General information

Milk: types of milk and dairy products, production and storage


The technological scheme of production of all types of pasteurized milk includes the following operations: acceptance and evaluation of the quality of raw materials, cleaning and normalization, heat treatment and homogenization, cooling, packaging, bottling, labeling and storage.

Milk acceptance quality in dairy plants. The quality of milk at the time of delivery and acceptance must meet the requirements of GOST R 52054-2003 “Natural cow's milk - raw materials”.

When receiving the quality of milk assessed by organoleptic characteristics, fat content, acidity and temperature. For the production of pasteurized milk, the applied natural milk should not be lower than the 2nd grade. Requirements for the quality of raw milk are given in Table. 1, where KMAFanM - the number of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, CFU - colony forming units, BGKP - bacteria of the group of intestinal sticks.

Table 1. Indicators of the quality of raw milk

With quality assessment an average sample is taken from the milk batch - a part of the product taken from each package in one container, and from road or railway tanks - from each compartment separately. Before sampling the average milk sample is mixed until complete homogeneity. On a container with an average sample of milk stick a label, indicate the sensor and the date of receipt.

Cleaning and normalization of milk

The milk entering the plant contains mechanical inclusions; therefore, centrifugal purification of milk is used on milk separators, which is carried out simultaneously with normalization. Cleaning, normalization, homogenization, pasteurization and cooling occur in the stream on plate pasteurization and cooling plants complete with a homogenizer.

After cleaning and cooling (up to 2-4 ° C), the milk, if necessary, is stored in intermediate tanks for no more than 48 hours.

Cleaning and normalization is carried out at 40 ± 5 ° С on separators-milk cleaners and separators-cream separators. Normalization is carried out in the stream by mixing cream and skimmed milk in such proportions as to ensure the desired fat content of the milk.

Normalized milk mixture enters the homogenizer - high pressure plunger pump at a temperature of at least 60 ° C. At a pressure of 12.5 ± 2.5 MPa, the fat globules are crushed in the homogenizer, and milk fat, which is destabilized as a result of mechanical and thermal exposure, acquires a protein-lecithin shell. The size of the fat globules during homogenization decreases 10 times. Due to the homogenization of milk during the implementation period, the formation of a cream plug on the surface of milk is slowed down.

Heat treatment of milk

In the production of milk and dairy products, the following types of heat treatment are used: thermalization, pasteurization, heating, sterilization, and ultra-high-temperature processing of milk (UHT treatment).

Thermalization - the process of heat treatment of raw milk, which is carried out at a temperature of from 60 to 68 ° C with a holding for up to 30 s, while maintaining the activity of milk alkaline phosphatase.

Pasteurization - heat treatment of milk at temperatures below its boiling point, carried out in order to deactivate milk microbiologically, inactivating enzymes, giving the milk a certain taste and smell. Pasteurization of milk weakens or destroys some of the vices of taste and smell of milk, and in combination with cooling and aseptic filling, eliminates secondary seeding with microorganisms and prevents spoilage of the product during storage. Possible bacterial contamination during technological processing of milk is clearly visible.

The critical temperatures of the death of pathogenic microorganisms are lower than those of lactic acid, especially thermophilic bacteria, the most resistant bacteria of tuberculosis. The temperature of destruction of enzymes are also different. Thus, phosphatase is inactivated at 72–74 ° C, native lipase at 74–80 ° C, and bacterial lipase at 85–90 ° C.

Pasteurization temperatures of milk and mixtures are established taking into account the critical temperatures for the death of microorganisms, the inactivation of enzymes, and also for the purpose of imparting certain properties to milk, on which the yield and quality of the product depend.

Currently used two types of pasteurization:

  • low-temperature - is carried out at a temperature not higher than 76 ° C and is accompanied by inactivation of alkaline phosphatase,
  • high-temperature - carried out under different conditions (temperature, time) at a temperature of from 77 to 100 ° C and is accompanied by inactivation of both phosphatase and peroxidase.

Milk heating - the process of aging the milk, carried out at a temperature of 85-99 ° C for at least 3 hours or at a temperature of 105 ° C for at least 15 minutes. This reduces the biological value of milk, but it acquires the characteristic organoleptic characteristics - a nutty taste and smell, cream or light brown.

Sterilization - heat treatment of milk at temperatures above 100 ° C. At the same time, all types of vegetative microorganisms, their spores are completely destroyed, enzymes are inactivated.

The following types of sterilization are used in the dairy industry: sterilization in containers at a temperature of 115-120 ° C with an exposure of 30 and 20 minutes, treatment with ultrahigh temperatures (UVT treatment or ultra-pasteurization) at a temperature of 140 ° C with an exposure of 2 seconds.

UHT treatment followed by aseptic packaging ensures that the product meets the requirements of industrial sterility and is carried out in a stream in a closed system with an exposure of at least 2 with one of the following methods:

  • by contact of the processed product with a heated surface at a temperature of from 125 to 140 ° C,
  • by direct mixing of sterile steam with the processed product at a temperature of from 135 to 140 ° C.

After heat treatment, the milk is cooled to 4-6 ° C, checked for quality and packaged in small or large containers.

The finished product is stored in refrigerators at a temperature of 0-8 ° C and a relative humidity of 85-90%. The storage time of most types of pasteurized milk is not more than 36 hours after the end of the technological process.

General information

Milk is a nutrient fluid that is produced by the mammary glands of mammals. Its natural purpose is to feed cubs that are not yet able to digest other food.

Milk and dairy products are part of many types of ghjlernjd used by humans. Their production has become a huge industry.

Milk and dairy products

Milk is obtained by secreting the mammary glands of mammals. It is a white liquid (sometimes it may have a yellowish tint) with a sweetish taste.

Most often in our country they use cow milk processed in dairy plants. However, in other nations this product is often obtained by milking other animals. For example, sheep, mares, camels, goats and others. So, the mare's milk is ideal for making koumiss, making sheep cheese from sheep, and from camel - shubat.

What are the ingredients of milk? Types of milk are different. That is why their composition changes. It also depends on the animal breeds, the stage of its lactation, the time of year and so on.

According to experts, this product includes complex proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.

The mammary gland of an animal consists of a multitude of cells permeated with lymphatic, blood and nerve vessels. They deliver all the necessary substances for the synthesis of milk.

It should also be noted that the composition of this product includes fats and carbohydrates in the form of monosaccharides and lactose. The splitting of the latter in the intestine occurs rather slowly. Due to this, fermentation of this product is restrained.

Milk fat is determined by the amount of fat contained in it. They are in a state of emulsion and are a complex mixture of triglycerides, which contain fat-soluble vitamins and lecithin.

It should also be noted that the fat content of milk determines its caloric content. Although experts say that even the fattest product does not contain more than 60 kcal per 100 ml.

What is milk? Types of milk

Pasteurized milk is most commonly consumed. It is divided into several types:

  • Whole. This is normalized milk, which contains a certain amount of fat (that is, 2.5% or 3.2%).
  • Refurbished. Such milk is partially or fully prepared from canned milk, which is cleaned, pasteurized, homogenized, cooled, poured and so on. This product is often obtained by dissolving powdered whole milk in warm water and holding it for four hours. It is during this time that proteins can swell, the watery taste disappears, and normal density and viscosity form.
  • Ghee. It is no secret to anyone that the color of baked milk has a pleasant creamy hue. This is due to the fact that its fat content is at least 6%. It is pasteurized and homogenized at a temperature of about 95 degrees and aged for four hours. By the way, it is this kind of processing that makes the color of baked milk creamy, and also gives it a special taste and aroma.
  • Milk of high fat content. This is a normalized product that is subjected to homogenization. As a rule, it has a fat content of 6%.
  • Protein. It is not just milk. In the process of normalization, condensed milk or milk powder is added to it. This product has a high content of fat-free components.
  • Vitaminized. It is very tasty and healthy milk. It is made from a low-fat or whole product and is enriched with vitamins C, A and D.
  • Non-greasy The quality of low-fat milk always leaves much to be desired. Such a product is obtained from a pasteurized beverage by separation. Usually its fat content is 0.05%.

Now you know what milk is like. The types of milk have been listed above.

According to some nutritionists, such a product that is subject to sterilization can cause significant harm. This is due to the fact that with such treatment, calcium and milk protein are denatured and subsequently cause health problems.

Recycling in factories

The harm of milk is that it can negatively affect the state of the human digestive system. However, this only happens if this product has been spoiled.

To increase the shelf life of the beverage in question, fresh milk is first filtered and cooled, and then sent to factories. There it is cleaned, pasteurized, normalized, homogenized, and also cooled and packaged.

Due to this treatment, this drink retains all the useful qualities. Moreover, the growth and development of microorganisms trapped in it is prevented.

Milk, camels, cows, goats, mares, etc., do not produce, but produce by milking animals. However, in the future it is subjected to special treatment. This drink is cleaned in centrifugal milk cleaners, and also filtered under high pressure. As a result, all impurities are removed from the product.

To rid the milk of bacterial cells, use special centrifuges. As you know, this cleaning process is called baktefunirovaniem.

Types of processing

Just milk can not get on the shelves. In industrial conditions, it is necessarily subjected to any processing.

Normalization of milk is called an increase or decrease in the content of fat drops in it. Do it to bring the above indicator to the norm.

The fat content of the store product should not be higher than 3.2%. To do this, it is processed using a separator-normalizer or mixed with whole milk.

Pasteurization of the considered beverage is carried out to increase its shelf life. To do this, the normalized milk is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not exceeding 85 degrees with an exposure of 15-20 seconds.

Pasteurization is short-term, instant and long-term. For all these types of processing use different equipment.

According to experts, instant pasteurization is carried out without exposure for a few seconds. At the same time, the heating temperature reaches 85–90 degrees.

With a short pasteurization, the drink is heated to 75 degrees and held for about 17 seconds.

Long pasteurization is carried out at a temperature of 65 degrees with a shutter speed of half an hour.

Most often, in factories, milk, the price of which is indicated below, is subjected to short-term pasteurization.


Another type of milk processing is homogenization. This method is necessary for the further manufacture of fermented milk products.

What is homogenization? This is a mechanical crushing of droplets of fat into small particles. Such processing of the drink is carried out with the aim of obtaining an emulsion that does not stratify during storage.

After homogenization, the product is rapidly cooled to 4–6 degrees and sent for dispensing.

Fermented milk products are obtained only from pasteurized milk. As a rule, this happens in two different ways - reservoir and thermostat.

In the reservoir method, the finished product, which was previously aged for ripening and ripening in special containers, is poured into the tank.

In the thermostat method, the homogenized beverage is poured into containers and fermented in thermostats, and then cooled to a temperature of 8 degrees.

In rare cases, for the sterilization of milk using the method of activation. It is based on the use of infrared and ultraviolet radiation.

Features of the milk of various animals

Many people are used to thinking that homemade milk is cow's milk. However, in some settlements, including in our country, other types of this product are used. It is obtained by milking various animals. Consider the features of these drinks right now.

This fat milk, rich in proteins. It is characterized by high density and acidity. Due to the lack of carotene it has a grayish tint.

Sheep drink contains 6% protein. At the same time 80% is casein, and 20% are whey proteins.

This product is actively used for the preparation of the following types of cheeses: pecarino, cheese, kashkaval, roquefort, Cobian cheese and others. It should also be noted that in Central Asia oil is made from it.

This product is rich in albumin, phosphorus, calcium and vitamin C. Due to the small amount of coloring matter, it has a light color. After drinking, this milk coagulates and forms small flakes. Because of this, it is easily absorbed by the body.

Goat drink consumed in whole and processed form. Cheese and dairy products are made from it. They differ in therapeutic and prophylactic properties, especially useful in gastrointestinal diseases.

This drink is quite often included in the diet and baby food.

According to historians, the horse was originally domesticated in order to produce milk and meat. A little later, this animal began to be used to help in the household.

Mare drink has a sweet-tart taste and bluish tint. Moreover, for him the characters are bactericidal properties. This product is very often used for making koumiss. It is used in the treatment of ulcerative diseases of tuberculosis and anemia.

This drink is the main food product of the desert and semi-desert population of Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Georgia and Armenia. It has a sweetish specific flavor and thick texture.

Camel milk can be consumed both fresh and in the form of such fermented milk products as Ayran, cottage cheese, katyk, shubat, chal and others. They also make cheese and butter. All listed products are characterized by high healing properties.


Buffaloes are bred in many countries. Such animals are quite resistant to hot climates. Their milk has a pleasant taste and aroma. It is very thick, and also contains a lot of minerals, protein and fat.

This product is consumed fresh. They also make butter and cheeses.

According to its physical properties and chemical composition, this milk is very close to mare. The composition of this product includes many immunoglobulins. That is why it is used to treat children, including newborns.

Donkey milk is often made koumiss.

This drink has a rather thick texture that resembles cream. As a rule, it is diluted before use.

Milk products

Cow's milk (GOST), as well as goat, mare, camel, etc., can be consumed not only in whole form, but also in the form of dairy products. The most common ones are the following:

This is the fatty part of milk produced by separation. It has a high fat content, due to which it has a high nutritional value.

Cream is eaten after pasteurization. Она проводится под высокой температурой. Это придает им особый аромат и вкус, а также гарантию чистоты от различных бактерий.

Пастеризованные сливки имеют кремовый оттенок, сладковатый вкус и однородную консистенцию.

Чтобы молоко хранилось дольше, его консервируют. Depending on the production of such canned food are divided into dry and condensed.

Dry foods are obtained by removing moisture from the milk. Thanks to this treatment, they persist for a long time.

Milk, sweetened with or without sugar, is made from a fresh, whole or skimmed beverage. Water is evaporated from it, and then canned or simply sterilized.

The main process in the preparation of canned products is the pasteurization of their base, that is, milk. After that, it is sent to a vacuum apparatus, where the temperature is maintained at no more than 55–57 degrees. Next, condensed milk is cooled and poured into banks.

Due to the use of sugar, this product has a high calorie content, as well as good taste.

Such a product is obtained by drying pasteurized whole milk. It may have a faint aftertaste and a slight creamy tint. It should also be noted that burnt particles may be contained in such a powder.

In addition, you can find skimmed milk powder on sale. It is made from low fat drink.

Such a powder is made from pasteurized cream by drying it. They are packaged in sealed or unsealed packaging.

Few people know, but it is an easily digestible product. It contains all the main components of milk. After a certain time, the oil loses its flavor. It is made of cream by churning in a butter churn. This fat is consumed and just like that, and is used to prepare various dishes.

Butter can be salted and unsalted. It contains about 25% moisture, as well as 71% or 72.5% fat and 1.5% salt. This product is characterized by a high content of mineral salts, vitamins of the PP, B and C group.

Such a sweet and tasty dessert is made from cream or pasteurized milk by mixing with stabilizers, sugar, as well as flavors and flavors. All ingredients are frozen and whipped thoroughly.

Such products are obtained during the production of butter, drinking dairy products, cheeses and cottage cheese. These include buttermilk, whey and skimmed milk.

Milk is usually stored at a temperature of 2-5 degrees for about 2-3 days. With its industrial processing, this period can be increased several times. If milk is packaged in special bags or bottles, then its shelf life often reaches several months. However, the benefits of such a product is very doubtful.

To significantly increase the shelf life of the beverage in question, it is thickened with sugar or dried.

Why not drink milk?

The harm of milk lies in the fact that with its long-term use a person begins to experience severe weakness. According to some experts, fans of this product quickly accumulate fats and accelerate the aging process.

It should also be noted that the use of such products can cause osteoporosis, allergies, indigestion, flatulence and artery blockage. That is why many nutritionists recommend to exclude from your diet, milk, butter and cream. As for low-fat yogurt and cheeses, they can afford, but only in limited quantities.

The benefits of the product and its price

How much is milk? Its price depends on the type and method of processing. As a rule, the cost of one liter of this drink varies in the range of 30-65 rubles.

Concerning the usefulness of milk has long been debated. Some experts claim that this is a harmful product. However, most of them are of the opinion that this drink is very useful for the normalization of cholesterol metabolism. It also has a beneficial effect on the digestive system.

The positive effect of this product on the human body is due to the high content of water in it, as well as the presence of methionine, which is involved in the formation of hemoglobin.

It should be noted that during the research scientists found that animal milk helps stimulate kidney function. In addition, dairy products are the best means designed to normalize the intestinal flora. Their regular intake prevents the putrefactive processes and restores the work of the digestive system.

According to experts, the use of milk in food contributes to the protection of the body. It reduces the sensitivity of cells to the hormone insulin. In addition, people who consume butter, milk, cheeses and yogurts every day have a much lower incidence of high cholesterol and elevated blood pressure.

Milk diet reduces the risk of obesity syndrome and insulin resistance, which very often provoke the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

According to some scientists, potassium, calcium and magnesium in large quantities in dairy products reduce the risk of hypertension. Moreover, thanks to this drink it is possible to exclude the development of heart attack, diabetes mellitus and stroke.

Primary milk processing

Processing milk allows you to get a large number of other tasty and healthy products.

This is a high-fat dairy product. The cream is produced in a separator, but you can simply let the fresh milk settle for 12-14 hours in a jar or earthenware at room temperature. A thick layer (cream) is formed on its surface, which is drained into a separate container.

It can be made from sour cream. To do this, they must first be pasteurized in a pan of boiling water, pouring into a tin flask. Next, the cream should stand for 6-8 hours at a temperature not higher than seven degrees. Then add sour cream to the cream (not more than 100 g per 1 kg of cream), mix and sour again at room temperature. To do this, it is better to put the container with the milk mixture in the refrigerator. A maximum of two days of pasteurized cream will get sour cream.

The fat content of sour cream depends on the cream used to make it. Sometimes sour cream is made from butter, which is melted in warm milk, pasteurized, thoroughly mixed, slightly cooled and fermented.

To make cottage cheese, milk needs to be boiled, cool a little and add leaven to it (for example, 50-100 g of sour cream or yogurt are added to 1 liter of liquid, depending on the fat content). The mixture should be allowed to stand until a clot forms in it.

Fig. 1. The procedure for cooking cottage cheese at home

After that, the container is placed in a large basin or pot of water and slowly begin to heat (the temperature should not exceed 70 degrees). When the serum starts to separate from the clot, the mass should be constantly mixed. After the clot settles to the bottom of the dish, it is transferred to a clean cloth (preferably gauze) and suspended so that the glass is liquid (you can simply squeeze it out).

  • Cream and ghee

To prepare a kilogram of butter will take about 25 liters of milk, depending on the fat content. First you need to make the cream, make them pasteurized, cool quickly and leave to ripen at a temperature no higher than six degrees.

After ripening, the cream is poured into a butter churn and begin to churn to obtain individual grains of oil. Often it takes about half an hour. In the process of cooking butter will form a serum (or buttermilk). It needs to be drained, and the resulting oil is thoroughly rinsed with cold water. The result is a clot that you need to continue to churn until it acquires the consistency of oil.

Ghee is prepared in order to extend the shelf life of conventional butter. It is very simple to prepare it: some hot water is poured into a small container, pieces of butter are put into it and placed in a large saucepan or basin with water, which is practically brought to a boil. When the oil is completely melted, add salt to it (no more than 15 g per 1 kg of oil), mix and settle. As a result, it forms fat, which is ghee. It is carefully drained, and water and sediment remain in the tank. Ghee, in comparison with ordinary butter, is almost entirely composed of fat, and has almost no water.

For its preparation use boiled milk, cooled to room temperature. A special kefir starter is added to it and left for a day or two in a cool place.

By-products of cooking butter, cream and cream are whey, buttermilk and reverse. They are rich in vitamins, proteins and mineral salts, so cheeses and cottage cheese are often made from them.

Note: Buttermilk curd is a very valuable dietary product with high nutritional properties. It is especially useful for older people.

In addition, the inverse, whey and buttermilk are often used to feed calves and piglets, which saves whole milk.


A pasteurisation procedure is used to remove unwanted microorganisms from the milk, as well as to impart a specific taste and smell to it. It is a heat treatment at a temperature below boiling point. At the same time take into account the critical temperature of the death of certain harmful microbes, bacteria, as well as inactivation of enzymes.

The combination of cooling pasteurized milk with its aseptic filling prevents microorganisms from re-entering it, and also ensures the safety of the product.

At the moment, two types of pasteurization are used: low and high temperature. Low-temperature pasteurization is designed to inactivate alkaline phosphatase and is carried out at a temperature of 76 C. High-temperature inactivates both phosphatase and peroxidase. It is carried out at a temperature of 77-100 C.

From the video you will learn how to pasteurize at home.


If milk is subject to heat treatment at the boiling point (ie, 100 degrees), then it is said to be sterilized. The sterilized product does not contain pathogenic microorganisms and their spores, its enzymes are inactivated.

Sterilization, as the primary processing of milk, is carried out in several ways:

  • Sterilization in the container at a temperature of 115-120 degrees (20-30 min)
  • UHT - processing (ultra-pasteurization) with temperature indicators of 140 ° C (2 sec.) Ensures the sterility of the product and is carried out either by contacting the product to be heat treated with a heated surface, or by direct mixing of sterile steam with the raw material.

Sterilized milk is cooled and stored in the refrigerator for no more than 36 hours at a temperature of 0-8 C from the time of production.

How much milk does a cow give per day?

The milk productivity of a cow directly depends on many factors: the breed, age and number of calvings (a cow gives more milk at each next hotel than at the first) and a diet. In addition, preventive medical examinations of the animal and a properly organized milking and grooming process play an important role.

Note: To improve milk production, it is recommended to milk the cow three times a day.

The time of calving also plays an important role, as in the winter period of calving a cow gives more milk. An animal is able to produce this product throughout its life, however, over the years, the number of milk production becomes different. For example, daily milk yield increases between calving and the next pregnancy and may be 20 or more liters.

Why does the cow taste bitter milk in winter

In winter, the time of milk is often observed Among its causes are the infection of the animal with helminths (fascioliasis), the lack of certain minerals, the inclusion of bitter herbs in the diet, various types of mastitis.

Note: You should be aware that many herbs contain a number of substances that can affect taste. Among them: cruciferous (their consumption leads to accumulation of alkaloids in the product), green onions (adds bitterness thanks to its essential oils), wormwood, tansy, horse garlic, sweet clover, potatoes, carrots in large quantities also change the taste.

The quality of feed should be carefully considered: the grain affected by mold fungi also affects the taste of milk.

Therefore, when bitterness appears in milk, it is first necessary to review the diet of the animal in order to exclude provoking factors. In the summer, it is also necessary to conduct regular inspection of pastures to adjust vegetation cover.

Of course, you need to monitor the health of cattle. After all, fatty liver or hepatitis also lead to milk spoilage.

The most common cause of changes in taste is cow disease mastitis. The danger of this disease is that it is hidden, and has no pronounced changes. However, it is possible to suspect this disease because of the bitter taste of milk in winter and autumn. To confirm or refute your suspicions, it is necessary to pass a sample for the presence of somatic cells in it.

If milk changes not only its taste, but also its color, if there are lumps in it, this indicates other diseases (reproductive system, liver) or is a consequence of injuries or bruises received by animals.

When can I drink milk after calving a cow

The first few days after calving, the cow does not give milk, but colostrum. This product is mainly used for feeding calves, but it can also be eaten by humans. However, colostrum has a very specific taste.

Terms of the beginning of the use of milk vary depending on the individual characteristics of the cow. On average, milk becomes edible approximately 10-14 days after calving.

Quality requirements

In the past, people did not process dairy products, but consumed a natural drink. However, the shelf life of fresh milk is very small, therefore, currently in the dairy industry undergoing the process of heat treatment of cow's milk in order to increase its shelf life.

At any dairy plant there is a certain chain of actions for the production of pasteurized product.

First, the production comes raw materials from which the drink will be subsequently produced. At this stage, the procedure of acceptance and evaluation of the quality of raw materials. Received products must meet the standards set forth in GOST R52054-2003 "Natural cow's milk - raw materials." To verify compliance with each container take a sample and evaluate several criteria, and then assign a category. Suitable for further processing is considered the highest milk - 1 and 2 categories. After that, the raw materials undergo a stage of purification and normalization, then the milk is homogenized and subjected to heat treatment. After that, the finished product is cooled to the required temperature, packed in packages with a mark on the date of manufacture, and delivered to stores.

In our country and several other states, all dairy products produced in packaging must strictly comply with GOST 31450-2013 “Drinking Milk. Technical conditions. The standard describes the external and other characteristics of a cow drink with a fat content of less than 10%, which was subjected to heat treatment.

The standard also specifies the permissible amount of certain substances in the finished product, permitted stabilizer salts, requirements for packaging and labeling milk, the rules for acceptance, transport and storage, as well as methods of control.

Types depending on the type of treatment, their benefits

For many, milk consumption is associated with childhood memories of vacations in the countryside. Indeed, 100% natural product can be found only in farms. Such milk has a high percentage of fat content, it is susceptible to fermented milk microorganisms, and therefore is not stored for long. There are two types of natural raw materials:

  • steam room - recently obtained raw material from the mammary glands of a cow, which did not undergo heat treatment,
  • whole - whose composition has not been subjected to any changes by the person.

Natural milk has a positive effect on the immune system, the nervous system and digestion. This raw material contains vitamin A, which is good for the eyes, vitamin B, rich in vitamin D, which will save the body from osteoporosis and rickets. Phosphorus and calcium are abundant in minerals in large quantities - they help strengthen bones. In addition, in natural milk are present:

This product is considered low-calorie. But it is worth remembering that fresh milk loses almost half of the beneficial properties within a few hours after milk yield. It is prohibited for sale because of the risk of contracting dangerous diseases - leukemia and brucellosis.

All raw materials arriving at dairy plants in the process of mechanical processing into quality products undergo heat treatment, which allows to increase the shelf life of milk and save it from possible infections. There are several types of heat treatment of milk.


При ультрапастеризации или УВТ-обработке сырье в вакуумной среде нагревается до температуры 145 градусов на пару секунд, а затем незамедлительно охлаждается до 4-5 градусов. При правильной упаковке ультрапастеризованное молоко может храниться без охлаждения на протяжении нескольких месяцев. Процесс ультрапастеризации может производиться двумя способами. Either the product comes into contact with the surface heated to the required temperature, or the sterile steam is mixed with dairy raw materials.

This product is less useful than just pasteurized, but still stores more of the necessary elements, rather than sterilized drink.

In addition, there are several types of milk.

  • Normalization - this is only an adjustment of the components of the future drink. The process involves first separating the cream, and then adding them the right amount in accordance with the required fat content.
  • Recovery - is mixing the dry component with water. Recycled milk should be attributed to milk drinks.
  • Mixed milk obtained by combining pasteurized dairy product with a dry powder. This method helps to adjust the number of components in the finished product.
  • From fat, cream, water and condensed milk get recombined milk. To identify a product according to GOST, computer programs are used. Often in the composition of such a drink add cheap and not always healthy components.
  • For people with lactose deficiency release lactose-free milk. In the product, glucose and galactose are separated. The taste of the drink is similar to ordinary milk, and there is as much benefit from it.

How to understand that milk is natural?

Unfortunately, the buyer can assess the quality of milk only after purchase. There are several simple ways to assess the naturalness of a dairy product at home.

  • You need to take litmus paper, put it in a glass of milk and wait a bit. The blue color indicates the presence of soda or other alkali in the drink, and red indicates the addition of acids for bleaching. The permanent color of the litmus will indicate the absence of additives.
  • Add a couple of iodine drops to the milk. If the drink turned blue, then there is starch in it.
  • You should take the purchased product and alcohol in a 1: 2 ratio and shake. Then pour the mixture into a saucer and detect the time of formation of white flakes. If they appear in 5 seconds, then the milk quality. The longer you need to wait for the appearance of casein flakes, the more diluted the product is.
  • If you pour milk in a thin stream into a glass of warm water, and it is collected on the surface of the water, then the milk is of good quality. The liquid dissolved in water is strongly diluted with water.
  • Using a toothpick or a match, you should put several small convex drops of liquid on toilet paper or a napkin. From the undiluted milk around the drop a circle with a width no more than a millimeter will appear, which will dry in a couple of hours. The larger the ring, and the faster it dries, the more water is contained in the drink.

What animals milk is popular and is the composition very different?

In addition to cow's milk, people eat drinks from other animals.

  • Sheep Milk has a high fat content and is rich in proteins. Usually it has a light grayish tint, and density and acidity indicators are above average. Many raw cheeses and butter are made from sheep's raw materials.
  • Drink received from goats, contains a lot of phosphorus, calcium and vitamin C. Goat milk is useful for stomach problems, suitable for diet and baby food.
  • Mare Milk is characterized by a sugary-sweet taste and a bluish tinge. The drink has a disinfecting effect, is used in the treatment of ulcers and with low hemoglobin. Kumis is made of it.
  • Desert dwellers consume camel milk every day. Its taste is sweetish, and the consistency is thick. Drink attributed healing properties, it is used in the form of ayran, shubat and other products.
  • In addition, they eat donkey, buffalo and deer milk.

Milk from herbal products

Nut milk is one of the most important products for people who fast. Cedar drink has a low fat content and a pleasant taste. Due to the high content of amino acids is a healthy food product, but its price is high.

Typical for Asian countries sesame milk is very pleasant to taste. Useful for the prevention of oncology, baby food and slowing the aging process.

Almond drink is a great ingredient for smoothies and cocktails. Rich in vegetable proteins and calcium. The pleasant taste of coconut drink will appeal to both adults and children. It is rich in B vitamins, energizing the body. However, its fat content is quite high - about 20%.

Affordable low cost soy milk is an excellent alternative to natural. It has a lot of protein and vitamins of group B, it is often added to other drinks.

What is better to choose?

Pasteurized product is perfect for short-term storage. Packing, not transmitting light, saves more vitamins.

A sterilized drink is stored for a long time even at room temperature, but there is practically no use in it. Milk should buy only in sealed packaging, which guarantees its quality.

You should always pay attention to the date of production, terms and conditions of storage, compliance with reality. It is better to choose a large network store, which usually strictly monitors deliveries and storage periods.

What is milk? His views

Milk is a product of the physiological secretion of the mammary glands of farm animals, which is obtained during the milking process without adding any substances to it or extracting it.

Drinking milk - dairy product, in which the mass fraction of fat can reach up to 9%. It is made from raw milk or dairy products, necessarily subjected to thermal or other processing. In its preparation, whole milk powder or skimmed milk powder should not be used.

Drinking milk depending on used Raw materials produced:

  1. Whole milk,
  2. From normalized,
  3. From the rebuilt,
  4. From recombined milk,
  5. From their mixtures.

Whole milk - this is milk, whose composition has not been changed by technological processing.

Reconstituted milk It is prepared completely or partially from whole or skimmed milk powder, which is dissolved in drinking water, then milk fats are added to the desired fat content. By biological value, it is not inferior to normalized sterilized milk.

Normalized milk - milk, in which the amount of protein, fat, dry residue is brought to the required level, in accordance with the standard.

Milk microflora

Nowadays all over the world, especially in developed countries, the requirements for the safety of food products, especially in regarding their biosafety. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one of the main factors in the spread of contagious diseases is food. Milk can be the source of the spread of more than 200 infectious diseases. Microorganisms found in milk are divided into 3 groups:

  • Pathogens - they cause diseases
  • Causing milk vices,
  • Lactic acid bacteria.

Pathogens include pathogens such as salmonella, pathogenic staphylococcus, pathogen botulism and many others. Pathogenic microorganisms can get into the milk from the body of the animal itself, if it hurts or is a bacterium carrier, as well as from sick people, the environment in case of violation of technological processes. Therefore, milk sold in the store must undergo a temperature treatment.

Baked milk

Baked milk goes a longer cooking path. It is kept at a temperature of +85 o C - +98 o C for at least 3 hours until a cream or light brown color appears. Due to the effects of high temperatures there is a significant change in the components of milk. In this mode, whey proteins almost completely denature, break down vitamins, increase the mass fraction of fat due to evaporation of a part of water.

Milk benefits

Eastern medicine generally considers milk to be an excellent remedy for diseases associated with psyche and nerves. Milk prepared with medicinal spices and herbs helps to quickly get rid of morning drowsiness, strengthens mental abilities, increases learning ability and generally increases the power of intelligence. According to Eastern sages, people who drink milk for the night are more intelligent, better understand the world around them and have a more correct vision of good and evil. From their point of view, milk that you drink either late in the evening or early in the morning is of particular benefit, adding honey, sugar or various spices: turmeric, fennel, saffron, cardamom, licorice, cinnamon.

A cup of warm milk with honey is really good. remedy for insomnia. It does not possess any soporific effect, but it soothes the body as a whole, affects the receptors of the stomach, reduces gastric secretion.

Milk benefits extends to the gastric mucosa. By promoting the healing of its disorders, it reduces the acidity of gastric juice and therefore is an excellent remedy for heartburn. The ability to increase the calcium content in food and get a valuable blend of amino acids makes milk a good addition. to vegetables. It is also added to the berries to reduce the possibility of allergic reactions.

The benefits of milk, even in the effectiveness of quenching thirst. This is due to the fact that in the heat of a person loses a lot of moisture, and along with then go mineral salts. Milk contains these salts and helps retain moisture in the body. Best thirst quench whole milk, diluted with water or sour skimmed.

There is a myth that milk increases body weight. In fact, everything is exactly the opposite. In Canada, a study was conducted that lasted 15 weeks. As a result, it was found that dieters lost an average of 4 kg more weight than those who followed the same diet, but did not consume dairy products. The secret is that calcium contributes to enhanced fat burning in the body and reduces its deposits. Therefore, the benefits of milk will not bypass those who are desperately trying to struggle with excess weight.

The composition of milk is so unique that sometimes it can even replace medicines. For example, for headaches before drinking pills, try to drink a glass of warm milk first. After all, it contains substances that reduce spasms and reduce pain sensitivity.

Benefits of Milk Substances

Despite the abundance of beneficial properties listed above, the main advantage of milk can be called a large content. calcium and phosphorus. These substances play a major role in the strength of your teeth and bones. For their assimilation and maintenance of bones in good condition is necessary vitamin dwhich is also in milk.

If we talk about vitamins, it is impossible not to recall that milk contributes to the synthesis B vitamins. They will help you relieve fatigue, overcome stress, get rid of depression, eliminate acne and dandruff. Content vitamin a necessary for healthy skin and eyesight.

Milk contains a lot potassiumwhich is necessary in order to maintain the elasticity of the vessels. According to recent studies by American scientists, even one glass of milk per day is enough to strengthen heart functions and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In their opinion, daily consumption of milk reduces the risk of a heart attack and stroke by 37%. The benefits of milk will not bypass those who suffer from hypertension, as it reduces arterial pressure.

Folic acid vital for pregnant women, because without it, the human body can not develop normally. Its usefulness is aimed at building RNA and DNA and regulates the formation of embryonic nerve cells. And non-pregnant people who want to keep their muscles in shape and have a healthy appearance and good complexion can’t do without it.