- 1. Description
- 2. Growing
- 3. Diseases and pests
- 4. Reproduction
- 5. First steps after purchase
- 6. Secrets of success
- 7. Possible difficulties
A member of the Pterisaceae family (Pteridaceae), the Pelleya genus includes about 80 species of ferns, preferring mountainous areas. They can be found in rocky canyons, on the slopes and steep cliffs. Many of the pellets are suitable for growing in room culture, although in reality there are barely more than a dozen species. The genus got its name from the Greek word “pellos” - “dark”, which characterizes the color of the rods of the leaves of Pelley.
Most of them are low plants with drooping feathery and three-pediculate leaves that grow up to 60 cm in width. Each leaf consists of many segments: leaflets on short petioles of a rounded or elongated shape. They can be entire or jagged, smooth. The spore chambers are located at the ends of the free veins and masked by the curved edges of the leaflets.
The rhizome of the plant is creeping, rounded, covered with ribs of two-color scales.
Pelleans compare favorably with other ferns in their resistance to dry air in apartments.
For Pelley need a wide and shallow pot. Adult plants are transplanted as the roots grow, young - annually.
Reproduction by division is carried out in the spring, combining with a transplant of a plant. Pelley is neatly divided into two or three separate plants, planted in a standard soil for ferns and looked after the usual pattern.
Can be divided and rhizome. With a sharp knife the root is cut into fragments, each of which must contain a sprout.
First steps after purchase
Before acquiring a plant it is necessary to examine it The leaves should not be dots and spots, on the stems - traces of rot, small gossamer, mold.
When purchasing an import copy, a transplant is necessary - the substrate in which it is contained is not intended for permanent use. If the plant is domestic, transplantation can be postponed until spring or until the time when roots appear from the drainage holes.
Secrets of success
Pelley prefers bright diffused light, which must be considered when choosing its location. You can install the pot on the windows with eastern or southern exposure, but at the same time priteny plant with white paper or translucent fabric. It should be remembered that the stem of the leaves is quite fragile, so the plant must be given a maximum of free space.
The optimum temperature of the content in the warm season is + 20–22ºС, in the cold season, respectively + 14–16ºС. In hot weather the fern needs daily spraying. If the temperature is maintained, the need for spraying disappears, the plant feels good even at 50% humidity typical for standard apartments during the heating season.
Pelley leaves must be cleaned of dust. To do this, you can use the usual soft brush.
Top dressing is carried out once every three weeks, for Pelley suitable universal liquid fertilizer for ornamental plants.
It is necessary to water with settled warm water, in the summer period - as the top layer of the soil dries, and in the winter less often, not allowing full drying or, equally badly, overflow.
Like many other plants, Pelley requires air. It should be fresh, but drafts, especially in the winter, are unacceptable.
In order to avoid the appearance of diseases and the reproduction of putrefactive bacteria, it is necessary to promptly remove dried leaves and cut off the dead stems. In other types of pruning plant does not need.
Leaves shrivel, dry, fall off
Reason: 1) the air temperature in the room is too high.
Sluggish, blackened leaves
Reason: 1) excess moisture.
Sluggish, pale, translucent leaves
Reason: 1) excess lighting.
The ends of the leaves dry up, become brown, the stems are drawn out and laid bare
Reason: 1) lack of light.
Yellow spots appear on the leaf blades, which after a while acquire a brown tint.
Reason: 1) sunburn
On the leaves appear yellow spots, the plant slows growth.
Reason: 1) defeat by pests.
Subscribe and get descriptions of new species and varieties in the section "decorative leaf (room)" in the mail!
View not capricious, and survives well in ordinary earth at room temperature. Grows up to an average of 25 cm. Leaf leaf structure. From the rods there are stalks on which rounded leaflets sit. The leaf plate can be both flat and jagged. From above the leaves are darker, from the bottom - lighter.
The best land for this species is the mixture:
Does not need abundant watering, especially in winter.
Photo subspecies Kruglostnaya:
In this species, creeping rhizome, leaf rosette (sculpted) located low. Long petioles brown. Leaflets - leathery, rounded shape. Leaves are short. Wai width is about 50 cm. Long and 20 cm wide. Distinctive feature of the form - elongated sheet and larger, compared with other species, the size of the bushes.
Photos of the Green subspecies:
It has creeping stem. Cirrus leaves emanating from the root rosette. Leaf length - 60 cm., Width - 30 cm., Form - triangular. Petioles long. Sporangia are arranged in solid line along the edges of the segments.
Photos of the spear-like subspecies:
The height of the stem reaches 35 cm. The leaves are pinnate, located on bare, brown petioles. The view is very light-requiring, but at the same time frost-resistant. Suitable for growing in open ground in the middle lane. In the wild prefers places with limestone exits.
Photos subspecies Naked:
Plant has sporiferous leaves, reaching 50 cm in length. Gray-green, double-pinnate. Petioles slightly pubescent, purple. Does not like bright lighting and intensive watering. The best option for its location would be a window on the north side.
Photo of the Dark Purple subspecies:
The plant is small, but from others different special elegance. Light green leaves, in the shape of a heart, pretty big. Height can reach from 20 to 40 cm. Most actively grows in spring and summer.
In direct sunlight feels uncomfortable. It is better if the lighting is scattered. Feels great at room temperature, lower temperatures are acceptable in winter.
Photo subspecies Egg:
Lighting and temperature
Summer air temperature for all types of pellets should be higher, up to 22ºC. This is due to its active growth in the warm season.
In winter, there is a period of rest, and the temperature should be lowered to 14-16ºC.
If indoors more than 18º С, then the plant needs to be sprayed, in too hot rooms leaves are subject to aging and death.
For lighting, you need to look for a "middle ground". With a lack of light, the plant grows for a long time, the leaves become lifeless. On the contrary, with constant exposure to direct sunlight, the leaves curl and turn yellow. Best if light will be diffused.
Humidity and watering
By its nature, pelleya tolerates dry air well, but applying sprays is desirable it refreshes the leaves perfectly. The effect of heating in the winter period has an increased desiccating effect, so in winter you should especially take care of moisture. A pot with a plant can be put in a tray filled with wet peat.
Too intensive watering leads to rotting of the roots, in the summer period it should be produced 2-3 times a week, depending on the humidity of the room. In winter - no more than once a week. In the period between watering the land should dry out a little.
For dressing it is better to use mineral fertilizers in the complex. Organic fertilizers can also be used; you only need to ensure that Do not burn the root system. When the home fern needs to be replenished, it can be recognized by the leaves: they become noticeably smaller and paler.
Trimming and transplanting
A transplant is made when the root system has become cramped and the plant is transplanted into another pot (pot). The best time for a transplant is spring.
It must be remembered that ferns suffer a transplant quite painfully. It is better to initially choose a larger flower pot.
When transplanting should not shake off the old earth - it can damage the roots. It should be cut only the old and dried leaves, as they appear.
In general, due to its small size and unpretentiousness, Pelleya is one of the most optimal types of fern for growing at home.
Ferns reproduce, including pellets, in two ways:
The division method is most often used by florists, because of its simplicity. Only rhizomes of large plants are suitable for this.
It is necessary to carefully separate from the rhizome a few delenok with points of growth.
Having transplanted into separate pots, for the first time cover with caps and keep in a warm place.
When breeding spores, you need to sow the last wet ground located in a box in a dark place. Cover with glass on top, not forgetting to air and water regularly. When shoots appear (after 1-3 months), the box must be moved to the lit place. When grown up, damage and leave the most tall specimens. A month later, seedlings can be transplanted into individual pots.
Several varieties of parasites can threaten the fern, and the cause of each of them is improper care.
The direct cause of the appearance of a nematode is too cold water during watering, especially with a high content of chlorine in it. Signs of occurrence - yellowing and drying of the leaves.
To defeat such an attack, The plant must be transplanted and treated with insecticide. The remaining pests appear from dry air. Insecticides are also used to combat them. Prevention measures - frequent spraying.
Like all home plants, the fern of pellets came to our apartments from the wild.
But the species of this family take their place on the window sills deservedly so.
The plant has a very decorative appearance, decorates the room and perfectly cleans the air.
But in a large number of ferns can be found on the island of New Zealand. On some continents, pellet dwells in coastal zones and impresses with its attitude to arid hot times. Her reaction is only the discharge of foliage, but with the appearance of moisture, it comes to life and takes on its former form. If the conditions of the pellets meet its requirements, the plant will decorate your design with its abundant greenery.
Pelley indoor flower, which in height can reach only up to 25 centimeters. The foliage of the pellet can develop in growth up to 30 cm and the width of the sheet can grow about 13 mm. The vegetation period of the plant occurs all year round, but the more active growth of the plant differs in the spring-summer period.
Varieties and types
Round pellets most not whimsical in the form of care. The leaf is pinnate in shape, there are notches on the leaf edges. The outer side of the pellet sheet is of a dark shade, and the underside is bright.
Pellet green represents creeping roots, and the shoots themselves and leaf leaflets have a chocolate shade. Foliage roundish, poured. The individuality of this species is an oblong leaf and a bush, larger in size from other species.
Pellet spear this species has creeping shoots. The leaves are shaped like a triangle. Leaf length about 60 cm.
Pelley naked This species is quite interesting in its appearance. Height of shoots is about 35 cm. The leaf is located on bare, dark brown shade, stalks. Prefers a lot of lighting and tolerates frosty winters.
Pellet dark purple. The leaves of this species are like spores and their length is about 50 cm. The stems have a slight pubescence and purple tinge. Flowers pellets of this species prefer to be located in a room on the north side.
Pelleya ovoid kind of pretty neat and having elegant forms. The leaves have a shade of light olives, and are heart-shaped, large-sized. Plant height about 40 cm. Prefers diffused light.
Pellet care at home
Illumination of the plant is necessary scattered and constant otherwise, the leaves begin to fade and crumble and growth slows down. Therefore, if natural lighting is not enough, it is necessary to provide artificial light.
The air temperature in the room should be about 23 degrees in the summer, as the time of active growing season occurs. And in winter, it is necessary for the plant to provide rest conditions and lower the temperature to 16 degrees.
If the room is too hot, you need to spray the plant, otherwise the leaves begin to dry out.
Watering the plant prefers moderate because the root system starts to rot from stagnant moisture in the plant. During the warm period, watering should be carried out as the drying of 1 cm of soil, that is, 3 times a week. In winter, the plant is transferred to a more economical watering, once every 7 days.
Also, the plant requires leaves to be moistened; pellets should be sprayed periodically in the summer and more often when the heating season begins.
Fertilizer for pellets are needed only during the active growing season. In winter, when the plant begins to rest, it does not need additional feeding.
It is necessary to fertilize with mineral complex fertilizers once in 14 days.
The composition of the soil for pellets should include sheet soil, peat, and coarse sand, all components are mixed in equal parts. And do not forget a good drainage to the bottom of the planting tank to avoid stagnant moisture in the pot.
Or you can buy ready-made soil in a store for ferns, but it is worth adding crushed charcoal to it to lighten the soil and make it more airy.
Pelley graft and pruning
Capacity for transplanting plants must be selected a couple of centimeters wider and deeper than the previous one. During transplantation, the plant must be moved along with the previous soil, without shaking off the roots, in order to injure the pellets less, since the plant suffers painful transplants. And fill the missing places with new cooked earth.
Transplanting should be done as the root system grows in the ground. And every two - three years it is necessary to add new soil, removing the old one and a half capacity. During transplantation, it is also necessary to make the division of the bush, as the plant grows.
Pruning the plant is necessary for the formation of the bush and the removal of old and dry leaves and shoots.
Diseases and pests
Of the pests, the plant infects aphid, shieldweed, thrips, and of the diseases often encountered, the nematode. To control pests, pellets need to be treated with insecticides. And so that the plant does not infect pests, for preventive actions it is necessary to frequently spray the leaves.
And when a nematode appears, the yellow sign and drying of the leaves is a direct sign of its presence. This disease appears because of cold water for irrigation with a lot of chlorine in it.
If the leaves begin to wilt and curl, the reason for the small airing of the room and the lack of fresh air, because the fern feels good.
Pelley: description, types, planting and carePelley (Pilea), in common - push button fern,belongs to the synopteris family. In its natural environment, pellets grow in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones on different continents, but are most often found in America.
Description of pellets and its typesIt differs from other ferns in that it is well tolerated by moisture, and if it is properly maintained, then the leaves grow very long. Such characteristics allow you to grow this plant as ampelnoy. This flower lovers of indoor plants are rarely grown, because they consider the sawn very demanding and capricious in the care. However, florists say that this is not entirely correct: if you properly care for this fern, it can be a worthy decoration of any room.
In winter, a pellet is needed for coolness, and a hot room affects it extremely negatively. It is best to grow this flower in a cool winter garden, where it can realize its ground cover function. The small size of the pellet makes it almost invisible in its natural habitat. But in the ability to form a natural lace carpet under larger plants, this fern has no equal.
In nature, pellet has about 80 species, but only 6 of them are grown as a houseplant:
- Kruglolistnaya (Pellaea rotundifolia). It has a creeping scaly rhizome and round or elliptical leaves of dark green color.
- Dark purple (Pellaea atropurpurea). Differs in purple petioles and reddish-brown leaves. It can be cultivated as a houseplant and as a garden plant.
- Green (Pellaea viridis). The largest type of pellets. It looks like a round leaf, but the leaves are slightly elongated.
- Egg-shaped (Pellaea ovata). It has elegant light green fronds with heart-shaped lobes. Неприхотлива в уходе и прекрасно переносит жару даже в зимнее время.
- Копьевидная (Pellaea hastata hort. non Link, P. viridis Prantl). Differs triangular leaves, located asymmetrically.
- Naked (Pellaea glabella). Fern 35 cm tall with linear leaves and bare petioles. It is considered an ideal culture for the decoration of alpine slides.
Pelleya develops continuously, not stopping even in the cold season, although the growing season is traditionally in the spring-summer. When this occurs, the constant dying off of old leaves, which affects the decorative pellets. A distinctive feature of these ferns is the presence of narrow ribs, which, in fact, turn out to be two-color scales on the roots. Pelley as a indoor flower is a miniature charming woman who can deservedly be called a princess.
Pelleya: Choosing a Place for Home FernThis fern is unusual - it loves constant humidity and cool winters. Excellent portability of dry air in rooms and simple care makes it the most promising type of houseplant. A luxurious sheen of leaves literally enlivens the interior, making the room look fresh all year round. Pelley can safely choose even a novice in the cultivation of indoor plants.
Air temperature and humidity for growing pellets
All types of pellets (except ovoid) give preference to average temperatures, they even like coolness more. Comfortable in spring and summer, they feel at a temperature of +20 ° C. Temperatures above +23 ° C adversely affect the leaves and require additional care in part of watering. Therefore, for pellets, it is preferable to choose the coolest rooms.During the rest period, pellets provide a temperature of +14. 16 ° C If the temperature is higher, it can lead to a complete or fragmentary dropping of leaves. In this case, in the care program should introduce spraying leaves. Lower temperatures can be disastrous for the plant. It is not by chance that among the indoor pellets there are many plants of garden ferns. They adore fresh air, are not afraid of drafts and need systematic airing of the room. Since pellet loves coolness even in summer, it is occasionally brought outside, with the exception of cool terraces, balconies or on cool days.
What kind of lighting does pellet like?
Despite the fact that pellets belong to ferns, they are light-requiring, therefore, require special placement. All types of pellets, except bare and dark purple, can not stand direct sunlight. Light should be bright but diffused. If the pellet is placed on the south windows, then they need to be shaded with translucent screens. Best of all, the fern pellet feels on the windowsills facing north. On the western and eastern side of the plant is better to arrange in the second to third row, or arrange a diffused light.
It is impossible to call shade-loving pellets, but it is possible to adapt to the necessary shade tolerance from a young age. In the shade, such a plant will grow more slowly, and the leaves will change color in places. In general, this plant does not lose its decorative effect either in the shade or in the penumbra. To accustom pellets to the shadow, you need to gradually, over a period of 1-2 weeks, change its location, moving the plant each time by 50 cm. It is possible to change 2-3 positions.
The choice of capacity for landingPots for transplantation must be clay or ceramic - plastic and tin are not suitable because of the use of slightly acidic soil. For pellets, due to the horizontal type of root growth, wide and shallow pots are suitable. At the same time small and young plants can not be planted in large containers. At the bottom of the tank it is necessary to lay a good drainage layer (expanded clay).
How to prepare the soil for planting pellets
Almost all the seedlings purchased in stores, planted in a substrate, enriched with a variety of growth promoters. This is done in order to give the flower a better presentation. However, in such a soil is easier to transport the plant. However, this soil needs to be replaced. Ferns love acidity of 4.5-5.5 pH. To create such a nutrient soil, humus, leaf (garden) soil and peat are taken in equal shares. You can add sand to the soil.
Pelley planting technologyFern transplantation is carried out as needed. When a plant is transplanted, the root system neatly comes out of the container and, together with the earth lump, is transferred to a new housing. Free space is filled with prepared substrate. Tamper the top layer is not necessary - it should be sprinkled with earth, which remained in the old pot. After planting it is necessary to pour plenty of warm water.
Pelleas multiply by spores and dividing the bush.
How to plant pellet sporesSpores pellets collected from the leaves and dried. Sow them, without deepening, in a greenhouse on a wet sandy-peat soil. To prevent drying, the soil is covered with a film. When growing from spores, it is necessary to ensure that the temperature of the soil does not fall below +21 ° C. Before the emergence of shoots, the box is kept in a dark place, daily airing and sprinkling the ground. After 30-90 days, the first shoots begin to appear. Shelter is removed, and the capacity is transferred to a bright place. Between sprouts, a distance of 2.5–3 cm should be maintained. After the seedlings grow, they can be transplanted into pots with soil for adult pells. It is recommended to plant in one pot 2-3 seedlings.
How to water a home fern
Ferns - moisture-loving plants that just need abundant watering at least 2 times a week. Water should be separated and warm (or room temperature). Lack of moisture can be detrimental to pellets. Leaving the water in the pan and pouring pellets also should not be - it is fraught with root decay. Between irrigation 3-4 cm of topsoil should dry out.For ferns with watering is better to use thawed, rain or defended water. Sometimes you can use boiled or purified (distilled) water for watering the pellets. In addition to regular watering, ferns need to be sprayed. The frequency of spraying depends on the level of humidity in the room. If the air in the room is dry, then you need to spray the plant daily.
If the moisture indicator is at an acceptable level (50% or higher) for pellets, then it is often not necessary to spray it - 2 times a week is enough. Although Pylae as a hybrid form does not cause much trouble in caring at home, it has special requirements for water: the leaves can only be sprayed with soft, settled water, a little warmer than room temperature. If dust has accumulated on the fern, and there is no need for spraying, it is better to remove the dirt with a soft brush - wet cleaning will not like pellei.
Fertilizer pelletsLike most deciduous cultivated plants, during the period of active growth (spring-autumn), pellets require additional feeding. You need to feed the plant at least once every 2-3 weeks. To do this, use complex fertilizing or special formulations for ornamental leafy plants.
During the period of conditional dormancy (autumn-winter), despite the fact that the pellet does not stop growing, fertilizers are not applied even in case of loss of decorativeness.
How and when to transplant pellets
Ferns produce more than a dozen new leaves each season, and old ones dry up. Pelleys do not shed their own leaves and require outside help - old, dried and ugly leaves just prune. This plant does not need rejuvenation. It is necessary to replant the pellets as the roots grow in the soil, and update the top layer every three years (about half of the old ones are replaced by new ones). Also when transplanting, if the fern has grown, it should be carried out bush division.
Pot for transplanting pellets should be slightly larger than before (a couple of centimeters in height and width). You do not need to shake the roots off the ground - the plant should be placed in a new container with “personal” soil. After transplantation, the fern, like the Pilan Lebanese, needs special care at home: for the first 3-5 days, the flower should be kept in transitional conditions (in partial shade, at higher temperatures), maintaining the light moisture of the earth until it adapts and resumes growth.
Difficulties in growing pellets at home, major diseases and fern pests
Pelley is practically not affected by parasites. Possible problems include:
- Yellowed leaves and softened shoots. This situation may occur due to excessive soil moisture. As with growing sawn wrapped, when caring for ferns at home, you need to make sure that the water in the pot does not stagnate.
- If the pellets have turned pale leaves and began to fall off, it means that the lighting for it is too bright, and you need to either change the location of the pot, or arrange a diffused light plant.
- Shriveled and dried leaves suggest that temperature conditions are broken - the fern is too hot.
- The leaves turn pale and dry at the ends, the new leaves are smaller. This is the result of finding pellets in the shade.
- Yellow and brown spots on the leaves of fern talk about sunburn.
- The leaves turn yellow and curl - the plant does not have enough fresh air. It is necessary to air the room more often.
- Due to poor water quality (cold, with a lot of chlorine), a nematode can start in the soil. In this case, the pellet can be saved only by transplanting into fresh soil with simultaneous treatment with a special solution.
The greatest threats to pellets are:
- rot that occurs due to waterlogging,
Pelley - miniature fern
One of the most charming ferns of pellets offers admirers of plants to the leaves of miniature size and almost perfect rounded shape. At least, that is how they seem from afar. Brilliant, as if carefully polished, magnificent lobes of the leaves form not quite typical for ferns fronds. And the plant itself, thanks to its compact size, seems equally charming. And although it is not so easy to grow pellets, it cannot be classified among the most whimsical ferns. Pelley is a miniature beauty that can rightly be called inimitable.
Pellley round leaf (Pellaea rotundifolia). © floradania
Pelley - pushbutton miracle with great charisma
The unique miniature fern of pellets is very good both as a pot plant and in ampels. Its patterned leaves and elegant fronds transform every plant into a luxurious accent. Due to the dark-colored leaf stalks - from the Latin “pellos” (dark), pellets got their name. But we have this species is better known as a button, and in Europe - as a button fern.
This fern represents the family Pteric (Pteridaceae) and lives in subtropical and tropical zones of almost the entire northern hemisphere, but is also found in New Zealand and southern Africa. The modest size of a fern in nature makes it almost invisible. But there is no equal in lace and the ability to form a carpet under large plants.
The appearance of this fern is inimitably beautiful and easily recognizable even in the wild. But living in dry and mountainous areas endowed the pellet with several specific requirements for irrigation.
Pelley (Pellaea) - the genus is not growing too actively, but still producing for the season up to ten new wai super decorative, undersized herbaceous ferns. Plant height is often limited to 15 cm, although adult pellets can even reach 40 cm. Growth and development in this fern occur continuously. The release of leaves does not stop even in winter, although the most active phase of the growing season traditionally falls on spring and summer.
In accordance with the constant growing season, the permanent dying off of old leaves occurs, which affects the decorative effect of the plant. The rhizome of pellets is rounded, compact. A distinctive feature of plants is the presence of narrow ribs, which are actually two-colored scales on creeping roots.
Vayi this fern is not quite normal. Three-fold, double-feathery or simple feathery leaves are almost identical in size, smooth and whole-edge, sit on the rachis very thickly and form an almost perfectly symmetrical, tiled pattern. The sporangia on the leaves are located at the ends of the free veins and along the edges, as if covered with the folded edge of the leaves.
Popular types of pellets
In the genus Pelley (Pellaea) There are about 80 species of ferns, most of which have recently been retrained. As a houseplant grown 6 types of pellets.
Pellley round leaf (Pellaea rotundifolia). © Jody Marx
The absolute favorite of florist and the most decorative of all members of the genre is a charming miniature perennial Round pellets (Pellaea rotundifolia). This is a New Zealand plant with a creeping scaly rhizome, once pinnate leaves up to 30 cm long and up to 4 cm wide.
The scales on the cuttings give the plant brightness thanks to a brown-red tone. But the main decoration of this pellet is round or elliptical leaves (up to 20 pairs on each wye) with a solid edge, dark color and dazzling gloss of a dark green surface.
Pellet dark purple (Pellaea atropurpurea) - also a very popular and decorative look. It differs from the round-leaved pellet with its purple petioles and reddish-brown leaves, which turn the fern into one of the most spectacular dark red accents in any interior. The leaves of it are twice pinnate, with pubescent petioles. This plant is not only indoor, but also garden. Moreover, its frost resistance allows you to admire the wintering leaves, even in the middle lane.
Pellet green (Pellaea viridis) - it is distinguished by wyamies collected in the basal rosette with atypically long petioles. Once-pinnate leaves in length can grow up to half a meter, fairly wide, up to 20 cm, with oval-shaped leaflets. This is the largest type of pellet with the longest lobes of the leaves, which are not characterized by a coin-shaped form.
Pelleya ovoid (Pellaea ovata) - Central American look with very graceful flippers of light, bright leaves with heart-shaped lobes. This pellet is so unpretentious that it perfectly endures the heat even in winter. But the advantages of this fern have not yet fully appreciated, and it is very difficult to find it.
Pelley naked (Pellaea glabella) - North American species up to 35 cm high with almost linear, double-pinnate or unary leaves with bare brown petioles. It is considered one of the best ferns for the design of alpine slides, but is also used in room form.
Pelley beautiful dark (Pellaea calomelanos) - African species of ferns with twice or three-pinnate leaves up to 60 cm long and up to 30 cm wide, gathered in a lush rosette. Vayi sit on red long petioles, and the shape of the lobes of the leaves is very unusual, triangular, asymmetrical.
Pelley dark purple (Pellaea atropurpurea). © P.B. Pelser Pelley nice-dark (Pellaea calomelanos). © P Ballings Pelley naked (Pellaea glabella). © P.B. Pelser
Caring for pellets at home
Pelley is not a typical fern. She loves mid-cool wintering and stable humidity, but less moisture-loving than her popular relatives. The excellent tolerability of dry air in apartments makes this plant one of the most promising medium-sized species, and attentive care cannot be considered too complicated.
The magnificent sparkle of rounded pellets leaves literally transforms the interiors, the plant looks very elegant all year round. And you can safely choose it, even if you do not have much experience in growing indoor plants.
Despite the fact that pellets are ranked among ferns, these are light-loving indoor crops that need to be provided with an appropriate location in the interior. All species, except for dark purple and bare pellets, need protection from direct sunlight (they are not afraid of garden pellets and in direct sun rooms). But the lighting should be diffused and as bright as possible.
On the southern window-sills, pellets are tinted only with translucent, not ordinary screens. Pelleya is best developed in locations similar to the northern windowsills. На западных и восточных окнах также нуждается в рассеивании солнечных лучей или выставлении ее во втором-третьем ряду.
Тенелюбивым растением пеллею назвать нельзя, но вот теневыносливой при условии постепенной адаптации с молодого возраста ее можно сделать. Растение в такой локации медленнее растет, а листья частично меняют окрас, но в целом этот папоротник сохраняет декоративность и в полутени, и в тени.
To “translate” the pellet into a more meager lighting, you need to gradually change its location, stretching the process of moving to a permanent place for 2-3 stages with a duration of 1-2 weeks (first move the plant 50 cm, then a little further, etc.) .
During the period of relative rest, from October to February, it is better for pellets to adjust the lighting, compensating for its seasonal cuts. The fern is exposed in a more brightly lit place (so that the average intensity of illumination remains similar to the summer period).
Pelley ovoid (Pellaea ovata). © Otto Ganss
All pellets, except the ovoid, prefer restrained temperatures and even like coolness. These ferns feel more comfortable during spring and summer at temperatures of about 20 degrees. Heat (above 23 degrees) directly affects the attractiveness of the leaves and requires a corresponding correction of care in terms of humidification. Therefore, for pellets better to choose the coolest places in the house. But do not allow the temperature to drop to 17-18 degrees.
The wintering mode for pellets is even easier to pick up. In the period of relative rest for this plant provide the environment from 14 to 16 degrees of heat. Hotter conditions can lead to full or partial leafing of the leaves (which is easily avoided by introducing a sprinkling of leaves to compensate for the heat in the care program). Lower temperatures for pellets are disastrous.
When controlling the temperatures in winter, it must be borne in mind that for pellets the temperature of the substrate is not more important than the air. In no case should it fall below 14 degrees: overcooling of the root system can literally ruin the pellet.
Among the types of indoor pellets it is not by chance that there are many plants from the categories of garden ferns. This culture loves fresh air, is not afraid of drafts and just needs frequent airing of rooms. Due to the fact that pellet prefers coolness even in summer, it is rarely brought to the fresh air, with the exception of the shaded and cool northern balconies and terraces.
Watering and humidity
Unlike most indoor ferns, pellets are hardly plant moisture-loving. This beauty needs moderate watering, she loves neither overmoistening nor full drying of the substrate in pots. Moreover, if after a drought, it is able to recover rather quickly, then after overflowing it will be much more difficult to cope with problems. Between the procedures, 3-4 cm of the upper layer of the substrate should dry out. The usual frequency of procedures in spring and summer is 2 times a week.
If the air temperature is higher than recommended, then the plant is watered a little more often, but reducing the intensity of irrigation. Water should be drained from the tray immediately. In autumn and winter, pellets are watered rarely and generally reduce the moisture of the earthy coma, allowing the substrate to dry out between procedures and in the middle of the pot. Overflowing at this time of year, especially when kept cool, can be disastrous. But even drought in winter is undesirable. When watering at any time of year, the plant needs careful handling: it is impossible to pour water on the leaves.
Water for pellets should not be so much separated as room temperature. Watering with defended, soft water for pellets is undesirable: this culture loves alkaline soils and some gardeners pour it with water literally from the tap. But it is better not to resort to such extremes.
The biggest - and pleasant - pellet surprise was prepared according to the requirements for air humidity. Pelley retains its luxurious foliage, its decorativeness does not suffer at all in terms of 50% humidity. In general, the room conditions are perfect for her and there is no need to take any special measures for moistening the fern.
But if the air temperature deviates from the recommended indicators, then in winter and in summer you need to increase the humidity of the air by spraying the foliage. In winter, these procedures are carried out every other day, in summer - daily. But even such a measure is needed only with an increase in performance above 18 degrees in the winter and 24 degrees in the summer.
But the quality of water for spraying pellets will have to pay much more attention. For this culture, leaves can only be moistened with soft, well-settled water with a temperature several degrees higher than room temperature. Use for spraying only small sprayers.
If you do not need to spray the plants, and dust accumulates on the greenery, then do not rush to wash the pellets using the method of showering. It is better to wipe the dirt from the leaves with a soft brush, lightly brushing the greens with it. Wet "cleaning" pellee benefit is not. Wet she does not like wetting.
Feed for pellets
Like most decorative foliage plants, pellets need fertilizing only during the period of most active growth from spring to autumn. Despite the fact that the development of the plant does not stop, fertilizers in the autumn and winter for fern do not make. For pellets feeding is carried out not with a standard frequency, but a little less often - about 1 time in 3 weeks. From October to February, fertilizers are not applied even with the loss of ornamental plants.
Best of all for this crop are suitable complex or full fertilizers specifically designed for deciduous crops. Pure nitrogen fertilizers can not be used for it, because pellets need not so much nitrogen as a special balance of trace elements.
Due to the active development of this fern, the release of more than a dozen new leaves-wai for the season leads to the fact that the old leaves are constantly drying out. On their own, the plant does not shed, and without regular pruning of dry wai, the bushes lose their decorative effect. Strictly speaking, it is precisely to the removal of shrunken, old and ugly leaves that all pruning on this fern is reduced. There is no need to rejuvenate and form pellets.
Transplant and substrate
Earth mix for this fern is easy to pick up. However, it is necessary to forget about special substrates for ferns and acidic soils: pellets in nature grow on limestone rocks and, unlike their relatives, they like a soil with slightly alkaline, in extreme cases - a neutral reaction.
For this culture, suitable as a conventional ready-made substrate for decorative leafy plants, and improved soil for ferns or a universal substrate, admixed with limestone and dolomite admixture. If you prepare the soil yourself, then mix in equal parts humus, peat, leaf soil, sand and add crushed limestone.
Pelley is transplanted only as needed, when the roots have completely mastered the available substrate. Traditionally, this fern, regardless of age, is transplanted with a frequency of 1 time in 2 years.
Unlike most indoor crops, pellets do not need to be replanted until the end of February or March: a transplant is suitable for it at any time in spring and summer. During this procedure, high drainage is applied, acting as an important measure against waterlogging of the substrate. The earth lump is not destroyed, just by removing the free soil and the top layer of soil, trying to avoid contact with the roots.
After transplanting pellets, special care is required: for 3-5 days the plant is exposed in the so-called intermediate conditions, in partial shade, and at higher temperatures, they maintain a light soil moisture by careful irrigation until growth and adaptation resume.
Tanks for transplanting plants need to be selected very carefully: only shallow, wide pots, corresponding to the horizontal type of growth of creeping roots, will be suitable for pellets. At the same time, the plant is not planted in large containers, the volume is increased by only a few cm, and if possible, they simply change the free and polluted soil from above, planting the adult pellet back into the old pot.
Pellley round leaf (Pellaea rotundifolia). © 99roots
Diseases and pests pellets
For this fern, the greatest threat is rot caused by waterlogging of the soil, and shchitovki or aphid, which easily spread along beautiful foliage when adjacent to infected plants. But then this fern usually does not suffer from the pests most active in dry air - spider mites. It is impossible to fight the problem of washing the leaves on the pellet, for the destruction of pests it is better to immediately resort to insecticides.
Common problems in growing:
- softening of shoots, sluggish fox or foliage subsidence during overmoistening of the soil,
- shrinking, drying, dropping foliage in the heat,
- blanching and lethargy of the leaves with excessive light,
- loss of color, drying of the tips of the leaves, releasing small leaves in the shade,
- the appearance of yellow and brown spots on the leaves with sunburn.
Pelley - fern, different from the relatives of the love of dry air. This is an evergreen stemless rhizome plant with creeping surface roots. Red-green drooping fronds (leaf-like shoots) emerge directly from the root collar and form spreading bushes 20–40 cm high, depending on the species.
Leaves pinnately divided, leaf segments are usually the same size, in most species smooth, sometimes slightly pubescent, hard, scaly or leathery. Sporangia are located in a line on the edge of the back of the leaves and covered with a bristle.
Types of pellets
Pelleya Ovoid - an elegant bush with large, heart-shaped leaves of a light green color.
Pelley Green is plant with a creeping rhizome. She has feather-like fronds collected by a rosette, they grow up to 50 cm in length, and reach 20 cm in width. Its petioles are colored brown, the leaf segments are oval, elongated, dense, and pale green.
Pelley Green looks like other ferns
Pelley naked - linear biconorus leaves have a length of about 35 cm and petioles brown in color.
Pelleya Dark Purple has twine-pointed wintering fronds with leafy segments of gray-gray color and purple, almost black pubescent petioles.
Pelley gravy - feather-like fronds are collected in bunches and have a length of up to 25 cm with a width of 4-5 cm. The rounded or oval leaf segments are dark green, 10-20 pairs are located on one wye, the color of the petioles is brown.
Pelley gravy is most common in pot culture
Temperature and lighting
The lighting should not be too bright - the leaves turn yellow and dry, in the shade the growth slows down. In winter, you may need light exposure.
Pelley doesn't like heat. It is desirable that in summer the temperature does not exceed 25 degrees, otherwise the fronds quickly grow old and dry. In winter, the temperature is reduced to 12-15 degrees.
Soil and transplanting
Soil need weak acid. It is better not to cook it for beginner flower growers; take a ready substrate for ferns. The pot needs a low, with mandatory holes and a good drainage layer.
Young ferns usually transplant each spring, adult specimens - when the root system fills the pot completely.