Owners of patent RU 2275023:
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to agriculture. The method includes the burning of stubble, while following the harvesting in the rolls, the soil between the rolls at night is treated with milling tools. Moreover, after threshing of grain with a gap of less than 12 hours, straw is burned in rollers and the burned areas are processed by milling tools to a depth of 6-8 cm. When the oats reach a height of 16-21 cm, a continuous milling treatment is carried out to a depth of 8-12 cm. The invention will reduce contamination soil with oat seeds and reduce the area exposed to fire.
The invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to agriculture.
There is a method of purifying the soil from oats, including steam tillage, consisting of pre-arable treatments, plowing and spring-summer cultivation / Smirnov BM Fight with wild oats, M., Rosselkhozizdat, 1996, p.68 /. However, multiple mechanical treatments increase material costs and soil depletion.
There is a method of combating wild oat, including stubble burning / Smirnov BM Fight with wild oats, M., Rosselkhozizdat, 1996, p.57 /. However, the burning of straw and stubble increases the loss of humus, deteriorates the water-physical properties of the soil, decreases its biological activity,
The purpose of the invention is the reduction of material costs, debris oats and soil destructive effect on the soil.
To achieve this goal, the field of early ripening winter grain crops is sown in optimal time, on a field clogged with oats. The crop is harvested at wax ripeness (22-20%) in the daytime with the height of the cut of straw below the placement of oat-pan panicles and the cultivated crop, which allows you to remove part of the seeds of oat from the field along with the harvest. At night, the machinery released at harvesting cultivates the soil between the rolls with milling tools to a depth of 4-6 cm. Using the cutter allows you to chop the stubble, weeds, and ensure ground oat seed is ground, which stimulates their germination.
With a decrease in rolls: the moisture content of grains of cereals to 18-16% of the rolls are picked and threshed with combine harvesters. Straw of coarse rolls in the bands with stubble with a gap less than 12 hours after threshing is burned. In contrast to the prototype, where continuous burning after harvesting is provided, in the proposed method 1/3 of the site is subjected to burning, which reduces the soil-destructive effect of fire. The widening of the gap between threshing and burning of burnt straw leads to the introduction of showered seeds of oats into the soil, penetration into cracks. The longer this gap, the deeper the seeds of the oats penetrate into the soil and the less likelihood of their burning out, the greater the preservation and viability. Thus, at a gap between the threshing of winter barley rolls and burning of straw for no more than one day, the number of viable oat seeds under the burned straw rolls in a 0-3 cm soil layer per 1 m 2 was 121, with a break of 15 days - 326. and 25 days - 418 pcs / m 2.
Consequently, the smaller the gap between the threshing of the rolls of spike crops and the burning of the stubble from the rolls and overcrowded straw in the rolls, the more seeds of oats are subject to the action of fire and their death. After burning zasyuzyuzhennoy straw rolls, with the aim of provoking the germination of the remaining viable seeds of oats under the burnt rolls are processing milling tools 6-8 cm.
When oats reach a height of 16-21 cm for cutting weeds and provoking new shoots, continuous milling is carried out to a depth of 8-12 cm. In the late autumn, they plow, patching up the biomass of oats and other weeds.
The proposed method includes several stages of reducing the contamination of wild sheep:
- milling tillage between rolls after mowing the crop into rolls,
- export of a part of seeds with the threshed harvest,
- burning in the strips of stubble from under the rolls and straw in the rolls after threshing and processing of the burned areas with milling tools,
- continuous milling processing when the oats reach a height of 16-21 cm,
- deep autumn plowing.
The proposed method allows to reduce soil contamination with seeds of oat and reduce the area exposed to fire.
The method of soil purification from oats, including the burning of stubble, characterized in that, after roll harvesting, the soil between the rolls is treated with milling tools, and after threshing the grain with a gap of less than 12 hours, the straw is burned in the rolls and the burned areas are processed with milling tools to a depth of 6 8 cm, and when the oats reach a height of 16-21 cm, a continuous milling treatment is carried out to a depth of 8-12 cm.
Wild oat (another name is oats empty) is an annual plant, it grows to a height of 80-120 cm. Its stems are erect, bare, the root system is fibrous, very well developed.
The leaves are flat, up to 30 cm long, arranged linearly on the stem. The shape is straight or slightly twisted counterclockwise. They have interesting ciliated edges, decorated with sparse and long hairs (cilia) in one row.
Inflorescence is a long (up to 30 cm) spreading panicle. Ovus plant has large spikelets with 2 or 3 flowers, blooms from early June to late August. One copy gives up to 500-600 seeds - spindle kernels. 1000 fruits of wild oats weighs 15-25 grams. Retain their germination on average 3-4 years, and under favorable conditions, up to 7-9 years.
The area of its distribution is extremely wide. Wild oats, like many other weeds, perfectly adapts to adverse climatic conditions. He is equally well tolerated by the heat and frost, "friends" with insect pests that do not touch him, competes well with other plants, both cultural and weedy, most often winning the battle for territory.
Wild ovum is found everywhere in Eurasia. For example, in Kazakhstan, the area of crops littered with empty oats is about 4-4.5 million hectares! Also growing in every corner of North America, often found in North Africa. Today, wild oats go deeper and deeper into the south, adapting to new conditions and conquering the southern hemisphere of the planet.
What conditions are suitable for the growth of oats
Grains germinate at a soil temperature of 3-4 ° C, but the most suitable temperature for germination is 15-18 ° C. The most viable shoots are obtained from grains, which are at a depth of 10-15 cm, but they can germinate from the depth of 20-25 cm, even 30-40 cm with sufficient moisture and clear warm weather.
Its viability seeds retain under any conditions up to three years, and under favorable conditions - even up to nine years.
According to the national calendar, mass shoots of oat will appear in a few days after buds are dismissed on the birch trees.
Ovsg ordinary - unpretentious plant. He fun ears, greens and blooms even in the hottest summer. Does not die during long droughts. Clogging cultural crops remains unharmed after an invasion of pests or epidemics. It belongs to the category of hard-to-root plants. Defeating him is very difficult.
Interesting fact about oat survival
If you take the fruit of oats, drop a couple of drops of water on it, then the weevil miraculously comes to life! It starts to move - slowly at first, then rotating around its axis faster and faster. This mechanism allows the grains to bury themselves in the soil to the desired depth. A small rain is enough for the peeling seeds of common oats to “live” and quickly sink into the ground. Tper grains quietly lie down until next spring to give new shoots.
And still, they always fight with wild oats, because it infests cereals and brings a lot of damage to crops:
- strongly dries the soil, leaving no moisture in the cultivated grain. On the formation of 1 kg of fruits, oats takes 700 liters of water, for comparison, wheat - up to 500 liters,
- very draining soil. Per 100 kg of grain, oats empty uses 50 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus - 10-15 kg, potassium - 30 kg. Wheat for 100 kg of grain requires nitrogen 30 kg, phosphorus 10 kg, potassium 20 kg,
- spreads root rot,
- promotes breeding of the Swedish fly, nematode, smut,
- greatly reduces the yield of commercial crops (for example, if wheat is clogged with oats, then its yield drops steadily by 10 kg per hectare),
- it easily crosses with cultural oats, reducing its breeding qualities.
Methods of struggle
To defeat common oats, use herbicides. High efficiency showed "horizon 080 ke." and "Topic Super 240 ke.". In crops of barley, it is recommended to use the herb "Axial 045".
In case of strong clogging with empty oats, the fields are used for fallowing, and a standard seed is used.
Gardeners are often used to combat this malicious weed mowing its seedlings, trying to destroy the common oats before the phase of ripening and shedding seeds on the ground. But this method is ineffective, because in this amazing plant the seed ripening in a panicle is stretched in time. What does it mean? The panicle consists of three tiers, in each of which the seeds ripen at one time. At the bottom of the weevil is still quite green, and from above they have crumbled. Full shedding takes a whole month! Another miraculous survival mechanism with which mother oats are endowed with mother nature.
But that is not all. In each tier of the panicle, the weevils differ in appearance and biological features; they have their own purpose:
- in the lower tier are large grains. They litter the grain,
- in the middle tier, the fruit is slightly smaller. Their main task is to ensure the annual renewal of seedlings of empty oats,
- the smallest seeds are in the upper tier of the panicle. They are the most insidious and viable. They lie in the soil up to 7-9 years, and when the farmer was already quite happy that he had won a wild oat in his field, they suddenly sprouted.
What does a weed look like
It is difficult to recognize these plants immediately, since this weed looks very similar to ordinary oats. But, in contrast to the seeds of cultivated oats, the seeds of oats, joined by a horseshoe at the base, ripening acquire a dark, almost black shade. The knee-shaped bend of the wild oat spines and the shape of the helix, which they acquire by twisting around their axis, are also the hallmarks of the fact that there is a weed in front of you, and not a crop. Wild oat has a well-developed, fibrous root system, which penetrates the soil to a depth of 150 cm. The bare stem of the plant reaches 60 to 120 cm in height, which also distinguishes it from cultivated oats, whose stem is much lower. The leaves of the oversized broad linear, up to 30 cm long, ciliate along the edge, have a tongue.
In the description of common oats, it is important to pay attention to the inflorescence and grains, with the help of which the plant propagates. Inflorescence is an oblong panicle consisting of three balls. The seed of wild oats is enclosed in floral scales and falls off with them. The membranous weevil is spindle-shaped or oval-shaped. One such plant produces up to 700 seeds. Oats are propagated only by seeds. One panicle forms 2 types of grains:
- Bottom - large bright grains, which make up 70% of the total number of fruits. They peel off later and clog up the material for planting. Rest period is 3 months.
- Above - dark, small grains, which have a dormant period of up to 22 months and fall off earlier, rising from a depth of 10-12 cm.
Maturation of panicle tiers occurs unevenly and they peel off alternately: from top to bottom. Such a mechanism causes the shedding period - about a month. Therefore, to get rid of the weed, just mowing it, is impossible, because a certain number of seeds will still be on the ground.
When the seeds of oats are showered, they do not require certain conditions in order to start digging the weevil into the ground. It’s enough for light rain to fall. The mass reproduction of oats is promoted by the seeding of cultivated plants of the same soil for several years without a break.
Since the harm of this weed is significant, the need to combat it becomes obvious. In order to determine how to deal with one of the most harmful weeds, it is necessary to establish the reasons for which it multiplies and appears in places where it was not before. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of this plant:
- Non-observance of fruit changes in crop rotation: the absence of anti-erosion units in it (winter wheat - sugar beet - millet), growing for a long time one type of crops.
- Sowing winter soil after crops that are late harvested.
- Lack of clean steam.
- Improper plowing and tillage.
- Lack of tierrovaniye when cleaning seed material.
- A large number of oat seeds in the soil.
- Improper storage of manure, which is used to fertilize the soil.
There are several popular proven methods that are used to get rid of this weed: they use both agronomic and chemical methods.
- Correct (pentapole) crop rotation. Cultivation of herbs, crops which do not contribute to the reproduction of wild oats.
- Compliance with the standards of storage and preparation of fertilizers for the soil.
- Seed filtration with the use of an Oryus trimer with different cell diameters for different crops, cleansing the machinery and equipment used when working in the field.
- Destruction of wild oat shoots by spring processing before sowing crops using the method of provocation (closing of moisture, application of mineral fertilizers, as a result of which the oats appear earlier and can be uprooted by the next pre-sowing cultivation).
The chemical method of weed control is used in addition to agricultural practices and is effective for the destruction of osyuzhnyh plants. It is necessary to use herbicides with caution and only when the number of weeds exceeds the measure at which mechanical techniques are applicable.
Before cultivating land with crops, it is worthwhile to carry out a phytopathological examination of the fields, which will determine whether chemicals should be used. This is done not only to avoid chemical effects on the crop, but also in order to save, because using herbicides is quite expensive and there is no sense to spend money if you can cope with the help of agrotechnical techniques.
You can fight this plant with the help of such herbicides:
- "Avantix Extra" (spraying of crops in the first phases of weed development),
- "Axial" (processing in the spring from a phase of 2 leaves and up to the end of tillering of wild oats),
- "Doping" (spring spraying in the early phases of weed development),
- “Eraser Extra” (processing in the early stages of oatscale development),
- "Polgar" (spraying in spring over vegetative weeds, starting from the phase of two leaves and until the end of tillering),
- "Topic" (spraying in the spring in the early phases of weed development).
The harmful weed - wild oat, which looks very similar to ordinary oats, harms not only the crop of crops, near which it multiplies, but also the soil, drying it and depleting it. It is dangerous for animals and attracts insects that can harm other crops. You can fight this plant using agrotechnical techniques or chemicals. When planning the spraying of crops with herbicides, it is important to make sure that it is really necessary and mechanical methods do not help.
Description and features
In the process of evolution, wild oat has acquired not only a characteristic appearance, but also some interesting features. So, although it is called empty, the grains ripen in the panicle, they are just very small. When ripe, the seeds become black in color. A curved spine, twisted around its axis, departs from the chaff of the dorsal membrane at the upper edge of the grain. For comparison: in the case of oats, the spines are not curved and not twisted, but straight.
The most interesting thing happens if you put the grain of wild oats on a flat surface and drip water on it. The seed seems to come alive and begins to rotate around its axis. Under natural conditions, when weed seeds fall, a little rain is enough to start spinning and rolling into the ground. Being in the depths of the soil, the weevils can wait for a long time for suitable conditions for germination.