It is better to take care of the health of fruit and berry bushes in advance, even before the mass appearance of insects. For most regions of Russia, preparatory work on plant protection begins in the spring from April to May.
Preventive measures will save the gardener from large-scale attacks of pests throughout the season and significantly improve the quality of the crop. Today we will look at the most effective methods of dealing with harmful insects and learn how to properly and by what means carry out the treatment of raspberry bushes in the spring.
Protection of raspberries from pests: spring work
The retreat of the winter cold and the beginning of the melting of snow in most gardeners is associated with the beginning of the season of work in the home garden.
When the threat of recurrent frosts has passed, and the sun's activity increases, it's time to worry about the health of berry bushes, including currants and raspberries.
Crimson bushes are more practical to handle immediately after loosening the soil and applying organic fertilizers.
To prevent the spread of infections, which are carried by raspberry pests, the root zone of the plants is mulched with rotted manure. The bacteriological environment suppresses a number of viruses and spores that are dangerous for berry bushes.
The universal means for preventive spraying include broad-spectrum insecticides:
If twice a year, in spring and autumn, to carry out the treatment of planting with these drugs, throughout the season you will not face the problem of attacking a large number of pests on raspberries.
In the case when attacks of certain insect species have already been noted in your garden plot, you should additionally process the bushes with highly specialized means:
Small pests are incredibly voracious and multiply very quickly. Therefore, in the period of the appearance of the first leaves, it is important to additionally re-process the bushes with a standard set of preparations:
As a rule, pests overwinter in soil or plant debris and attack weakened plants.
Spring processing combined with the cleaning of the root zone of fallen leaves and sanitary pruning shrubs.
Description and methods of extermination of pests on raspberries
Neglect of preventive measures is often the cause of the defeat of raspberry bushes near dangerous insects.
To get rid of parasitic pests in the shortest possible time, it is necessary to arm yourself not only with potent drugs, but also with knowledge of the insects themselves and the symptoms of plant damage.
The appearance of gall midges in the bushes is indicated by small swellings in the middle and lower parts of the stems. Tiny flies (up to 2mm long) massively colonize raspberries and spend the first half of the growing season at the age of the larvae. Orange larvae feed on stalks and pupate in the budding phase of the plants.
What is dangerous gall midge? Adult flies can damage up to 2/3 of shoots. In order to minimize damage from the pest, it is necessary to trim the stems with swellings during the season. Damaged stems are not restored.
In order for Gallitsa not to become the reason for the complete loss of raspberry bushes, it is necessary to spray the chemical preparations in time:
The larvae of this pest are also aimed at young raspberry shoots: insects create larger settlements on the stems (damaged areas reach a length of up to 10 cm), which leads to cracking and fragility of the shoots.
In order to combat the nut-cracking, these insecticides are used as:
Small light green adult insects infect the upper part of the raspberry bush, causing the leaves to deform. A large aphid population per season can completely destroy a plant. Because of the colonies of aphids, the formed buds of raspberry flowers fall.
The chemical insecticide market offers a wide range of aphid treatments, the best of which are:
If aphid was seen during the fruiting period, it would be safer to use a folk remedy. Most of the recipe solutions for spraying raspberry shrubs from sprout aphid include ash and soap. We suggest using the following recipe: 400g of ash, pour 6 liters of boiling water, add 50ml liquid soap and leave for 24 hours.
Appears on plants when the thermometer exceeds +8 o C. Weevil attacks strawberry beds and raspberry bushes, eating young leaves and gnawing peduncles. With massive accumulations of this small gray beetle, the gardener is threatened with a complete loss of the crop.
You can scare the weevil from his favorite "treats" with the help of garlic infusion:
- 100g of crushed feathers, shooters or cloves pour 10 liters of water.
- Fragrant tincture will be ready in two hours.
For the extermination of insects use the biological drug "Fitoverm" or an alternative mustard solution: 100 g of dry mustard powder pour 5 liters of water. From the weevil, raspberries are sprayed into the budding phase.
Types of raspberry pests
Types of shrubs pests:
- Raspberry weevil (small beetle up to 3 mm long.).
- Spider mite (arachnid animal).
- Stem gall midge (mostly young shoots ruin).
- Stem fly.
The raspberry beetle is a frequent settler in berry bushes. Beetle description:
- Length 4 mm.
- Grayish black.
- There are hairs on the body.
- Oval torso.
The female of this parasite lays eggs in a flower. The larvae gnaw at the raspberry wormhole. As a result, the berries rot and shrink. The larvae pupate in September.
In summer, the beetle is taken for raspberries. The beetle can damage more than 20% of the crop. It is necessary to fight with the beetle as soon as possible. In the spring, the beetle feeds on pollen and nectar.
The raspberry moth is a dark butterfly. Moth lays red larvae. This is a fairly common pest. It can affect both stems and raspberry leaves. The favorite delicacy of the fly is young shoots.
The wingspan of the fly is 11-14 mm. Mole affects the volume and yield of the crop. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures in order to detect this parasite in time.
Which pests are the most dangerous
List of the most dangerous pests for shrubs:
- Weevil. Very dangerous pest. He can lay eggs in the buds of plants. Beetles eat the leaves, and the larvae eat out the buds.
- Stem gallitsa. This parasite lays eggs in the stalks. Galitsa harms the plant (swelling forms under the crown).
- Fly. The larvae cause drying and blackening of the stems. In the axils of the leaves lay eggs.
How to deal with a fly
- Low cut.
- To spray bushes with karbofos. It is necessary to moisten the leaves evenly. This solution is deadly to pests. This procedure should be carried out in sunny weather. The drug can be purchased at a specialty store. 10 liters of water 75 g karbofos.
- Burning two-year shoots.
How to deal with stem gallfly
- Often used such chemicals (Arivo, Mospilan, Karate). Such chemicals are used before flowering.
- Actelica solution is applied to the bushes in mid-May. On one bucket of water 15 ml Aktelik.
- The smell of dill and garlic scares off parasites. Therefore, plant these plants.
Adding an article to a new collection
To eat every season juicy and sweet berries, you need to carefully take care of shrubs. Find out what insects cause damage to your plants and how to treat raspberries and blackberries from pests.
Raspberries and blackberries have enough enemies that can not only spoil the crop, but also completely destroy the shoots. Worms, beetles or midges rather harmless in appearance are dangerous pests that must be disposed of as quickly as possible.
If the raspberry shoots are badly damaged by the larvae, they are cut to the root and burned. If you have a beetle, you should spread a film under the bushes in the early morning and carefully shake each shoot. Beetles will fall on the film, which must then be minimized and destroyed. It is imperative to dig up the soil under the bushes, and it is best to remove the top layer 1-2 cm thick and take it to the waste pit.
For prevention twice before the appearance of buds and before flowering, the bushes are sprayed with 2% Bitoxibacillin. You can also use guapsin (5 ml per 10 liters of water) - 3-4 times during the growing season with an interval of 2 weeks.
Raspberry stem gallitsa
The stem gall midge resembles a small brown mosquito, whose body length is about 2 mm. It is also one of the main pests of raspberries, which during its flowering at the bottom of the stems lays eggs. The emerged larvae, penetrating inside the shoots, destroy the plant. A characteristic sign are swellings under the cortex - galls.
Raspberry strawberry weevil, or tsvetoed
Most weevil harms flower buds. The female lays eggs in them and gnaws the peduncle. A few days later the damaged flower falls. Some time later, larvae emerge from the eggs, which first feed on the pulp of the bud, and then pass to the leaves. Weevil can be detected by pinholes or small holes in the leaves in early spring, damaged, fallen, weakened and hanging on a very thin stalk buds.
Shoot raspberry gallitsa
With regard to this pest, you must be very careful, because for the season it has 2-3 generations. Because of such an intense spread, you can be left without a crop, since damaged stems either hibernate or break after wintering. To detect the presence of gall midge, it is necessary to slightly delay its edges on young shoots in places of cracking of the bark. Here are the larvae. It is very important to pay attention to the cracking of the bark and the presence of larvae when buying planting material, so as not to introduce the pest into your raspberry tree. The larvae winter in the top layer of soil at the base of the shoot. The first years pass in the second decade of May. The female lays eggs under the bark of young shoots, preferring scuffs, cuts, wounds, cracks. After a week, white larvae appear, which become pink with age, then orange, and after 2 weeks they leave for the soil and pupate at the base of the bush. Departure of the new generation and laying of eggs occurs after 3 weeks from the moment of pupation.
In order to avoid damage to the raspberry jam with a shoots gall midge, it is necessary to acquire varieties that are most resistant to this pest. In any case, you need to use a healthy planting material, and for a greater guarantee - plant young plants without aerial parts, that is, rhizomes alone or root cuttings. The many tested chemical agents in the fight against the escapement gall midge proved to be ineffective.
Adult females winter under the bud scales, settling during their blooming. They live on the underside of the leaves, which are covered with pale green oily blurry spots on top. At the end of August, at temperatures below 11 ° C, ticks lose their mobility and go for the winter.
Do not acquire varieties that are hypersensitive to this pest. It is necessary to remove the stalks in time, make chemical treatment before the pest leaves for the winter. To do this, spray the bushes with fufanon (10 ml / 10 liters of water, consumption - 2 liters per 10 bushes).
Two types of these pests are spread - leaf and shoot aphids. They live in small groups or, on the contrary, in large colonies. Especially dangerous as carriers of viral diseases.
Against aphids need chemical treatments before flowering and after harvest. Sprayed bushes or fufanon (10 ml per 10 liters of water, consumption - 2 liters per 10 bushes), or aktellik (15 ml per 10 liters of water, consumption - 1.5 liters per 10m2), or Intavir (1 tablet per 10 liters of water consumption - 1.5 liters per 10m2). The most common and dangerous diseases are purple spot, verticillium wilt, root rot, overgrowth.
Purple Raspberry Spot
On the young shoots in the lower third appear purple spots. Growing and merging with one another, they capture most of the surface of the shoots. They hibernate badly, are often damaged by a shoots gallfly, lose yields or dry up altogether.
With a significant damage by spotting last year (next spring, before flowering begins), growing shoots, not waiting for the onset of symptoms of the disease, should be treated with topaz (5 - 10 l / 10 l of water). With repeated treatments, the drug must be changed to avoid addiction. For replacement use rubigan (4 ml / 10 l of water), benomyl (2 grams per 10 liters of water).
Raspberry verticillary wilting
The causative agent of the disease is in the soil at a depth of 20 to 30 cm and remains in it for 10 to 14 years (even if raspberries are no longer grown in this place). The fungus penetrates the bush through the bark of the roots and spreads along the vessels further. The first signs of infection are yellowing, withering and death of the leaves. Shoots suspend growth, acquire a blue color, the tops wither, droop, the whole stem turns black and dies.
The use of varieties resistant to this disease, healthy planting material. At the very first symptoms of infection, it is necessary to grub up diseased bushes with a careful selection of roots.
Raspberry root blight
The roots and root neck of the bush turn brown and break down. Lower leaves turn yellow and wither, remaining on the shoots. Especially actively the disease develops on waterlogged soils with poor drainage.
Use only healthy planting material with well-washed root system. And at the first symptoms it is necessary to remove the affected bush with roots. The soil on this place is sprinkled with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 100 g / m2. And the raspberries are not planted there anymore.
Sprouting (dwarfism of the Rubus genus)
The disease is transferred to the cyclists. The infected plant thickens with a large number of small thin shoots (up to 200 pieces / bush) and takes the form of a witch broom. The bush degenerates.
At the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to remove the infected shrub with subsequent treatment of the soil with ammonium nitrate (100 g / m2). Since it is impossible to cure sprouting, all hope is for prevention. It is necessary to acquire varieties of raspberries that are resistant to this disease, for planting, use only healthy seedlings and prevent the appearance of tsadok in raspberries.
Raspberry stem (shoots) Galley
Pest damage raspberries and blackberries. A small mosquito (1.6–2.2 mm), which flies in May-July during the flowering of raspberries. The female lays eggs on the shoots, of which after 8–10 days the larvae appear. They crawl under the bark of the stems and feed on their juice. On the site of the larvae introduction, swellings (galls) are formed, in which the larvae remain to hibernate. Gauls reach 3 cm in length and 2 cm in width. Cracks form on blisters, the bark begins to flake off, the shoot breaks down and easily breaks off at the site of damage.
Raspberry shoots gallitsa - a small mosquito, its larvae penetrate into the stem of raspberries and form swellings (galls) that reach 3 cm in length 2 cm in width
In the spring, in each gall it can be from two to eleven larvae, which grow up to 3-4 mm pupated. At the end of May, during the flowering of raspberries, adult individuals appear. Insect is very harmful, can damage up to 70% of raspberry shoots.
Raspberry sprout aphid
The pest belongs to the order of even-winged insect insects. Color aphid light green with a wax coating, the size of about 2.5 mm. It hits the ends of the shoots and leaf stalks, sucking the juice out of them. The leaves are twisted, the shoots are bent, the growth stops. Raspberries do not bear fruit, as the flowers stop growing and dry out. The pest causes significant damage in drought. Strongly affected by aphids plants lose their frost resistance. And also aphid is a carrier of raspberry viral diseases.
A female aphid lays shiny black eggs on the shoots near the kidneys, where they hibernate. With the beginning of the growing season, the larvae that feed on the juice of the kidneys appear. Rapidly developing, without fertilization, they hatch live larvae. During the season several generations develop. In summer, winged aphids appear, which settle on other plants.
Raspberry shoots aphid - a small (about 2.5 mm) light green insect that infects the ends of raspberry and leaf petioles, sucking the juice out of them
Raspberry weevil (raspberry flower beetle)
The pest can also be called a strawberry-raspberry weevil, since it hurts strawberries and strawberries in addition to raspberries. The black color (maybe with a brown tinge) is a small bug of 2.5–3 mm in size with a long, thin proboscis. Bugs overwinter under plant debris and clumps of earth. In the spring, the pest feeds on young leaves, and before flowering lays eggs one by one in each bud and gnaws the pedicel, which is cracked and remains hanging on a film. From the egg emerges a larva, which eats away the bud and pupates in it. Weevil causes great damage to the crop. In the middle of summer young beetles hatch, which feed on leaves and petioles.
Raspberry-strawberry weevil - a small bug (2.5–3 mm) of black color, damaging the buds of raspberry and pedicels
Народные методы борьбы с вредителями малины и ежевики
If you do not want to poison your plants with "chemistry", use natural products prepared according to the "grandmother's" recipes. In the article Effective folk remedies for diseases and pests of currants and gooseberries, we brought the most popular recipes for various infusions and decoctions that help to cope with garden pests. These products are also suitable for preventive spraying of raspberries and blackberries.
Stick to the chart below and your shrubs will remain intact.
The raspberry gall midge (raspberry mosquito) is the most dangerous pest of this crop. In the spring, insects lay their eggs in crevices on the bark of the plant. From them larvae of white color develop. Eating, the larvae emit toxic substances that cause the formation of galls - swelling, and the bark cracks strongly.The growth of raspberries due to damage slows down, shoots dry out and break when strong gusts of wind. Over time, the larvae fall to the ground, wrapped in cocoons and grow into adult insects. For one season can go through three cycles of pest development.
To fight it, it is necessary in the summer, when most of the larvae are, to destroy infected shoots. It is also recommended to spray the soil under the bushes with a 0.15–0.3% solution of chlorophos twice. The first time this is done when the soil is heated to +13 ° C, before the departure of insects, again - 10 days after the first spraying.
Strawberry raspberry weevilWith the arrival of the first spring heat, the immature beetles begin to eat the young leaves of the raspberry, and with the advent of buds, the anthers from the flowers. Then the female lays the eggs in the bud, gnaws it, and the further development of the pest takes place in the fallen inflorescence.
The larva feeds on a bud, pupates and eventually turns into an adult insect. The cycle is repeated. Infection with strawberry-raspberry weevil can be identified by small holes on young leaves of raspberry, the fall of buds and the presence of larvae in them.
Experienced gardeners advise the following methods to protect raspberries from this pest:
- agrotechnical: digging or autumn plowing under the bushes,
- mechanical: destruction of fallen leaves and buds, shaking off beetles from a plant,
- biological: planting strongly smelling plants between raspberry bushes (garlic, onion, tansy, celandine, mustard, chilli pepper, etc.),
- chemical: spraying the plant before and after flowering with Fufaphone preparations (15 ml of the substance is dissolved in 5 l of water, consumption is 5 l of solution per 10 m²), Kemifos (10 ml of the preparation is added to 10 l of water, consumption is 1.5 l of solution 10 m²), Alatar (5 ml of the drug is dissolved in 4 liters of water, consumption - 4 liters of solution per 100 m²).
Pest larvae, feeding on sap from raspberry stalks, cause cracking and swelling of the bark. Damaged branches bear poorly, break and dry. It differs from stem gall midges only in the size of seals, which can reach up to 10 cm in length. Apply the same control measures as previous pests.
Raspberry leaf aphid
The insect lives on the underside of raspberry leaves in small colonies. It feeds on sap from plant stems and can tolerate viral diseases. Due to the defeat of aphids, raspberries grow poorly and eventually dries out. The main way to combat the pest is the treatment of "Aktellik" or "Karbofos" during the blooming of the kidneys.
Pest preventionBefore you get a good harvest, it is necessary to spray raspberries in the spring against pests. For this they recommend using modern drugs. (for example, the same "Aktellik" or "Karbofos") . Treatment with chemicals, if necessary, is repeated several times per season. If you combine this process with periodic inspection of the bushes and in time to destroy the affected shoots, you can count on an abundance of berries. It is also useful to dig up the soil after harvesting.
Types of pest control products
To control pests, raspberries, like any other cultivated plants, can be processed with biological and chemical preparations. Currently, there is a large selection of them.
It is preferable to use biological agents, as they are less toxic or completely safe for humans and do not accumulate in the fruit.
The essence of the biological method of controlling plant pests is the use of the phenomenon of superparasitism existing in nature or antagonism between microorganisms living on plants or in the soil. The natural enemies of insects and ticks are various microorganisms, among them the causative agents of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of insects and plants.
Bioinsecticides act on pest groups and bioacaricides on ticks. There are drugs that are effective against insects and ticks, they are called insectoacaricides. These include Actofit and Fitoverm. The last treatment with biological products can be carried out shortly before harvesting. Biologics have their drawbacks. Their shelf life is small, in liquid form can be stored from two to eight weeks. And they require special storage conditions. The frequency of biopreparations treatment is higher than with the use of chemicals (every 7–20 days, depending on the drug), with significant lesions may be ineffective.
Since biological preparations have low toxicity or are completely safe for humans, the last treatment can be carried out shortly before harvesting.
The use of chemical insecticides (one type of pesticides designed to kill insects) is more effective, but also less safe for humans and animals. The vast majority of chemicals are highly toxic, so when using them, you must strictly adhere to the dosages, timing of use and precautions specified in the instructions. Chemical preparations usually have a significantly longer waiting time than biological ones, it can vary from 20 to 60 days depending on the preparation.
When treating plants with chemicals, it is necessary to observe precautionary measures and spray plants only in certain periods (taking into account waiting time)
What and when to treat raspberries from pests
If necessary, the processing of raspberries from pests, it is important to properly orient in the choice of drug. There is quite a large variety of them. To ensure maximum protection of plants from pests and to obtain at the same time safe for health products, chemical and biological preparations are best used in combination.
It is important to choose the right pest control product; it is not necessary to abuse chemicals if you can do with biological preparations.
Treatments must be carried out within the recommended time limits, otherwise they may be ineffective. A calendar of treatments is compiled depending on the stage of the seasonal life cycle of the plant.
Agrotechnical methods of protection
When planting raspberries need to consider that it can not be planted after strawberries, potatoes and tomatoes because of the common pests. The best predecessors for this crop will be lettuce, spinach, onions on feathers, radishes and beets.
An important role in pest control is played by autumn autumn plowing (digging) between raspberries between rows. Weeds are destroyed during processing. Some of the harmful larvae and pupae turn to the surface and perish from adverse factors, while the other part is plowed to a depth from which they can no longer escape.
The ground that was dug over in the autumn period in the winter freezes and froze - hence the name “autumn plowing”.
It is recommended to apply the following agrotechnical preventive measures:
- careful care of plants
- weed control,
- thinning thickened areas of raspberry,
- timely cutting and removal of stem-bearing plants (immediately after the end of fruiting),
- cleaning and burning plant residues in raspberry plantations,
- mulching the soil under the bushes with a thick layer (at least 8 cm) so that pests cannot get to the surface,
- cutting of damaged raspberry shoots with galls (damaged by a shoots gall midge and walnut cracker) and burning them,
- low cutting (at the ground without leaving hemp) otplodonosivshih, as well as weak and underdeveloped stems damaged by renal moth,
- cutting and burning of the tops of the shoots
- collection and burning of damaged buds with eggs and larvae of weevil,
- systematic cutting and burning of decaying stems damaged by a raspberry fly,
- shaking off weevil bushes and raspberry beetles on linen or gauze shields or nets,
- harvesting raspberries in tara trimmed inside the canvas, with the subsequent destruction of all the larvae of the raspberry beetle, which came out of the berries and remained on the bottom of the container,
- catching the scoop with the help of light-traps and trapping tanks with odorous baits,
- planting in the ranks of raspberry repellent pests of plants such as calendula, marigold, garlic, dill and others.