Before building a house for laying hens, first of all, you need to determine the number of birds. If you plan to contain 25 chickens, a small poultry house with an area of about 12 square meters will suffice m., for example, 3 m wide and 4 m long. If necessary, equip an additional pantry at the entrance for storing feed and equipment. Such a room is especially important in the winter period, which will facilitate daily maintenance, since everything you need will be at hand, and will serve as a barrier to cold air.
It is better to house a bird house among the buildings that will protect the building from the prevailing winds. Well, if in hot regions the building will be protected from the scorching sun by trees with a wide crown and lush leaf - such as a nut or cherry.
Poultry building materials and construction
The material for the construction of the main house is chosen so that it retains heat and is sufficiently resistant to the teeth of rodents. The residence of the hens will attract mice and rats. Therefore, it is preferable to build walls of limestone, cinder block, adobe.
A quick way to build walls, which from this position is less appropriate, is the sheathing of the frame with boards or panels, and then filling the intermediate space with sawdust or filling it with mineral wool. In such a favorable environment, the mice will be able to multiply perfectly, arranging numerous nests and go out to dinner in the poultry house, eating chicken food.
It should be noted that rodents are not only carriers of dangerous infections, rats can become a real scourge of home mini-farm chicken, attacking both chickens and adult chickens. Several active rats will effortlessly empty the house in a few visits.
The floor for successful maintenance of laying hens and facilitating their care, is made of cement with a slight slope to the front door, which makes it easy to tidy up the room. Wood floors are warmer, but less practical and durable. In addition, under the boardwalk can get malicious rodents.
The height of the walls is planned to be about 1.8 m - the room below is inconvenient for bird care and the air in it becomes faster stale, and in a house with higher ceilings it will be colder in winter. When planning the maintenance of chickens in cold regions, they select breeds that are resistant to cold.
But in any case, the temperature in the room in winter should not fall much below zero - a short-term decrease to -2 ° C is permissible. In this case, the hens prudently drink warm water, making sure that it does not peremerzal in drinking bowls. It is also important to pick up eggs in time, which in frost will be thawed and burst.
Roof do gable - with such a surface snow descends better, and the possibility of leakage of the ceiling in the spring is minimized. A light attic floor (ceiling) is arranged from well-fitted boards and well coated with clay and straw.
This coating is natural, inexpensive, keeps heat well and at the same time "breathes", releasing moisture and gases accumulated under the ceiling. Then the attic is warmed, pouring a layer of sea grass, lapnik, laying mineral wool or other available materials.
The peculiarity of the construction of the poultry housing is the arrangement of the manhole for free entry and exit of chickens to the poultry house. The size of the manhole depends on the breed of bird, while they are guided by the size of an adult rooster. The square hole is located above the floor level, equipping a comfortable ladder. At night, the exit is closed with a door with a latch to protect the bird from predators.
Lighting for chickens in the hen house
In the content of the egg-laying bird, lighting is the most important element in obtaining eggs during the cold season in conditions of short daylight hours. During this period, the market value of eggs increases significantly, sometimes by two or more times, while the cost of keeping the poultry remains practically the same.
Experienced poultry farmers are well aware that the egg production of laying hens is closely related to the length of daylight hours, and to a lesser extent to the temperature of the air, carefully considering the mode of lighting. It is important to provide windows in the house to save on electricity and at the same time, the chickens love to bask in the sun.
Through too large windows in the winter it will become warm, therefore they adhere to the optimal calculation - for 1 square meter. m floor plan 10 square meters. see windows. On the house area of 12 square meters. m. will be sufficient windows with a total area of 1.2 square meters. It is obligatory to install double frames and insulate well, closing all the gaps with beads, putty, preventing heat loss.
The mode of lighting for chickens in winter, so that they carry eggs, should be as follows:
- Turning on the light around the clock is wrong - the bird needs time to sleep and recuperate.
- Constantly turned on the light will make chickens nervous, will increase the likelihood of fights and putting eggs.
- The optimal mode - 8 hours of darkness and 16 hours of daylight.
- Apply a combined lighting scheme - 4-6 hours of illumination in combination with natural light from the windows.
It is convenient to use a relay that will automatically turn on and off the light at the predetermined time. It is better to adjust the system so that the light turns on in the morning, which will be more natural for chickens than the lights in the evening - when the bird is already set to sleep.
It is imperative to insulate the wire connections well - the increased humidity in the house in combination with the settled dust and cobwebs will inevitably create the danger of shorting the wiring.
Regulation of daytime in the manner described above does not apply to chickens - at first they are kept in round-the-clock lighting, since they will not eat or drink in the dark. Broilers will also not turn off the light at night - this bird gives the best weight gain, if you can constantly eat and drink water.
Microclimate in the house is an important aspect of poultry
Below are the optimal microclimate conditions in the room for keeping domestic chickens. It should be noted that in severe frosts, it is acceptable to lower the temperature to minus marks, but not lower than ‒2 ° C. In such conditions, they limit the giving of mash, succulent fodder; warm water is added at the time of leaving, making sure that the bird gets drunk plenty.
In most cases, poultry farmers do not resort to heating poultry houses. Chickens emit enough heat and if the room is small and well-insulated, it will not be too cold. But keep in mind that in the winter, the bird needs more calories, since most of them spend on energy production to maintain the temperature. These costs need to be offset.
An important point to consider when keeping chickens in the southern regions, they do not tolerate heat. There are breeds bred specifically for keeping in hot areas, and it is better to pick up just such chickens.
Birds do not have sweat glands and they can only escape from the heat, often breathing and drinking a lot of fresh cool water that cools the body and prevents dehydration. Especially detrimental elevated air temperature for rapidly growing broilers. Such a bird in the heat can quickly die from hemorrhage in the brain.
Optimum microclimate conditions in the chicken room
Recommended breeds of chickens for personal farming
Wyandot is a breed of chickens, named after the eponymous Indian tribe. They have many variations in the color of the plumage. Illustration 1885.
In the private sectorusually contain chickens meat and egg breeds.
Meat-egg (or common use) breeds of chickens obtained from the need to find a middle ground between meat and egg breeds. Due to their average productivity indicators, they are not used in industry, but they are quite suitable for cultivation in household plots by amateur breeders.
Most of meat-egg birds obtained by crossing egg and meat rocks.
To pluses meat-egg breeds of chickens include unpretentiousness of the conditions of detention, the ability to forage, fairly high levels of endurance, fertility, preservation of young and adult birds, as well as fairly high taste qualities of both meat and eggs. Therefore, such chickens are most common in home gardens.
Chickens meat-egg breeds always characterized by viability, good adaptability to local conditions, significantly exceed the egg breeds of live weight and egg weight, which justifies a certain increase in feed consumption.
Orpington. Chickens of common breeds are good chicks, unpretentious to food and life, resistant to diseases. Illustration 1885
Besides, common breed chickens - good hens, unpretentious to food and life, resistant to diseases.
When there is a lack of feeding, they stop egg-laying, in order to maintain their potential ability to lay eggs, and quickly restore their productivity while improving feeding.
The merits of this bird include a calm disposition, low susceptibility to the influence of stress factors.
Oviposition of meat-egg chickens - 200 eggs per year or more. They have tastier than egg breeds, meat, carcasses are well muscled. Live weight, depending on the age, y chickens - 2.0-3.0 kg, y roosters - 2.5-3.5 kg.
On the other hand, meat and egg birds need extensive walking, often do not tolerate cage content and crowding, grows relatively slowly (at the age of 8-9 weeks, live weight reaches 0.9-1.0 kg), poor laying hens are often found.
As well as meat and egg breeds, in a private farm well proved dwarfchickens.
They are divided into two main groups:
the first - this is actually bentamki,
the second - miniature copies of well-known large breeds, such as, for example, the Cochinquins, Langshans, Hamburg, Orlov, and others.
Bentamki Sibrayt. Kibray Seibright (Bentamka Sibrayt) are dwarf. They were bred in England at the beginning of the 18th century and got their name thanks to the breeder - Sir John Seabright. Illustration 1885.
Dwarf chickens ideal for summer residents. After the summer season, they can even be kept in the city on a heated loggia without much difficulty. Dwarf chickens well pay for the costs of feeding and maintenance.
But poultry farmers love them for the fact that they are extremely beautiful and elegant.
Kuban red breed of chickens: description, reviews, egg production, photo
Kuban breed Kuban Red - a highly productive cross, derived from the climatic conditions of Russia. Another name of the bird is UK Kuban-7.
The breed is characterized by increased egg production.which persists even in the cold season, which is very important for private breeders who do not have heating in the house. Despite the fact that the Kuban red breed of chickens is very young, it has already managed to gain popularity, and for good reason.
Standards of breed UK Kuban-7
The work of breeders today allows you to get the birds with the greatest egg production at the lowest cost of feed, which makes the chicken business the most profitable. Genetic features of chickens fade into the background, and productivity comes to the first.