The first egg-laying hen eggs breed make in 22-24 weeks. Some podvortsev worried that the bird in due time does not begin to rush. The reasons for this are many. One of them lies on the surface. Chickens of meat-breed breed belong to late ripening. They have the first clutch done closer to 7-8 months. It may have been purchased chickens precisely this productivity, and it is worth a little wait.
Determine the breed of chicken can be on its exterior or by weight. The average weight of an egg-breed layer is not more than 800 g. Meat-eating individuals have a greater body weight, more than 2 kg. What are the reasons that chickens do not rush? What should be done to make birds more productive?
For chickens choose voluntary or cellular content. If the birds are in the common room, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the litter, the freshness of the air. The flooring is treated with lime and sawdust. The litter is changed before the winter season and after the summer period. In the cells keep cleanliness easier. Under each cell is a tray in which feces and slurry are collected. Tray easy to remove and wash.
If the livestock is in unsanitary conditions, then you should not wonder why the chickens do not rush. High productivity is not expected from them. Air containing ammonia and carbon dioxide can cause infections. In addition to cleanliness in the hen house should pay attention to other rules of the content.
- Air temperature. The optimum temperature in the house is +18 C in summer and +10 C in winter. If the bird is cold or too hot, then it ceases to run. Rooms must be ventilated. In large complexes, the air condition to keep the temperature. In winter, individuals reduce their productivity, despite the fact that they consume more food. At low temperatures, chickens are badly born, or stop laying at all. It is necessary to heat the room or insulate it with insulation material.
- Lighting. Egg production is directly related to the length of the daylight hours: it should last at least 16 hours. If the chickens do not perform well, then the lighting should be adjusted in the house. Artificial lighting should be installed in the hen house. Light in the winter turn on at 5-6 am, and turn off at 21-22 h. Lighting is required only in the winter period. In the summer it dawns early, the birds wake up on their own. As the instrument choose fluorescent lamps.
- Intensity of illumination. In the chicken coop should be light, but direct sunlight will adversely affect the health of birds and their productivity. The windows in the room should be painted over with white paint. Artificial light should not be too bright.
- Small area of the house. Reduced egg production may occur due to the crowding of individuals. Normally, no more than 4-5 heads per 1 m 2. A greater number of birds can provoke pecking, which will lead to the termination of egg-laying.
- Lack of exercise. In order for the hens to bring a lot of eggs, they need to actively move in the fresh air. This will allow the muscles of the bird to be always in good shape. If the muscles do not receive the proper load, then the layer will show signs of difficulty laying the egg: the chicken cannot carry the egg. The muscles of the oviduct become flabby. Egg production can stop altogether.
- Incorrect family composition. In one family there should not be individuals related by blood. The family consists of 10 layers and 1 male. In the herd may not be males. Females still lay, but eggs will not be fertilized.
It is necessary to sustain the time of the first laying. Early egg production will lead to a decrease in egg mass and short-term productivity. Eggs are small regardless of the age of the bird. Masonry can be controlled by adjusting daylight. It is made less than 10 hours. It will slow down puberty in females and delay the term of the first clutch.
Physiology of chickens
Young laying hens begin to lay eggs after the first youthful molt. The first eggs are not large. Young stock brings small eggs. With each laying their weight and the size increases. Productivity increases up to 2.5 years. Then it starts to decline. At 4 years old, the chicken usually stops its productivity.
Unfortunately, nothing can be fixed, the ability to carry out the laying cannot be extended. Livestock should be updated. Poultry farmers are gradually updating the herd. To adult layers, young females are placed. In this case, the decline in egg production of the herd will not be very noticeable. Old hens are taken out, young hens occupy their place.
Molting birds takes place not only in chickens, but also in adults. Chickens drop feathers in the fall and spring. Molting continues 3-4 months. This is another reason for the decline in productivity. Chickens bring small eggs or stop laying at all. Folk omens say that the worse the hen looks like during a feather change, the more eggs it brings.
To speed up the process of molting, and to quickly resume productivity, poultry farmers use certain methods. The hormones are injected into the hens. Shedding takes place at the same time for the whole livestock The duration is reduced to the minimum time, up to 50 days. After this, the individuals restore the clutch.
On the day of the chicken can produce 1 egg. Some females are able to lay 2 eggs, but not every day. During the year, an average of 300 eggs can be obtained from an egg-laying layer. Meat-producing hens yield 250 eggs. Females of meat productivity can lay 180 eggs per year.
For laying eggs for laying hens it is necessary to equip the nests. It should be soft and comfortable. Chicken itself can choose a place for the nest. Her behavior must be monitored. Where she carries out the first laying, there and set the nest, if it is reasonable, of course.
Most often for laying hens, boxes are lined with soft hay. One family needs 3-4 nests. If the courtiers think that the chickens have ceased to lay eggs, then it is possible that the birds are deceiving their owners. Females can hide eggs in secluded places. It is important to organize a place for laying.
The answer to the question of why chickens have ceased to run, can be found by analyzing the nutrition of the herd. Hungry layers are not able to produce eggs. They need a balanced diet, which is painted depending on the season. In the summer, birds get a lot of green grass. They are given grain and premixes.
In winter, livestock feed vegetables. Combined grain mixtures, must give supplements in the form of meat and bone meal, bran. Otherwise, avitaminosis may develop in birds, which will affect their productivity.
Feed is carried out 2 times a day. In the morning, the first feeding occurs 1-2 hours after the herd wakes up: at 5-6 hours turn on the light in the chicken coop, at 6-7 hours they give mash. The rate of feed for laying eggs, if it weighs less than 1 kg, is 125 g per day.
For a chicken weighing more than 2 kg, the norm is 130 g. Feed gives more if the bird gains weight and brings a lot of eggs. For every 250 grams of weight, an additional 10 grams of feed is given. For each 20 eggs - 5 g of feed. If a hen weighs 800 g, gives 300 eggs a year, then it should consume 200 g of feed per day: premixes are obligatory.
Stressful situations always negatively affect the number of eggs laid. This is a shy bird. She is frightened by harsh sounds, knocks, a sharp drop in light, and the sudden appearance of a person in a hen house. Even the sound of rain on the glass or metal roof adversely affect the process of egg production. All new chicken perceives with caution, gradually getting used to the changed conditions. Therefore, any move for her is a huge stress. To avoid stressful situations, minimize the above factors or remove them altogether.
Often, the poultry farmer is faced with a situation where, when buying an adult chicken on the market, it stops rolling. In our opinion, the main reason is the resulting stress after the move and the absolute change of environment.
When buying an adult bird at a poultry farm, you should remember:
- the most productive age of the hen is up to two years. Therefore, if you buy an older bird, there is a high probability that its egg production will gradually decrease,
- at the poultry farm feed livestock feed from the very beginning, the composition of which make at home is very difficult. Therefore, a cardinal change of diet adversely affects the laying of eggs.
If you decided to buy chickens at the poultry farm, you should opt for the young stock that has not started laying eggs.
To produce a large number of eggs from one hen, you need to grow or purchase egg breed chickens. It is believed that the egg-breed itself is leggorn. However, this is not the case in all cases. In addition, genetics do not stand still. Therefore, you can buy a new breed, which will be more adapted to specific living conditions, and will show the best result.
Seasonality: spring, summer, autumn, winter
As a rule, spring and autumn are those seasons in which the egg production of chickens falls. What is the cause of this phenomenon? In our opinion, this is due to climatic conditions. Winter is always colder. To warm themselves, the chicken spends a certain amount of energy that no longer goes to laying eggs. This can be avoided by installing additional heating in the hen house. Then, in winter, spring and autumn, the air temperature in the coop will remain approximately the same; there will be no abrupt transition in temperature from winter to spring. In the fall, besides changing the temperature, molting begins, which also affects egg production. The factors that accompany her and her influence on the layer are described above.
In the summer, the decline in the number of eggs laid due to hot weather. At temperatures above 25 degrees, the chicken rushes reluctantly, flies on the perch, swinging open, spreading its wings to the side, thereby trying to somehow reduce the temperature of its body. During this period, she drinks a lot, which also lowers egg production. A well-designed ventilation system, airing the room partially eliminates the problem of high ambient temperature.
When airing the house, make sure that there are no drafts in it.
In addition to all the factors listed above, the chicken production of chickens is influenced in a certain way by the roosters, or rather, their proportional relationship to the number of chickens. Many believe that there should be only one rooster in one pen. Then the number of chickens is limited to ten. Some half of a hundred livestock of chickens in one corral are holding four or five roosters. But if the third part of the total population turns out to be roosters, this will lead to a periodic struggle for supremacy.
Chicken layer with eggs
The effects of solar and lunar cycles, as well as geomagnetic storms and other natural phenomena, have been little studied. But there is no doubt that they also affect the number of eggs laid. By the way, folk methods of raising egg production are based on the rituals associated with the lunar cycles.
In any case, good care, hard work and proper attitude to the poultry will play a role, and laying hens will thank you.
How many eggs can a chicken carry?
- meatless and purebred birds, such as Amroks or Adler's Silver, are capable of delivering about 200 eggs per year to their host in conditions of year-round heat maintenance,
- layers of Brekel, Leggorn or Lohman Brown give farmers more than 300 eggs,
- meat chickens do not show special abilities in laying eggs. Breeds like KOBB-500 and ROSS-308 produce a little more than a hundred eggs a year.
Since chicken productivity lasts about two years, this period should be used as much as possible to obtain as many eggs as possible. Chickens are carried once a day and not every day. Farm productivity must be constantly maintained. Keep track of the age of layers in time to change them. Remember that at the age of 4 the bird stops giving eggs. At this age, chickens can become high-quality chicks.
One layer can produce over 300 eggs per year.
Feeding rates for laying hens
Due to its omnivorous nature, chickens are able to spend the whole day in search and absorption of food. However, the acquisition of excess weight adversely affects the health and egg production of the herd. Experienced farmers control the feeding of the poultry by keeping the feeding regime.
On average, layers are fed 2-3 times a day. This number can be adjusted depending on the breed of chickens, their health and time of year. In summer, grass is the basis of the diet of the farmstead. In winter, it is replaced by harvested hay and well-stored roots. The interchangeability of feed allows you to optimize the nutrition of chickens depending on the season and the capabilities of the poultry farmer. This allows the farmer to independently produce feed from scrap products and optimize them according to the needs of the hens.
Feeding standards for poultry should take into account the breed, the weight of the individual and its productivity. The higher they are, the more products a chicken relies on.
Daily ration of the hen
Example: a layer weighing 1.8 kg with an annual productivity equal to one hundred eggs consumes no more than 125 g of feed per 24 hours. A bird of the same breed, but weighing 2 kg, already requires 130 g of food. Further parameters are calculated taking into account 10 g of cereals for each additional 250 g of live weight of the chicken. Egg production is also taken into account: every additional 30 eggs per year form 5 g of excess food per day. The increase in the proportions of feed consumed does not mean that the bird does not need additional sources of valuable products for the body. Abundant, but unbalanced diet leads to obesity in chickens. The fattened bird ceases to run well.
Seasonal diet of chickens
Feeding rates also depend on other factors. For example, a young herd requires greater nutritional value of the feed, since it is consumed by the body not only for laying eggs, but also for growth. The time of the year also matters. Thus, in winter, due to the lack of grass richness, birds need to compensate for the shortage by increasing the amount of feed and cereals in the diet. During the molting period, the bird organism also requires increased consumption of nutrients and better feed.
As a rule, in the autumn-winter period, chickens sweep less than in the warm season. There are special secrets to raising the egg production of chickens in winter, which are discussed in this article.
Ration of hens
In the wild, wild chickens feed on an enviable variety. They find grains, greens and berries, dig up worms and beetles, do not squeamish even small amphibians. Within a farm, it is difficult to recreate such conditions, but it is quite possible to give them as close as possible to them. Cereals should be the predominant product in the gastronomic variety of products. The greatest benefits are brought by:
- corn, thanks to its high carbohydrate content,
- wheat with proteins of plant origin and a set of vitamin B and E in its composition,
- oats, rich in fiber, stimulates the growth of plumage and is relevant during the molting of birds,
- oat bran, capable of replacing the grain,
- buckwheat, rye and millet.
However, cereal mixtures are not able to fully satisfy the gastronomic needs of the hen. Other ingredients are added to their diet. For example, meal rich in fiber, legumes and sunflower seeds. The composition of the finished feed also does not include the minerals necessary for the birds. Shells, chalk, salt, and ashes are added to the diet on their own.
Stern shell for chickens
Green food also occupies an important place in the diet of chickens. When self-walking, birds are able to regulate the right amount of grass and foliage eaten. If the farmer feeds the hens with concentrated feed, and walks for the herd are very rare, green feed should be 20% of the total amount of food consumed. Nettle is considered a good and nutritious plant for poultry. It contains vitamins of groups A, B and K, fiber, ascorbic acid and a large percentage of moisture.
Good nutrition is the main condition for high productivity. In this article you will find all about the nutrition of chickens: the rules of feeding, dietary norms, the preparation of feed, as well as a step-by-step recipe for a balanced feed.
Than from the garden you can feed the egg-laying chickens
Greenery. Dill, lettuce, green onions, pea tops and other plants perfectly complement the grain diet of the poultry yard.
Feeding chickens from own garden
Roots. Turnip, radish, Jerusalem artichoke, pre-crushed on a grater, provide a supply of vitamin and fiber. The most useful root vegetable is carrots. It can be crushed fresh or dried for the winter. This vegetable boosts chicken egg production and egg quality. You can also give boiled potatoes.
Carrots are rich in beneficial vitamins.
Gourds. Pumpkins, watermelons and squashes are grated or cut so that the chicken can get to the pulp and seeds.
Rooster feeds pumpkin
Чтобы куры регулярно давали яйца, в их рационе должны присутствовать и белки животного происхождения. К ним относят дождевых червей, костную и рыбную муку, молочные продукты.
Дождевые черви – источник животного белка
Подготовка корма для кур
Properly prepared, homemade food products contribute to their digestibility and reduce the risk of laying diseases. In order for the food to carry the maximum amount of useful properties, and the bird willingly ate the products offered to it, feed should be given after special preparation.
- Potatoes are pre-boiled, crushed and mixed with flour. Only in this form it can be made at the compound.
- When feeding chickens with bread and breadcrumbs carefully check the product. Moldy bread can cause poisoning.
- If there is no fish or bone meal, it can be replaced with waste fish and meat. It is possible to stock up the remains of products for the future using whey. If the waste is poured over it, they can be stored for up to 14 days at temperatures below 20 ° C.
- Beans before use should be soaked and steamed in a small amount of water. This will help avoid bloating and increase the absorption of proteins by the hen.
- The remnants of food from the table owners need to carefully sort out the polyethylene. Ropes and other debris did not get into the bird's esophagus. The omnivorous chickens are a definite plus, but in the process of eating, they grab everything indiscriminately.
- To increase the amount of vitamin B in the diet, poultry farmers apply food yeast. For 1 kg of wet food add 5 - 10 pre-prepared sourdough.
Preparation of feed, depending on its type
Infections and diseases of layers
Layers, like other chickens, are subject to a number of diseases. Some of them are easily treated, while others can lead to the need to slaughter the entire herd. Anyway, regular preventive check-ups of the bird help to prevent the disease. During their conduct pay attention to the following:
- skin and feather cover,
- the performance of the respiratory system,
- mobility of an individual
- digestion work,
- type of scales on the legs.
Conduct preventive examinations
Seasonal periods and egg production
The change of seasons, temperature fluctuations, all kinds of natural disasters - all this affects the inhabitants of the house as well as all other living creatures. Why do chickens rush badly in summer, because this period should traditionally be the most productive? The abundance of green vitamin feed, a large amount of animal protein, which chickens get, pecking insects, worms and snails - all this should stimulate a sharp increase in the number of eggs collected.
Traditionally, the decrease in the number of eggs begins in late October or early November, when the light day is seriously shortened. In the summer, on the contrary, the long light day, so the fall of the “egg harvest” worries the caring owners and raises the legitimate question of the economic feasibility of keeping birds that do not bring the expected profit.
Why chickens rush badly in summer
The most obvious reason for the decline in productivity in the summer is the heat. The villagers say so: it's hot, here are the chickens and do not rush. However, it should be borne in mind that high temperature in itself cannot always be a sufficient reason for the sudden cessation of egg production in poultry.
The most common reason why chickens do not rush in the summer is all sorts of consequences of hot weather, from the spread of infections to the invasion of parasites. You should check all possible causes, excluding them one by one as you check, then you will be able to quickly restore the previous number of eggs produced. Let us examine all the reasons in turn.
Age parameters of chicken stock
Often, the owner of the coop simply forgets about the age of its layers. It is quite possible that the peak of their productivity was last summer and the year before last, and this year they are already approaching their respectable age, when it is necessary to give way to young layers, and to retrain themselves in the broth category. The first reason why chickens do not rush in the summer is age, their time is running out, and this is the first signal to the owner that it is time to rejuvenate the house.
But if the chickens are quite young and fresh, but still there are no eggs? Perhaps too early. Why do not chickens rush in the summer? Young, it is too early for them - the hens of egg breeds begin to be born at about 4-4.5 months of age. If it is a spring brood, then they will be born only in the autumn and, most likely, not too active. Their peak productivity will begin next summer. For hens of meat-breeding breeds, the age of egg production begins even later, after about 6 months.
Diseases affecting cessation of egg production
If the chickens stopped rushing in the summer, what to do and to whom to ask questions? The owner should pay attention to the physical health of the hens. Inflamed cloaca, dull eyes, loss of appetite, sluggish condition - all these are symptoms of the disease, and you need to call a veterinarian. It is not forbidden to treat a bird by folk methods, adding medicinal herbs to the feed or pouring a spoonful of alcohol into its beak, especially if the loss of a dozen birds does not solve anything. However, a large farm with a chicken population of several hundred or thousands of birds is better to entrust to the care of a qualified veterinarian. He will determine why the birds are sick, why they stopped laying eggs. It can be pasteurellosis, inflammation of the oviduct, cuticle or gout - all chicken diseases inevitably stop the production of eggs, the body is forced to switch to the fight against the disease, it is not up to reproduction.
Parasites and control of them
Parasites can also harass the birds, which exhaust birds and make them stop to rush. The emaciated organism is not able to produce new eggs, the bird becomes fussy, irritable, plucks out feathers on itself. Bloody hairs, balding patches, scabs may appear. This is another reason why chickens began to rush badly in the summer - on warm days not only useful creatures, but also all sorts of ticks, bedbugs and fleas thrive.
It is advisable to disinfect the coop, clean the floors from the old litter, whitewash the walls with lime, this helps to get rid of the eggs of parasites. For chickens, it is desirable to put an ash and dust bath, birds enjoy personal hygiene, floundering in the ashes. Finely dispersed alkaline powder, which is an ash, is clogged up in the spiracles of small parasites, so you can get rid of the feather mite, skin parasites, fleas and other evil spirits. To speed up the process will help the treatment of the coop with special insecticides intended for use in agricultural poultry farming and animal husbandry. It is not recommended to use all sorts of aggressive chemicals such as "Dichlorvos" - poison your birds.
Why chickens do not rush in the summer in the heat: how to cool the chicken coop?
Do not overlook the banal reason: too hot. If the temperature in the shade stays steadfast in the region of forty degrees of heat, then you should not ask why the chickens are rushing badly in the summer - in such heat it’s not like carrying eggs, you don’t want to breathe. Birds can be helped without installing an air conditioner in the hen house.
It is desirable to whitewash the outside house; the white color repels the sun rays. Check the roof of the chicken coop, if it is made of sheet metal, then the effect of overheating of the room is not excluded. Under the iron roof, the temperature in the hen house can reach 60 degrees - not a grill, of course, but significantly worsens the condition of the inhabitants of the room.
Equip birds with fresh water, the ability to hide in the shade, huddle under the bushes in the tall grass. The roof of the chicken coop can be watered, covered with straw to create a thermal insulating layer. In addition, in the midst of the summer heat, birds can start shedding, and changing the pen requires additional efforts from the body, the answer to the question of why chickens do not rush in the summer, it can lie here - the molting will end, and everything will recover.
Summer really allows you to save a little on the feed of the chicken coop, especially if you give the chickens the opportunity to free-range. Many owners happily stop feeding the bird with grain or mixed fodder, and as a result we have a paradox: summer, it is time to eat plenty of food, birds are hungry, and then the owner is angry that the chickens have stopped rushing in the summer. What to do and how to influence them?
Green mass is not a substitute for grain, it is a vitamin supplement to the usual diet. Of course, you can slightly reduce the proportion of concentrated feed, especially if you went zucchini, pumpkins and other treats from the garden.
Connoisseurs of exemplary poultry houses can, without knowing it, deprive the birds of the ability to digest food. On the mesh or concrete surface, chickens cannot peck small pebbles that they need to rub food in the stomach. If you put a bowl with a Persian, a shell, and small pebbles, then soon everything will get better, the egg production can recover.
Additional lighting in the hen house
In an effort to achieve record-breaking productivity, some owners go overboard. Of course, in winter, chickens need additional lighting to get a normal number of eggs. But if the lighting is round-the-clock, then the bird is depleted of the nervous system, deteriorating physical condition. Competent and reasonable alternation of periods of wakefulness and rest is necessary not only for people, but also for birds. So if chickens do not rush in the summer, the reasons can be found in the excessive zeal of the owners - provide the birds with darkness and silence at night, at the same time you can save on electricity.
How to align the process of egg production?
If the reason is found, do not discard unverified options - in most cases, problems run in packs, one follows from the other. The summer heat provokes the development of diseases and the reproduction of parasites; the reasons can be found in excessive crowding of birds, in lack of nests in the hen house - then the hens are forced to hide in the most unexpected places and leave eggs there. And the owners are taken to worry - chickens do not rush in the summer, what to do? Chickens at the same time regularly rush, only eggs remain in the bushes, in secluded corners.
Control over the diet of birds, care about their health and attention to needs - this is the guarantee of the presence of a sufficient number of eggs on our table. At the same time, of course, we should not forget about the age regime of the chicken coop, in time rejecting the old bird, which does not work out its content. A change of breed can help, especially if for a long time the house was updated only by a natural method, without buying fresh specimens from the outside. Agriculture is first and foremost a business, and you should pay attention to all aspects of production.