General information

The main pests of tomatoes and how to combat them

Like all cultivated plants, tomatoes are also often subjected to the active attack of various pests. Every gardener tries to preserve tomato seedlings, which are often poorly accepted and growing.

For this it is important to pay attention to remedies, otherwise the seedlings may die due to the invasion of parasites, for which the leaves and roots of young plants are an exquisite delicacy. And even if the plant has successfully overcome the main path of development, you should not relax: the pests of a tomato can quickly destroy both green and practically ripe fruits.

Types of Tomato Pests

Tomatoes damage both pathogenic microorganisms and parasitic insects, which belong to different species and have various negative effects on plants. Based on this, it is very difficult to classify all existing pests into separate groups.

Entomologists conventionally divide tomato pests into 2 groups. The first group includes insects that damage the root system, and the representatives of the second group infect the aboveground part of the plants - flowers, leaves and fruits. For the timely detection of a problem, it is important to know how a particular parasite manifests itself, and what needs to be done in order to prevent their appearance or quickly eliminate it.

Tomato root pests

Medvedka is one of the most common and dangerous. The most preferable for the bear are the soils that are well hydrated and fertilized. Plants damage both the larvae and adult insects. Insect equips in the soil moves, which creeps in search of prey. Then gnaws the underground and partly above-ground part of the stem, after which the plant weakens and begins to wilt.

The fight against these pests has been carried out by gardeners for years and brings its results. Usually, agrotechnical measures and chemical means are used for this. Processing tomatoes from pests of this type is usually carried out using drugs such as Medvetoks, Thunder, Bankol, Grizzly, Fenaxin Plus. The complex of agrotechnical measures consists in:

  • regular loosening of inter-row spacings in order to destroy egg clutches,
  • disembarking around the perimeter of the site with farmed marigold tomatoes,
  • device traps (dimples, where insects lay eggs), set in May.

Gardeners should understand that fertilizing the earth with mullein on wet plots of land provokes the appearance of a bear, therefore this procedure should be excluded.

Wireworm

The larvae of this pest destroy the roots as well as the bases of the stems. Externally, the parasites are similar to yellow worms, which is very difficult to crush. The larva lives for about 5 years, and in the first year of its existence it does not give the gardeners a lot of trouble, because, having a tiny size, feeds mainly on weeds. In the future, the wire begins to eat cultivated plants, and thus causes significant harm to the future harvest.

The fight with the wireworm is very difficult. Good results can bring only the use of several methods at once. The most effective chemicals against this pest are considered Force and Provotoks. Granules of these insecticides are put in the wells for planting, and then the drug is washed out with the help of precipitation, and thus provides a residual rather long-lasting effect.

During the season, the larvae can be exterminated with the help of hand-made traps. To do this, chop raw potatoes, strung the resulting slices on sticks and bury them in the ground on the site. A few days later the traps are removed, and the wireworm is destroyed. It is best to start the fight against the pest in the fall, digging deep into the ground and removing the weeds.

In the spring, you can plant siderats, which are best used as rapeseed or mustard - their insects do not tolerate. To scare away the larvae, you can plant some legumes near the plot with farmed tomatoes.

Gallic nematode

The length of an adult insect can reach 1.5 mm. Gall nematodes first settle in the roots, and then gradually creep on the foliage, stalks and seeds. Since their main diet consists of vegetable juice, they damage living tissue of plants. The phenomenon, in which there is a massive defeat of vegetable beds by nematodes, is called melodoidosis. The parasites are most active in hot and dry weather.

Galls in the form of thickenings on the root system of tomato insects settle in order to lay eggs there, from which the larvae will subsequently grow. The development of the roots stops, and the plants begin to dwindle, marveling at the same time as fungal and viral diseases.

In order to prevent the fight against nematodes involves planting cabbage or garlic. In addition, practicing irrigation of the soil with hot boiled water, after which the treated area is covered with plastic wrap for several hours. Disinfection of garden equipment is obligatory. In addition, the soil is treated with the chemical preparation Fitoverm.

Maybot larvae

These pests have the appearance of white or yellow thick worms with three pairs of paws that are in front. They are distinguished by great gluttony, and since they live in the ground, the root system of plants suffers the most from them. With a significant accumulation of these pests in the garden, you can lose most of the crop of tomatoes.

A deep digging of soil with manual sampling of larvae is used as a fight against the May beetle. In addition, it is possible to sow siderat in early spring, for example, white mustard, and just before planting the seedlings of tomatoes, it must be buried in the ground. In the roots of mustard and other cruciferous there are substances that the larvae do not tolerate.

Therefore, cabbage or another cruciferous plant can be grown near tomato beds. Poor tolerates crush and nitrogen. Therefore, as a scare, you can use sawdust impregnated with urea or straw or grind the soil around tomato bushes.

In addition to the manual assembly of adult beetles, you can equip traps of humus. Before this, a fossa with a diameter of 25 cm is made, which is filled with humus. Traps are set in the fall, and before the onset of cold weather, the well should be cleaned so that they are cold and these pests of tomatoes in open ground freeze in winter.

If all of the above methods do not give results, you should resort to a radical method of struggle - the use of chemicals. Processing tomatoes from pests of the Maybolt involves soaking the roots of seedlings just before planting in chemical solutions:

  1. Antihrusch. The solution is prepared at the rate of 10 ml of product per 3 liters of water. The duration of soaking 40-60 minutes.
  2. Aktara 25. For soaking take 0.25% solution. Plant roots should be in it for 2-3 hours.
  3. Prestige. For the preparation of 3 liters of solution will require 30 ml of funds. Soaking time is long - about 7-8 hours.

Pests that destroy the aboveground part

Tomato pests include moth caterpillar. The appearance of an adult individual resembles a moth - it also flies around street lamps all night. In contrast, the caterpillars in the daytime hiding in the upper layers of the soil. At night, insects gnaw the stems of tomato bushes, as well as fruits, after which holes from these pests appear on the tomatoes. If we talk about how to spray tomatoes from pests of this species, then most often use Fufanon, Karate and Zolon.

For catching butterflies you can use molasses. It should be diluted with water, and then add the yeast. The resulting liquid is poured into a flat container and set it on a meter elevation.

Butterflies fly to the smell of molasses and die in liquid. In autumn, the ground needs to be dug, as well as loosening the spacing during the period when the insect pupates. The destruction of weeds is important, because they usually scoops lay their eggs. The collection of larvae from the bush can be done manually.

Sprout fly larvae

Adults usually lay eggs in the soil that has just been fertilized with manure. The size of a gray fly can reach 6 mm in length. She herself is not dangerous for tomatoes. However, after the appearance of larvae, the situation changes.

These small pests damage the stems and sprouts, because of which the plant may not die, but will not bring a good harvest. Therefore, so that the pests of the seedlings of tomatoes do not damage it in the greenhouse, before planting, the roots of the plants should be soaked in a protective solution, for example, Zircon or Epine.

To destroy the larvae, the insecticide Fufanon-Nova is used. It can be used even when these pests of tomatoes are bred in a greenhouse, and in cases of combating them in open ground conditions. The death of the pest is observed about a day after treatment.

An effective remedy against the larvae of the germ fly is the domestic drug, the fly eater. Its granules are added to the well before planting seedlings. Since the drug dissolves in the ground for a long time, only one treatment per season is allowed.

Some summer residents process tomatoes tobacco extract. Helps to deal with this pest and deep digging of beds in the late fall. Rapid disposal of the larvae contributes to the destruction of weeds and vegetation residues.

White fly

The whitefly is a small, light yellow insect with gray paws and bright wings. It usually affects tomatoes grown in greenhouses, as it feels more comfortable in a humid and warm environment. The insect is polyphagous. In addition to tomatoes, it feeds on other plants, including weeds (woodlice, dandelion, sow thistle), which help it to survive in the autumn.

Eggs are laid by females from the underside of the leaves. Soon microscopic larvae (0.3-0.4 mm) appear from them. Sticking to the leaves, they resemble scales of light green color. Usually insects of different ages live on a single tomato bush, and this greatly complicates the fight against them. In addition, the whitefly, being a carrier of various viruses, infects the plant with many diseases.

In order to prevent the infestation of tomatoes by this pest, great attention should be paid to the destruction of weeds, and the doors and vents should be hung with gauze. A great way to get rid of the whitefly is self-made glue traps. To make them you need to paint the plywood sheets yellow and smear it with some sticky substance, for example, with castor oil. The pest is attracted to yellow color, therefore, being in the immediate vicinity of the trap, it adheres to it tightly.

To speed up the harvest, tomato bushes can be shaken from time to time. Soaring butterflies immediately rush to the trap. The caught pests are removed, and the traps are covered with a new portion of castor oil. The trap is also planted in the immediate vicinity of the tomato bush tobacco, which must first be treated with any chemical substance, such as Actellic.

Colorado beetle

With the Colorado potato beetle, all gardeners are familiar. It is easily recognizable by the yellow with black stripes elytra. The pest body is convex, oval, 7-11 cm long, and 4-7 cm wide. Damages the leaf part of the plant. One female lays 50-70 eggs on the underside of the leaf. The development of the Colorado potato beetle has several stages: first, the color of the larva is dark gray, then it becomes red or red-orange and at the last stage becomes orange-yellow.

Pupation of larvae occurs in the ground, at a depth of 8-10 cm. About 2-3 weeks later, a young generation appears. In the cold season, Colorado beetles prefer to stay in loose dry soils, at a depth of 25-30 cm.

Around the middle of spring, when the temperature exceeds 13-15 degrees, the insect crawls out of the ground and begins to feed. First, solanaceous weeds are used for this, after which the pests gradually move to potatoes and tomato bushes planted in the ground.

If the number of larvae and beetles is insignificant, then you can get rid of the insects by collecting them manually. A jar with some kerosene is used as a collecting container. In case of mass infection, it is possible to treat tomatoes from pests with such drugs as Sonnet, Komandor, Iskra DE.

Spider mite

Most often these pests in the beds with tomatoes can be seen after a long drought and heat. They occupy the inner sides of the leaves, entangling them with cobwebs. Then the juice is sucked out of them, after which the foliage becomes at the beginning of the marble color, and then brown.

Soon it starts to dry. In such cases, many use garlic infusion to spray tomato pests. This will require garlic husks (200 g), which is drawn in water (1 liter). The resulting solution can be sprayed both seedlings and adult plants.

To get rid of spider mites, infected leaves must be burned. It is also advisable to periodically dig up the soil and ensure that there are no weeds on it. As insecticides can be used drugs Aktellik or Fitoverm.

For many gardeners, midges on tomatoes are a huge problem. How to get rid of these microscopic dark green insects that live on the underside of the leaves and feed on their juice? After all, these pests, which are called aphids, also attract ants that feed on their excrement. You can suspect the presence of parasites on the yellow drying leaves and fading bushes.

The fight against aphids is to:

  • spraying infected plants with infusion of garlic or onion peel,
  • dusting the cultivated area with wood ash or tobacco dust,
  • moistening insect bushes with soapy water or flea shampoo,
  • spraying infected plants with insecticides such as Karate, Fitoverm or Actellic.

Preventive measures

Alternating crops will help prevent the appearance of pests on the site with cultivated plants and tomatoes. If we neglect this factor, over time, pathogenic bacteria will accumulate in the soil. Therefore, planted tomatoes in the same place every year can not. Related plants should be planted away from each other. This will help prevent the spread of pests that parasitize plants of the nightshade family.

For growing it is better to choose pest-resistant varieties of tomatoes. Proper and constant care of the tomatoes during the cultivation will help prevent the attack of insects. This includes loosening the soil, feeding, weeding, watering. Thanks to these activities, tomatoes develop well, and they develop resistance to harmful insects.

Loosening between rows can achieve the death of such an insidious pest as a wireworm, as well as the larvae of other insects during pupation. And the destruction of weeds favors the development of roots and the destruction of insects that inhabit the upper parts of the soil.

For planting it is important to use only healthy seedlings or seeds. To disinfect the planting material, you can use biological preparations Immunocytophyte or Fitosporin-M. Plants affected by pests must be removed and destroyed. Immediately after harvest, bushes should be harvested and burned. When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, you must clearly adhere to the regime of humidity and temperature.

Following all these recommendations, you can count on a good harvest of tasty and healthy tomatoes.

Under favorable conditions, the disease quickly spreads to the upper leaves, sometimes to the stalks and stalks. Fruits are infected from the leaves. At the places of their attachment to the stem, a brown depressed concentric spot appears. The surface of the stain is covered with a black velvety patina. Sick plants form a small amount

Strick tomatoes in the photo

Strick tomato - viral disease. Manifested in the form of brown necrotic strips on the stems, petioles and stems and irregular shape of brown spots on the leaves. On the peel of green fruit stand brown angular spots, and on ripening - tortuous ribbed tissue tape. Often, the drying of diseased plants begins at the top of the plant. The sharp development of day and night temperatures contributes to the intensive development of the streak.

The disease is spread mechanically during the care of plants and is carried by sucking pests.

Among the measures taken to combat this disease of tomatoes, thermal disinfection of seeds, destruction of diseased plants, application of mineral fertilizers in optimal ratios, disinfection of rubber gloves and working tools with potassium permanganate solution, and aphids and whitefly are applied.

Twisting the leaves of tomatoes in the photo

In the hot years in the southern region, the twisting of tomato leaves became widespread. Это физиологическое заболевание, развивающееся под влиянием неблагоприятных условий — слабого развития корневой системы, запоздалого удаления пасынков, чрезмерной сухости воздуха, недостатка фосфорного питания.

У пораженных растений листья закручиваются на верхнюю сторону вдоль средней жилки, часто в виде трубочки. Урожай плодов резко снижается. It is known that on plants grown from seeds that are obtained from diseased plants, a large number of twisted leaves also sometimes appear.

Twisting of leaves in the southern zone is mainly observed in tall varieties of tomatoes.

To protect against diseases, spraying with drugs is carried out prophylactically, i.e. before the onset of the disease, or when its first signs are detected.

Insect pests of tomatoes in the greenhouse and ground: photos and control measures

Insect pests threaten tomatoes in the open field and in greenhouses.

The most dangerous is the Colorado potato beetle. Everyone knows him, a lot is written about him. The most effective drugs for protecting tomatoes from this pest are: Bison, Tanrek, Iskra Zolotaya, Konfidor and Komandor, Apache, etc. All these long-acting toxic chemicals (up to three weeks). To control the pest of tomatoes, it is important to thoroughly sprinkle in the evening hours with a massive hatching of larvae.

Also damage to tomatoes in open ground and greenhouse pest-whitefly. The same toxic chemicals, as well as Aktara and Aktellik, will save plants from these insects.

In the southern region, tomatoes of medium and late terms of ripening are often affected by moth-eared scoops.

Look at the photo - these pests of tomatoes, biting inside, eat away the seeds and fruit pulp:

The scoop of sweet pepper also suffers from scoops. The fruits affected by the scoop rot. The color of the caterpillars is variable, from greenish, pink to purple-blackish, they are up to 2 cm long.

Since the caterpillars scoops damage the fruit in the initial period of ripening, it is impossible to spray the tomatoes with chemicals due to the need to respect the waiting period.

To stop the harmfulness of the scoop, you can use biological insecticides "Aparin", "Iskra-Bio", "Fitoverm" or "Agrovertin". These preparations can be used even during the harvest period. Last treatment - 48 hours.

This photo shows tomato pests in the greenhouse and open field.

Tomato disease: gall nematode (photo)

Tomatoes are affected and from the defeat of the potato and gall nematodewhere it is very important to respect the culture. Return of the affected crops to their original location no earlier than in 3-4 years.

Tomato pests and diseases are controlled when available. Pesticide spraying is repeated if pests threaten the crop. In both cases, strictly comply with the regulations on the use of drugs.

In the collection of photos "Tomato pests and control of them" clearly demonstrated how to get rid of insects that cause damage to the crop:

Adding an article to a new collection

In our collection - the most dangerous diseases and pests of greenhouse tomatoes, because of which you can not count a significant part of the crop.

Tomatoes can get sick in the seedling stage. Most often they are infected black leg: root neck darkens, rots and thinner. If time does not take action, the plant fades and dies. Therefore, for the purpose of prophylaxis, 3 days prior to planting seedlings in a greenhouse, the soil in it is shed with Fitosporin-M solution (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water, this amount is sufficient per 1 sq. M).

Unfortunately, such prevention will not protect tomatoes from other common diseases and pests that attack plants and their fruits throughout the growing season.

Phytophthalosis of tomatoes

This is one of the most common diseases of solanaceous crops, which is indicated by brown spots on fruits, stems and leaves. Late blight quickly spreads at high humidity and low air temperature. And if external signs of the disease have already appeared on the plant, then it is very difficult to cure them. Therefore, prevention is important.

In polycarbonate greenhouses, it is easier to maintain a low level of humidity, so tomatoes are less likely to suffer from late blight.

Prevention and control measures against late blight

  1. Watch the level of humidity in the greenhouse, ventilate it and do not allow a sharp decrease in air temperature. Water the plants properly. At the first signs of the disease, do it no more than 1 time per week.
  2. For prophylactic purposes use biological preparations. When picking seedlings or sowing seeds in separate containers, apply Trichodermine (5 g per 5 l of soil) into the soil, and before planting in the greenhouse, spill the soil with Gamar and Alirin B (1 tablet per 10 l of water). This amount of solution is enough for a bed of 10 sq. M.
  3. After planting, tomatoes every 2 weeks, spray them with the same solution, only at a concentration of 1 tablet per 1 liter of water.
  4. Try the folk method: take 1 cup of garlic cloves, chop, add 10 liters of water with a temperature of 25 ° C and 1 g of potassium permanganate. The mixture obtained process the plants before flowering and with the appearance of blight - at the rate of 0.5 l per 1 sq. M.

Brown spot, or kladosporioz, tomatoes

Also, due to high humidity and cold, tomatoes can cause spotting: brown spots with a gray velvet coating appear on the underside of the leaves. These are fungal spores that are easily transferred to the plant along with contaminated soil, fallen leaves or gardener's clothes.

Prevention and control of brown spot

  1. For prophylaxis during the growing season, spray the bushes with a solution of Fitosporin-M (2-3 tsp of the drug diluted in 10 liters of water). The following spraying - in 10-15 days.
  2. If biologics prove ineffective, spray the plants with copper oxychloride or Homel (dissolve 30-40 g of the drug in 10 liters of water). If necessary, after 10-14 days, repeat the treatment.

Tomato Mosaic

This viral disease usually affects late tomato varieties that were bred many years ago. Modern hybrids are usually resistant to this ailment.

The mosaic is manifested by a change in the shape and color of the leaves: they are covered with dark and yellow-green spots, curling and shrinking.

Mosaic Prevention and Control

  1. Remove diseased plants with a clod of earth and burn them.
  2. In order to prevent them, spray the plants with Farmod or a solution of ordinary iodine (10 ml per 10 liters of water).
  3. Every 10 days, treat the plants with milk and urea (dilute 1 l of milk in 10 l of water and add 1 tsp of urea).
  4. Cultivate tobacco mosaic virus varieties.

Tomato rot

In conditions of cold and high humidity, as well as with an excess of nitrogen fertilizers, tomatoes can get sick:

  • gray rot (small round spots appear on fruits, stems, leaves and flowers, which eventually become covered with gray mold),
  • brown rot or fomozom (around the stem there is a brown spot with a diameter of 3-4 cm),
  • root rot or anthracnose (the root neck of the plant rot)
  • top rot (on green fruits dry or watery black spots appear, emitting a putrid odor).

Prevention and control measures against rot

  1. At the first manifestations of the disease, immediately remove all infected plants and their fruits, spray Fitosporin-M with the rest of the planting, and spill the soil with the same preparation, but in double concentration, or scatter the drug Barrier on the surface of the ground.
  2. Increase the temperature in the greenhouse.
  3. When planting seedlings, spill the soil with Glyocladin.
  4. Watch the irrigation regime (moisten the soil not very often, but plentifully) and apply a moderate amount of nitrogen to the soil.
  5. If vertex rot is detected, spray the plants with a solution of calcium nitrate (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water).
  6. Grow varieties intended for greenhouses. So, from the early varieties of well proven Leningrad earlyand from later Ural Multiple.

What is dangerous

The insect causes triple damage to plants, namely:

  • sowing on the bottom of the leaves, pulling out the juices from them,
  • carries various viruses,
  • products of excretion in the form of a brilliant bloom (also known as honeydew) create ideal conditions for the appearance of the mob, and then the soot mushroom.
If we add here the fact that whiteflies willingly fly over to other plants, then it becomes clear that we need to deal with them seriously.

How does it look

Adult butterflies are very small: from 1 to 3 mm, and the larvae and the smaller. Upon closer inspection, a white body and pale beige (at a distance - pure white) wings covered with powdery pollen are visible.

What is dangerous

The insect causes triple damage to plants, namely:

  • sowing on the bottom of the leaves, pulling out the juices from them,
  • carries various viruses,
  • products of excretion in the form of a brilliant bloom (also known as honeydew) create ideal conditions for the appearance of the mob, and then the soot mushroom.
If we add here the fact that whiteflies willingly fly over to other plants, then it becomes clear that we need to deal with them seriously.

How to fight

Many use wide sticky traps hung over rows. But this measure is effective only at the very beginning of the raids and is more suitable for greenhouses.

  • Aktara. 1.4 g of the product is diluted in 3 l of water and pour the mixture under the root. In the presence of a large population, tomatoes are also sprayed: a bag of 10 liters of water, 3 times at weekly intervals,
  • Fitoverm. 10 g / 1 l give a strong effect. Often enough and one treatment. To consolidate the result after 10-14 days, another approach is taken (but no more),
  • Spark Golden. 40 g of powder is stirred in 10 l of water and applied as watering. One procedure is enough (the effect lasts 3 weeks),
  • soap solution. The laundry soap is rubbed on a grater and dissolved in water (1: 6 ratio). Beating the mixture in the foam, it is applied to the tomatoes with a sponge. You can also spray the stems and leaves - in this case, no need to whisk, just make sure that the liquid does not go deep into the soil. Frequency: 1-2 times, with a break of a week
  • garlic infusion. 2 middle teeth are small and put in 1 liter of water. Keeping the day in a dark place, decant, and then sprayed plants. 2-3 approaches, a break - 7 days,
  • infusion of tobacco. Taking a pack of strong cigarettes like "Prima", they are crushed and fall asleep in 1 liter of boiling water. After 5 days of sludge. The fluid is decanted. Spray until the complete disappearance of whiteflies, with a difference of 3 days.

Gallic nematode

Another scourge of greenhouses and crops growing nearby. Insidious for its tiny size.

How does it look

The micro-worm grows to 1, maximum 2 mm in length. These filamentous insects sometimes resemble a egg capsule in shape (which is typical for females that produce large offspring).

What is dangerous

In the ground fall, mainly with infected seedlings. In such an environment, nematodes affect the tissues of rhizomes, which appear painfully thickened tubers.

How to fight

The range of drugs is very limited - the most powerful compounds that destroy the worm are simply forbidden for use in suburban areas. But there is a way out. Help in the fight will be:

  • Fitoverm. The frequency of application is the same as in the case of whitefly, but the dose is often adjusted (instead of 10 g per 1 l of water, 12-13 are added),
  • garlic infusion.
But the most effective preventive application of bleach. A month before planting, per 1 sq. M of "patch" under the tomatoes evenly contribute 100 g of bleach, without forgetting to patch up the soil with a rake. The use of this substance directly in the transfer of seedlings is not recommended - strong chlorine on contact inhibits young plants.

Colorado beetle

This potato lover is known to all. Although no less attractive target for the insect are the close rows with tomatoes.

How does it look

Orange larvae grow as they grow from barely noticeable orange dots in orange insects that look like short but fat worms. Adults can grow up to 1.2-1.5 cm in length with a width of 7 mm. Their little body and head with antennae are yellow, and on each gray-white wing there are 5 black stripes.

What do they look like

This is a rather large insect - the larva may be 4-5 in length, and even up to 7 cm. The wrinkled body of a milky yellow color is crowned with a reddish head with antennae and conspicuous chews. In front of the body are three pairs of legs. On the sides are visible row light brown markings. At rest, it twists and resembles the letter “C” in shape.