to brown-brown. Caterpillars are large, green with a wide yellow stripe on the sides. They appear in May and are very hungry. They gnaw all the leaves, leaving only the veins.
Plant residues should be removed in a timely manner and put into special compost with microbiological preparations. You can sow nearby nectar-bearing plants that will attract enemies cabbage shovels.
As a preventive measure, in the autumn you need to dig deep the earth and not to forget about the agricultural technology of cultivation. If the caterpillars are few, they can be assembled by hand and destroyed. If there are a lot of them, then one should resort to “Bitoxibacillin” or “Lepidocide” at the rate of 50 g per 10 l of water.Slugs destroy young okra, especially in periods of high humidity. They eat away leaves and ovaries of okra, leaving silvery traces. In addition, slugs are also carriers of brown spot and downy mildew. Control measures: Regularly clean between rows and cultivate the land, creating a lumpy structure. Sprinkle with row of ash, superphosphate or lime.
Place baits where okra grows, with fermenting foods such as beer. There and will crawl slugs. Spray okra with 10% solution of ammonia and scatter the drug "Meta" at the rate of 30-40 g / m2.
HarvestSome varieties of okra can bear fruit within a few months after planting. They are harvested immature when their length does not exceed 9 cm.
Usually large pods are coarse and fibrous, but with proper farming techniques and comfortable growing conditions they can also be tender and tasty. You can check the "ladies fingers" for usability by nipping off the end of the pod. In overripe fruits, this will not work.Okra can bear fruit until the onset of cold weather. To obtain seeds a few pods, leave until fully ripe. Do not keep long ripped fruit. It is advisable to prepare them immediately.
Over time, they lose their taste, becoming coarse and fibrous. In the refrigerator, okra can be kept for up to 6 days, and in the freezer for several months.
What does okra plant look like?
To understand what this unusual vegetable is - okra, try to imagine a hybrid of zucchini, chili peppers and a pod of beans. Annual plant, reaching a height of 40 cm to 2 meters (with favorable climatic conditions and proper cultivation), has a thick stem, which is located a lot of branches, with light green, wide, carved leaves. The fruit is dense, has the shape of a pod with a slightly hairy surface (an elongated cylinder with a pointed end), with peas inside, cut across - looks like a pentagonal with an open center.
There are many varieties of okra, different in origin (foreign and local selection), maturity, size of the fruit, its color, growing conditions. As an example, we give a description of varieties of okra, the most common in our latitudes:
- Sopilka (mid-season ripening). The plant is medium-sized, the stem grows from 100 to 110 cm, its diameter is up to 2.65 cm. The fruit is five-sided, hexagonal, in length it grows to 20 cm.
- Dibrova (mid). The variety is short, its height reaches 80 cm, the diameter of the stem is 2 cm. The fruit can have 7-9 faces, it grows up to 21 cm in length. Recommended for open ground, its ovary is used for dietary nutrition.
The least fastidious representatives of this vegetable culture, adapted to our growing conditions and soils, are the following varieties:
- White velvet, green velvet - are popular for our gardens, more suitable, unlike foreign varieties.
- Red velvet - late variety, aesthetically valuable, fruiting begins after 70 days
- Blondie - refers to the early ripening varieties, promising, resistant to cold
- Star of David - the most common, tall, fruits short, up to 8 cm.
Planting Okra Seeds
In advance, a month and a half, before you put okra in the ground, sow the seeds in a previously prepared container with soil. It is more rational to start training in the first or second decade of April. Prepared (soaked for two hours), plant the seeds in a prepared box (container), to a depth of 1.5 cm, put glass on top or stretch a transparent film.
As soil take mixed in proportions of 2: 2: 1 soil, peat and sand, preheated in the oven. One of the best options is the one in which okra is grown from seedlings of seeds, produced in cups with peat, two or three things at a time (in order to leave one sprout, the strongest, then). They should be installed in a common container and cover (as described above). Plant the seedlings directly in the glasses in the prepared soil, so the plant roots will suffer less.
Planting okra in open ground
Before planting okra from seeds in open ground, hold the seeds for a couple of hours in lukewarm water or in a solution used to stimulate root growth. Planting should be done after the soil has been thoroughly heated. Having made holes, the depth of which is at least 3-4 cm, pour them well and lower them into 2-3 seeds each, sprinkle them with earth. The distance between the holes, leave at least 25-30 cm (if the variety is short) and 50-60 (for tall plants). When growing okra from seeds, after planting, cover the beds for some time with a film, pulling it onto the dug arcs.
The timing of planting okra
Growing okra from seeds at home, begin 30-45 days before planting in open areas in the garden. In some regions, frosts are truly retreating only by the 20th of May, in the more southern part, seedlings or seeds are planted after May 10th. The required soil temperature at the depth required for planting is not lower than 14-15 ° C. Some experienced gardeners advise planting okra seedlings in early June, after full warming up of the soil.
Okra - growing
The advice of experienced professionals on how to grow okra is simple, as the plant does not require serious effort. There are several simple activities that will help you in growing a good harvest:
- Fertilize well before planting, in this case additional feeding is not required. In case of weak development of plants, you can water them, diluted with water, complex, mineral fertilizer.
- It is impossible to overmoisten the soil, especially in the period preceding fruiting.
- To actively stimulate tillering, pinch the main stems at a distance of 50, 60 cm from the ground.
- Provide support for the tall variety.
- Timely spud stems at the base, loosening the ground.
- When growing okra in a greenhouse or under a wrap, provide plants with frequent airing.
All these simple manipulations constitute the main complex of agrotechnical methods of growing okra, their observance will provide the plant with comfortable development and a bountiful harvest. Okra should not be planted on wetlands, or in places where groundwater is located close to the surface, choose places with a light soil composition that promotes high fertility.
How does okra grow?
The growth of this culture is fast. Okra is thermophilic, it is close to eggplant. The optimum temperature that allows the plant to grow normally is 23-26 ° C, when the temperature drops to -16 ° C, okra stops growing and developing, and when it freezes, it dies. Gardeners, sharing their experiences on how to grow okra in a country house, recommend planting it on seedlings. Okra, growing from the seeds of fruit-bearing plants is possible only in heated greenhouses or in very hot regions. Landing sites, choose a well-lit, windless.
Vegetable okra plant - soil
Prepare the soil in the fall, dig and fertilize it with organic, phosphoric and potassium compounds, humus. In the spring, re-dig with the addition of ammonium nitrate. Black soil is best suited for this vegetable crop; in areas where it does not exist, use a greenhouse or film cover, it is believed that okra grows on most soils, except clay, saline or excessively wet. Grown okra from seeds at home will easily transfer the transplant to the land, if done carefully, without disturbing the delicate root system of the plant.
Okra plant - watering
Okra vegetable plant does not need frequent watering, it should be done once every five days, provided there is no rain. This mode of watering is maintained until the time of fruiting, after the first pods on the stems are fastened, it is necessary to water the plant twice a month. Watering produce moderately, do not overdo it, so that the soft roots of okra do not start to rot.
Vegetable plant okra - top dressing
Top dressing when growing okra is done in case of slow growth, poor soil fertility two or three times, in the period preceding the onset of the ovary. Used for this complex of mineral fertilizers, the doses are taken minimal. With the onset of the fruiting period, top dressing is performed once, for this potassium nitrate is used.
The flowering period of okra begins in July, the flower is large, yellowish-creamy, located in the leaf axil, there the fruit is formed, the flowering bright okra looks spectacular. The first fertilizing of mineral elements, you need to make after the onset of budding, provided that the soil is prepared in good faith for planting seedlings or seeds.
Okra - care
According to reviews of vegetable growers, planting and caring for okra is a simple process, but the fruits of this plant have completely unique qualities. Heat-loving, southern plant, with good, proper care, grows well and gives a bountiful crop, not in southern conditions. Planting is best carried out by seedlings, because the seeds have a long period of germination (from 3 to 4 weeks), and require a warm, well-moistened soil.
Regular care of the plant, constant weeding, not allowing around the okra hardening soil, are needed in the first month, in the future so careful care is no longer necessary. Поливать бамию следует в случае сильной засухи, если грунт пересушен, промачивание почвы необходимо на глубину до 40 см. Своевременно пропалывайте и разрыхляйте почву, подкармливайте и поливайте – вот тот минимальный набор мероприятий, в которых нуждается бамия.
Описание растения и его сорта
Растение имеет несколько названий: бамия, альбемош съедобный, гомбо, дамские пальчики. Ботаники относят его к семейству Мальвовых и роду Альбемош. Описать бамию можно так:
- Однолетник. Высота его стебля зависит от сорта. Карликовые разновидности растут всего до полуметра, а высокорослые могут достигать 2 м.
- Large leaves covered with the edge, held by long petioles. Complicated, divided into 5 or 7 blades.
- Stem strong, covered with stiff, sometimes spiny, hairs. At the base it branches into several shoots.
- Flowers in okra solitary, large, cream-colored. The form resembles a gramophone.
- The multi-seeded fruit is represented by a long box (up to 25 cm). It looks like a pod of pepper.
- Peel can be both smooth and fleecy - it depends on the variety.
Homeland okra - Africa. Here its immature fruits have long been eaten. The locals make cloth from the rest of the plant and use it to make glue.
The fruit tastes like something between a zucchini and asparagus beans. The high content of nutrients makes them attractive for supporters of healthy eating.
Attention! It is impossible to store torn boxes for a long time. They become fibrous, coarse.
Crop consumption is growing steadily and breeders are constantly working on replenishing varieties. Among gardeners in demand are the following:
- Star of David - it can be called the most popular variety. The cross section of short (7 cm), thick fruit has the shape of a star. Refers to tall okra. Differs leaves of an unusual purple color.
- Blondie is one of the early maturing varieties. Pods about 8 cm in length. Painted in yellow-green color.
- Cow horn - the stem grows up to 2.5 m. The fruits of the variety are rather long (up to 25 cm), tasty, endowed with a strong aroma.
- Alabama Red - also applies to tall. Differs in dark red pods. It can be used as an ornamental plant.
- Clemson Spineless - fruits are not pubescent. The color of the pods is dark green, their average length is 15 cm. The stalk reaches 1.5 m.
These varieties are well adapted to the climate of the middle zone, but in cool areas it is better to cultivate them in greenhouses.
Okra is a heat-loving plant, therefore in the middle lane it is better to grow it through seedlings. Do it like this:
- A day before sowing, seeds are soaked in a damp cloth.
- The substrate is made from garden soil, peat and river sand (2: 2: 1). Fill them with small containers.
- One seed is planted in each pot, deepening it by 1.5 cm.
- Landing is well watered.
- All pots are installed in one large container and a greenhouse is built around them out of polyethylene.
- Place the crops in a warm place.
Shoots appear after three weeks, after which the film is removed and rearranged the pots on the bright window sill. Caring for seedlings is reduced to regular watering and feeding fertilizer for seedlings. A couple of weeks before the planned planting in the ground seedlings should be hardened, daily exposing them to fresh air.
How to plant okra on a garden bed and care for it
Okra beds are prepared in the fall. To do this, the planned site is well loosened with the simultaneous introduction of manure and superphosphate into the soil. In the spring (before planting) nitrogen-containing fertilizers are additionally added.
Holes digging at a distance of 50 cm from each other. Their size should match the size of the pot. Each plant is planted in one plant, sprinkled with soil and watered. For tall varieties immediately set support. On top of planting mulch compost.
Council In case of strong cooling in the garden it is desirable to install the arc. So you can quickly cover landing.
Okra care consists of the following works:
- plant formation,
- soil loosening
The plant does not require frequent watering. It is enough to moisten the soil as it dries. Be sure to note that when watering the roots of okra quickly rot and the plant may die. The formation is carried out upon reaching the seedlings height of 50 cm. At this time, pinch off the top of the main stem. Reception causes the active appearance of lateral shoots, which, accordingly, increases the number of ovaries.
Loosening the soil is carried out regularly, not allowing the crust to form. The plant can spud. So the moisture will last longer.
Feeding okra is not necessary. If the soil is fertile and the garden is well prepared, then the plant will receive enough nutrients.
How to harvest, what diseases can be encountered
Flowering okra occurs 2 months after planting. On the fifth day after opening the buds, you can begin harvesting. We must not allow overheating of the boxes, they become rough, they cannot be eaten. In the middle lane, it is recommended to collect fruits every 3 days. In areas south, this should be done daily.
Council Seeds of okra can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute.
During the period of prolonged rains, the plant can “attack” the powdery mildew fungi. Since the fruits are collected almost continuously, it is extremely undesirable to fight disease with chemical preparations. To prevent the disease, prophylactic spraying infusions of herbs, onion peels, and garlic is recommended.
The stalks and leaves of okra are affected by a rust fungus, which is manifested by the appearance of red pads on them. With a minor lesion, it is necessary to remove the diseased parts of the plant and destroy them. From pests on okra can be found aphid, spider mites, slugs. For their destruction and scaring is also better not to use chemistry.
Okra is still a little-known culture in the middle lane. However, due to the excellent taste and the efforts of gardeners, the fruits of this heat-loving plant are increasingly appearing on the tables of residents of cool regions.
What is okra - the biological characteristics of culture
Okra is a tall plant of the Malvova family, dwarf varieties of which reach no more than 40 cm in height, and tall ones up to 2 m.
It is not the beauty of the plant that is most appreciated, but its fruits. Vegetable pulp contains a large amount of trace elements, vitamins, protein and folic acid, and this is not all the benefits of okra.
In addition, a powerful liana is used as a decorative culture. Today, new varieties are known that are suitable for cultivation in the regions of our country: these are Juno and Bombay. Their huge flowers, with a diameter of about 25 cm and fleshy bright green leaves, can become an ornament to any flowerbed, and the fruit used in cooking or traditional medicine.
Useful properties of okra:
- decoctions help with sore throat, bronchitis and a strong cough,
- immature ovaries are used in cooking (added to salads, soups, side dishes),
- gombo vegetable removes slags, bile, cholesterol and toxins from the body,
- folic acid will ensure the proper development of the fetal neural tube,
- okra regulates blood sugar levels
- strengthens the walls of blood vessels
- helps to overcome atherosclerosis, depression and chronic fatigue,
- fiber maintains normal bowel function
- reduces symptoms of bronchial asthma,
- rich in vitamins B, C, A and K,
- from trace elements there is iron, magnesium and potassium,
- low calorie - only 31 kcal.
Those who first encountered this vegetable when choosing a new exotic plant for their garden should be aware that the right temperature conditions and lighting should be observed in the room where the okra is growing. The homeland of the plant is hot Africa, so the culture is considered heat-loving.
The best grades for the middle band
There are several of the most popular varieties of okra, which are well adapted to the middle zone of our country, in which it is not too hot and long summer. Each variety differs in terms of ripening terms, size of pods (fruits) and growing conditions.
Consider those species that are suitable for growing in the suburbs:
- Juno. The plant belongs to late-ripening varieties, up to 2 m high. A ripe pod can reach from 8 to 25 cm in length, and have 4-8 facets. Only young fruits, which are not more than 5 days old, can be eaten. Okra Juno is grown either in greenhouses or in open areas under the film. From the emergence of seedlings to the first fruits will need about 115-116 days.
- Vlada. Mid-season variety, the cultivation of which the first fruits can begin to collect after 2.5 months. The plant of okra in height reaches 65 cm. The stem is characterized by a coating of hard fuzz. The flowers have a milky shade, and the leaves are dark green in color. 18 pods can be observed on one stem; fruits should also be eaten young.
- Bombay. For cultivation on open ground, this variety is also referred to as mid-season. The adult plant reaches a height of 60 cm. The flowers are large, the leaves are bright green. 75 days after germination, young fruits can be harvested. From 8 to 10 pods can form on each plant over the summer.
- Lady fingers. Mid-season variety. From the first shoots until the harvest of ripe fruits, it will take 95 days. Ladies fingers grow okra, both in greenhouses and on open ground. The plant reaches a height of 1 m. The finger-shaped fruit can be 6-20 cm long.
- Red velvet. Late variety. The plant has a unique difference - the fruits are red. Vegetable begins to bear fruit 70 days after the emergence of sprouts. The stem, like the pods, also has a reddish tinge.
Okra (okra) is well established in mid-latitudes, and, despite the fact that the plant is thermophilic, does not require special attention. In addition to all of the above, the following varieties have also proven themselves well: Green Velvet, Cow Horn, Star of David, Red Burgundy.
Growing okra from seed through seedlings
Okra is a heat-loving plants, therefore, requires some features of germination. In order to get a crop, you need to remember the basic guidelines on how to grow okra from seed. Since the vegetable loves heat, they can be planted only in those areas where a relatively hot climate prevails. In other cases, it may be heated greenhouse or room conditions. Cultivation and cultivation of okra in the home is in the right temperature and watering. Let us consider in more detail how okra is grown from seeds.
Soil for seedlings
Soil marks are prepared from fertile soil, humus and mineral fertilizers. It should be light and nutritious with a high content of organic matter. Tip! Land for germination may be somewhat poorer in composition and heavier in structure itself than in open ground. This will allow the plant to more easily tolerate the shock after transplanting.
After planting okra seeds in the ground, they need to be watered properly, but so that the plant does not die due to increased moisture. Total should be in moderation. The soil temperature in the pots should not be below 15 degrees, otherwise germination of the seed will be delayed.
As soon as the first sprouts appear, the soil needs to be fed with phosphate fertilizers. It is recommended to carry out such top dressing sometimes also during growth. It is necessary to water a plant 1 time in 5 days or in process of drying of the earth. It is important to understand that okra has a long root, so moisture will have to leak to the bottom of the pot.
As soon as the seedlings appear on two leaves, they will need to thin out and leave the most healthy and strong sprout. Only so in the future you can get a good harvest.
Planting okra seedlings on a permanent place
The okra should be planted at a permanent place only after the soil has fully warmed up, since we should not forget that the plant is thermophilic. Experienced gardeners before planting study the weather forecast for several days in advance to exclude even the smallest frosts.
Seedlings need to be planted in a lighted place so that there is no shade. It is recommended to feed the soil with mineral fertilizers and humus. Well if the soil is permeable. The plant does not like closeness, so the seedlings need to be planted in such a way that there is a distance of 30 cm between the seedlings, and between rows 50 cm.
Watering moderate. The main thing is to be moistened with long roots of okra. If the vegetable grows in greenhouse conditions, then daily ventilation is important in order to stabilize air humidity and temperature.
In the growing season okra needs special care. It is necessary to constantly add fertilizer to the soil and loosen the aisles. In addition, it is important to remove weeds, so as not to create cramped and timely deal with pests.