Salads have long occupied an honorable place on almost every table. And not without reason. Useful greens are suitable not only for decorating dishes, but also serve as a source of minerals and vitamins. Gardeners have won salads as well because they conquer not only with a variety of taste, but also with their decorative properties. Well, if we are talking about the usefulness of this amazing plant, consider all its properties.
The composition of the salad
The salad is valuable because it is a low-calorie vegetable, 100 g of salad is only 15 Kcal. It contains no heavy fats and carbohydrates. Salad varieties are diverse, but all are valued for their vitamin and mineral composition, which includes vitamins A, B, C, E, H, P, as well as iron, phosphorus, selenium, iodine, sulfur, calcium, beta carotene and a few dozen useful items. Salad is a source of fiber and protein.
The benefits of salad
To include salads in your diet is a great opportunity to get rid of excess weight, as well as to balance nutrition in various diseases. Depending on the variety of salads, their vitamin composition changes. But they all improve the work of the gastrointestinal tract, have a beneficial effect on vision, regulate the salt balance, stabilize the work of the heart and the nervous system. The unique composition of the salad enhances lactation, increases the level of red blood cells, removes toxins, lowers cholesterol and improves sleep.
Varieties of spicy salads are distinguished by their antiseptic properties, have a diuretic effect and strengthen the immune system. They did not bypass the amazing properties of the salad and the fair sex, as they contribute to the maintenance of beauty. They are irreplaceable in cosmetic procedures - lotions, masks, as they perfectly tone and moisturize the skin, prevent hair loss.
Salads, truly, will decorate any garden. You can grow different varieties of salads not only on your own, but also for decorative purposes:
- create flower beds, beds,
- rabatki and labyrinths in which the salad is formed by spirals, ornaments and patterns,
- use as a separator plant,
- as a border, and also enter as a source of strange coloring in mixborders,
- grown in pots on terraces, balconies and window sills.
Of course, the value of the salad is not limited to its low calorie content. Due to its taste, it is used freshly in the preparation of snacks, it is good just with vegetable oil and with any sauce. Stewed lettuce leaves, of course, lose most of the vitamins, but such dishes are distinguished by their taste.
Use the salad to decorate dishes from vegetables, fish and meat, as an addition to sandwiches. In some national cuisines, salad is used as a dessert, sprinkled with lemon juice and yogurt.
Salads of this type are distinguished by gentle leaves that come with smooth and patterned edges. The color of leaves is varied - from light green to brown. Regardless of the variety of leaf lettuce, the taste is a little fresh and so tender that it is not cut, but torn gently. Among gardeners, this type of lettuce is very common, as unpretentious in the care, and sown it from the beginning of April (under the film) and to August.
Salads of this type are cold-resistant, they need a bright sun. They love light, loose soil. Leaf lettuce is planted with inter-row spacing from 20 to 30 cm. The seed embedding depth is no more than 1.5 cm. After 2 weeks, the first shoots appear. In the early sowing season it is recommended to cover green salads. Varieties of this species are thinned after the appearance of the third true leaf, as the plant grows heavily.
Lettuce needs soil loosening. Starting from the second week, weeds are removed and, as an earthy crust is formed, they are loosened. Watering is carried out carefully, trying not to soil the leaves. Therefore, it is recommended to mulch the soil, not only to keep the crop clean, but also to retain moisture. Collect simultaneously with thinning or selectively, removing the entire plant. The best varieties of salad:
- Lollo Rossa represents several varieties, also called Coral Salad. Lollo Rossa has a slightly bitter nutty flavor. The leaves are soft and give the plant volume. This variety is good in itself, and in combination with sauces, hot appetizers, baked vegetables, roasted meat.
- Oaklif or dubolistny salad justifies its name by the appearance of its leaves, very similar to oak. This is one of the most memorable salads in color and delicate nutty taste. Oaklif blends well with avocados, mushrooms, smoked salmon. Add it to hot salads and snacks. An interesting taste is obtained with croutons and croutons with this salad. For dressing salad fit all sauces, with the exception of spicy, so as not to interrupt the delicate taste of Oakleaf.
Cabbage and half-smoked salads
Salads, forming rosettes of leaves, called head. They are characterized by oily-crunchy greens. They taste as tender as leafy salads. In cooking, they are used the same way.
For the harvest in June - salads are grown seedlings. Seeds of a grade on it are sowed in the beginning of March. In open ground sown in winter and early spring.
Cabbage salads prefer fertile loam and sandstone. Heads are formed only in good light. Prefer a temperature not higher than 20 degrees. Before sowing the seeds, the soil is carefully watered and the seeds are scattered to a depth of no more than 2 cm. After the appearance of 2 full-fledged leaves, the plant is thinned.
Salads of this type need regular watering. 2 weeks after thinning or disembarkation, the lettuce is fed. Crop harvested depending on the maturity of the heads: they should be about 8 cm in diameter. The heading lettuce is quite common, its varieties are numerous. But I would like to single out one.
Frize - curly lettuce with light green around the circle and white-yellow in the center of the leaves. Recently, this type of salad has become more and more popular, due to its taste with spicy bitterness and decorativeness. In cooking, it is practically not used as an independent dish, usually in combination with other types of greens. The tickling bitterness of the Frieze salad perfectly complements the dishes of fish and shrimp, meats and cheese. Ideal with champignons and bacon.
This type of salad is known as roman. It is easy to recognize him by the shape of the head Elongated, almost smooth leaves, arranged vertically. Forms Romain large heads with dark green leaves. In cooking, they are used not only in the all favorite Caesar salad, but also as an addition to sandwiches, appetizers, sandwiches.
Romain is cultivated mainly as an autumn salad, sowing seeds in mid-July. Prefers loam and intense lighting. The seeds are sunk into the soil by 1.5 cm. After the appearance of several true leaves, thinning of the crops is carried out. Seeds before sowing is recommended to soak.
All care for Romain is regular watering and compulsory weeding. Harvesting can be started 70 - 80 days after sowing. This species is neither heading nor leaf lettuce, varieties (hybrids) - Remus, Wendel, Pinocchio, Mishutka, Kosberg, Paris green.
Romain has a nutty flavor, slightly spicy and sweetish. Delicious in itself, especially with yogurt dressing. Use it in combination with other types of salads, hamburgers, sandwiches. Add to vegetable stew and cream soup.
Leaves of arugula resemble dandelions in appearance. But it is completely inimitable in its taste: spicy nutty, slightly burning taste. Use it as a seasoning for many hot dishes. Excellent in combination with cheeses, vegetables, sauces and dressings.
Arugula grows fast enough. You can sow it from the beginning of April to August. Arugula is watered every 15 days. It is hard on the ground. But she needs intense lighting and a temperature of about 18 degrees. Grow it in greenhouses and in the open field. Arugula seeds are slightly buried in the soil. They germinate very quickly, about a week later the first shoots appear. Crop harvested after 2 weeks.
Arugula loves moisture, the taste of the plant depends directly on watering. It is recommended to spray. Planting can be mulched to retain moisture. The best varieties of salads: Rococo, Emerald, Corsica, Sicily.
By the way, as an additive to okroshka, arugula will add a savory note to this dish. It is great with fish dishes and seafood. Here, she probably has no equal. Arugula is used in pickles. After warming a couple of minutes of arugula greens in a frying pan with garlic, salt, pepper and olive oil - you get a sauce that any garnish will make perfect.
Miniature type of salad. It is famous for its decorative properties, but, above all, gained popularity due to its unique mustard flavor. Bright, fragrant and fast-growing salad can, by its taste, indulge with arugula.
The first sowing of watercress is carried out in early April. And get drunk every 10 days. Since watercress does not like the heat and long light day, in summer you can take a break in the crops. As in such conditions, watercress "will go" in color.
Necessary conditions for good growth - light soil and partial shade. Depth seeds into the soil by 1 cm. It sprouts after a few days. After 3 of these leaves - thinned shoots. For early sowing, it is recommended to cover the plant with a film.
Watercress is a low-growing plant, it is recommended to mulch the soil for the purity of the foliage. Watercress loves moisture, gratefully gives juicy tender greens with daily spraying. Crop harvested after 2 weeks. The best varieties: Danish, Amur, News.
In cooking, watercress has found wide application. This is a great garnish for game and chops. Excellent taste gives the butter for sandwiches, spicy additive to cheese snacks and salads.
Marsh salad, corn, rapunzel - field salad is known under such names. Small sockets of glossy dark green leaves. This is a very delicate salad, with a spicy, tart taste and nutty aroma.
Seeds are sown from mid-April to frost (when sown "before winter"). When late sowing the plant is protected - covered with leaves, compost. Responsive field salad to drained soils, likes good lighting, does not tolerate stagnant moisture. Depth of sowing seeds - 1 cm. Double thinning - first at a distance of 3 cm, then 10 - 15.
Grow field salad and seedlings. Caring for a plant is reduced to loosening the spacing every 2 weeks and timely weeding. Crop harvested 2 weeks after sowing. The best varieties of salads (pictured above) - Impromptu.
Rapunzel is also called "nut salad". There are a lot of varieties of it - some of them are eaten like radishes. It goes well with trout, bacon, mushrooms. With field salad you get a wonderful pesto sauce.
This salad looks like cabbage, as it forms dense cabbages with light juicy leaves. Iceberg’s taste is almost neutral, but no salad crunches as amazingly as it does.
Iceberg sown and sowing in the ground, and through seedlings. Crops are repeated after 3 weeks during the summer. Prefers salad nutritious, well-drained soil and bright lighting. Withstands small frosts and loves the night coolness. Seeds are sown to a depth of no more than 1 cm. For early sowing, cover with non-woven material.
Iceberg likes constant humidity, but does not tolerate drafts. All care for the plant is in the regular loosening of the soil. Watering the iceberg is desirable in the evening hours. Fertilizer is applied only on poor soils. Crop harvested as maturing heads. The best varieties are Lagunas, Argentines, Gondar, Campionas, Fiorette.
Juicy crispy iceberg leaves found quite widespread in cooking. Since the salad has no pronounced taste, it suits almost all dishes. It is good in sour cream sauces and in salads. Exceptional as a side dish for meat, fish, seafood. Make with iceberg leaves and cabbage rolls. Dense leaves keep their shape well - they serve cooked salads. Mix Iceberg, if desired, with other greens.
A unified classification of salads does not exist, they are divided mainly into categories: headed and sheet. You can group them by taste, bitter and sweet, crunchy and soft, pepper and spicy. There are a lot of varieties of salads, and with each year new varieties appear. This article describes the most popular types of salads - frequent guests on our table.
Popular salad plants
Leafy vegetables that do not form large fruits and have a lot of green mass, a pleasant taste and aroma, are called salad vegetables. These are cress, ice-salad, roman lettuce, frillis, mash-salad, oak salad, chicory salad. Garden plants such as spinach, arugula, Chinese cabbage, sorrel, leaf beets, dandelion, quinoa, pak choi, and others are also added to the common types of leaf salads. There are a lot of them. We have listed only those types of leaf salads, which are sold in Russian stores.
All salad cultures can be used for monosalats, only having seasoned them with sauce. Salads from leafy vegetables and lean meat, fish or seafood are quickly prepared. The latter are Mediterranean cuisine and are very popular in the Apennine Peninsula.
Types of Mediterranean salads are very diverse. They are made with mussels, shrimp, oysters, fish and dried meat. We offer to master the most simple and traditional. For it, you need to take several types of leaf lettuce, for example, lettuce, arugula and romain, tear them with your hands, but not very finely. Cut cherry tomatoes in halves. Sweet pepper and onions chopped into half rings. From the capers cut off the stem. All vegetables folded in a bowl. Feta cheese crumble with your fingers. In this form, apply to the table, on which the bottles with salt, pepper, oil and vinegar should stand. These seasonings each adds itself to their own taste. The dish can be supplemented with ready-made seafood or meat.
All kinds of green lettuce can be the basis for an independent snack food dishes. To preserve the useful properties of the leaves is better not to cut, and tear with your hands or cut with a porcelain knife and immediately pour sauce. Fresh green cucumbers, paprika, white cabbage, tomatoes, radishes should be mixed with greens. Very tasty salad of lettuce, tomatoes and garlic, seasoned with salt and sour cream. Lettuce can be replaced or combined with any kind of leafy salads.
Green salads do not cook for the future - just before serving.
At the end of the XVIII - the beginning of the XIX century, the dish, called salad, has undergone dramatic changes. If earlier only those culinary experiments, which included the leaves of lettuce, were called salads, now new types of salads, representing various mixtures of sliced vegetables or fruits, as well as canned mixed vegetables, have appeared.
Salads can be both salty and sweet, served cold or hot, act as a separate dish, such as the famous “Herring under a fur coat”, as a garnish for meat, fish or cereal dishes.
The most famous salad, which became the first in a series of new dishes, is a salad.
Interestingly, in France, the salad with the French name "vinaigrette" is called Russian. The fact is that it was coined at the end of the 18th century in the kitchen of the Russian emperor Alexander I. Rare vinegar vinaigre, rare in our country, was used as a gas station - he gave the name to the dish.
The French language in our Fatherland was then in great fashion. He knew not only the nobles, but many ordinary people. Thus, a certain cook prepared a mixture of cut vegetables, added boiled potatoes, beets and carrots to it and seasoned with wine vinegar. The royal salad included salted mushrooms, sturgeon, capers and truffles.
I liked the dish, and the vinaigrette opened a new era of salads - salads with boiled potatoes, beets and carrots.
In the people, since capers and truffles were a rare delicacy, sauerkraut or pickles, stewed turnips and dried fish interfered with the salad.
Modern types of salads such as vinaigrette contain green peas and onions soaked in vinegar.
There is such an aphorism: "A real woman can make a salad, a hat and a scandal out of nothing." Salad - a dish very convenient. A skillful housewife is able to independently invent a recipe for a new, original salad, if she understands what products are well combined with each other. Ингредиенты для салата можно приготовить заранее, а порезать, смешать и заправить непосредственно перед подачей на стол. Часто в салаты кладут консервированные полуфабрикаты - рыбу, кальмары, кукурузу, горошек, фасоль, огурцы, маслины, грибы. Их соединяют со свежими или отварными компонентами.
В салате давно прижились мясопродукты. Это и просто отварное постное мясо, и колбасы, и копчености. It is by the presence of the main ingredient that salads are divided into meat, fish, vegetables, mushrooms or fruit. A separate line is salads, canned. Most often they are made from some vegetables, but sometimes combined with mushrooms, legumes or rice.
The most interesting combinations of ingredients became classic and got their own names. The best of them are presented below.
An important role in salads is given to gas stations.
The meaning of salad dressing or dressing is not only in giving the dish the necessary completeness. Cut vegetables are rapidly oxidized. This leads to the destruction of many vitamins. Acid or fat refills stop the destructive effect of oxygen, vitamins are preserved.
Initially, salads were refilled only with vegetable oil and vinegar. Now the stores offer a large selection of a variety of sauces, differing in composition, taste and purpose.
Many people like to fill salads with ordinary sour cream or mayonnaise. These two ingredients can be mixed and get a softer sauce.
Caesar salad appeared in our country relatively recently, but it became so famous and loved so quickly that we thought it necessary to give it a few words. This salad came to us from America. His name is directly related to the Italian cook, but is in no way connected with the famous commander.
The composition of the classic "Caesar" includes lettuce, white bread croutons, boiled eggs, hard cheese, garlic and olive oil sauce with lemon juice.
Dish for salad need to rub garlic. Tear the salad, chop the eggs, grate the cheese and put them on the dish. Pour over the sauce. Before serving add croutons. They should not be in too long contact with the sauce - having absorbed the liquid, they will become soft and will lose a pleasant crunchiness.
An improved version of "Caesar" includes lean meat, fish or shrimp. On the basis of "Caesar" created several types of salads. Dishes with them always look very picturesque due to the bright colors of the ingredients. It increases appetite and improves mood.
The best meat salad is, of course, “Olivier”. For many decades it has been overtaking all known types of salads for the New Year. Equal to it can only be famous herring under a fur coat, but about her just below.
A French chef named Olivier invented an exquisite salad of game, truffles, crayfish necks and capers. Rare and expensive ingredients were not available to everyone, and the taste of the salad conquered many. Soon, scarce delicacies were supplanted by available meat fillets, pickled cucumbers, green peas, boiled potatoes and chicken eggs. Only the sauce for the dressing remained the same. This is mayonnaise.
On the basis of the classic "Olivier" there were other types of salads. They replace meat with mushrooms, crab sticks, shrimps, squid, fish and even sausage. Salad "Duke" - the same "Olivier", only with pickled carrots, "Venice" - with olives. The popular Mimosa salad is also a type of Olivier. The ingredients in it have layers, as in the classic herring under a fur coat.
There are several types of salads with this name. Combines their bright yellow color and the consistent laying of finely chopped or grated products on each other and alternately soaking each mayonnaise. Fish are placed at the bottom of the dish and covered with egg whites. Next comes boiled carrots, followed by pickled onions, then potatoes. The top of the salad is covered with a thick layer of egg yolks, grated cheese of bright yellow color or canned corn. It is very lively appearance of the salad, the dish looks elegant and picturesque.
"Herring under a fur coat"
Began puff salads with well-known herring under a fur coat. What types of salads are used to cook for the New Year's Eve? Certainly, those who will please an aesthetic appetizing appearance, but which quickly give a feeling of saturation without gravity, because the New Year's Eve is completely devoted to fun, walking on the street near the main Christmas tree of the city and meetings with friends. Such an active pastime is accompanied by abundant food, and who wants to gain so much extra weight in a few hours of the holiday, so that all the rest of the weekend with anguish think about the upcoming diet and exhausting exercises in the gym? "Herring under a fur coat" and looks beautiful, and very tasty, and not too high in calories.
For the classic "fur coat" need boiled beets, potatoes and carrots, fresh apples and onions, herring and mayonnaise. Peel beets, potatoes and carrots and grate them on a coarse grater. Apples too clean and grate. Chop the onion and pour boiling water over it for a couple of minutes so that the bitterness is gone. Free the herring from entrails, skin and bones. Chop fillets very finely.
On a narrow and long dish put a layer of potatoes and pour mayonnaise. On it - herring. On the herring - onions, then carrots, and on it - apples. Each layer is watered with mayonnaise. All products should be laid out smoothly to get a beautiful slide. This hill should be closed with grated beets, smeared with mayonnaise. Salad tastes best in a few hours when the juice appears and mixes with the sauce.
Fruit and berry
Fruit salads are made from both fresh and canned fruit. They are seasoned with sour cream, yogurt, condensed milk, honey or lemon juice with sugar.
The most delicious types of fruit salads contain honey and are decorated with ice cream. They are made cold and served as a dessert.
For fruit salads take any fruit that has a strong texture. They are peeled from the skin and seeds, cut into cubes, placed in a bowl, poured sweet sauce and decorated with grated chocolate, pieces of fruit and nuts.
Here are three types of salad. Photos demonstrate how to make them better.
- Wild berry salad. For him, you need to take raspberries, ripe gooseberries, red, black and white currants and honey. Cut the gooseberry in halves and clean the seeds. Currant berries carefully separated from the twigs. Fold clean berries in transparent vases in layers. Pour over honey mixed with chopped mint.
- Fresh fruit salad. Peel apples and pears and tangerines from the peel and seeds. Cut into cubes. Mint leaves cut and knead in a mortar before browning. Mix with fruit syrup and pour fruit over this sauce.
- Salad of canned fruit. Pineapples and peaches cut into cubes, lay down in a bowl. Mint leaves boil in syrup from under pineapples or peaches. Cool, strain and pour into the ice-cream bowl. Refrigerate until cool. Decorate with ice cream or whipped cream, squeezing them through the cornet with curly nozzle.
Dessert and snack bars, very tasty and incredibly healthy salads can be made from carrots. It is available at any time of the year and in any locality, and the use of fresh carrots for vision and general health is indisputable.
Fresh carrots are peeled, ground on a grater and seasoned with salt, sugar, vegetable oil, sour cream, honey or vinegar, depending on what kind of salad you need - dessert or snack. When the carrot makes juice and becomes slightly softer, the salad is ready and you can eat it.
Here are a few types of salads. The recipes of these mixes are perfect for meat dishes:
- The first is fresh grated carrots and radish with salt, apple cider vinegar and sunflower oil.
- The second - grated carrots, horseradish, salt and sour cream. Very simple and very tasty.
And for the sweet tooth the following types of salad recipes with honey:
- The first is to sprinkle fresh grated apples with vinegar so as not to darken, and combine with carrots.
- The second is to mix prepared carrots with roasted ground nuts and a banana.
Instead of carrots, you can use turnips or Jerusalem artichoke. Also tasty and healthy.
Canning is very convenient if you have your own greenhouse, and by the end of the summer many Bulgarian peppers and tomatoes ripen. These vegetables most often complement almost all types of salads for the winter. They are used as a whole and cut. Pour with tomato juice, vinegar marinade or vegetable oil. Most of the recipes have come to us from the Balkan countries, where the harvests of bell peppers, eggplants and tomatoes are so high that it is simply criminal to not harvest tasty vegetables. It is not by chance that many Balkan types of salads and names have the corresponding ones: gyuvech, paprikash, lecho.
This salad is made as a seasoning for meat or fish semi-finished products. Sometimes meat or fish is boiled, then separated from the bones, combined with güvech and stewed for a while on a small fire. It turns out the original mix of tastes. Depending on the fat content of meat, it is eaten cold or hot.
The composition of güvech (except for the marinade) includes 11 components - eggplants, zucchini, tomatoes, onions, peas, green beans, carrots, okra, green cherry plums, potatoes and garlic. Everything is cut quite large and placed in a large pot. Poured marinade of white wine, salt and spices (black pepper allspice, cloves, cinnamon, marjoram, basil, dill and parsley). Boiled down to reduce the liquid in half and poured into sterile jars. Banks put upside down, wrap, leave to cool completely, then transferred to a cold basement.
The name of the salad paprikash says what kind of vegetable dominates it. This is sweet bell pepper, paprika. Like güvech, paprikash canned for the winter, then used as a salad, most often for meat. The composition of paprikash includes Bulgarian pepper, onions, tomatoes, salt and spicy herbs. Peppers are cleaned from seeds, cut into rings. Shred the onion rings. Tomatoes rubbed through a sieve and mixed with seasonings. Pour the resulting tomato pepper and onion, put on the stove and boil until thick. Then poured into the banks, wrapped until cool and carried in a cold place.
Lecho is similar to paprikash, but it is prepared with vinegar marinade. Pepper must be freed from the seeds and cut into strips. Heat the vegetable oil in a skillet and quickly fry the pepper in it. Incise the tomatoes, scalded with boiling water and peel. Skip through a meat grinder. Season tomato paste with salt, sugar and pepper. Put on the fire and simmer for 10 minutes. Put the pepper in it and pour in the oil. After 5 minutes, add vinegar and garlic. Then 5 minutes and pour into clean cans. Cork, turn and leave for a day. Cooled banks transfer to a dark cool room. For lecho you need to take 2 kg of tomatoes and peppers, half a glass of oil and vinegar. Salt, sugar and pepper - to taste. Garlic - at the rate of 1 clove per jar, that is, 5-7 pieces.
White cabbage salads are very popular in our country. This vegetable is used both in fresh form and in fermented. Fresh cabbage is pretty tough. To make the salad tender and juicy, the cabbage is chopped and lightly sprinkled with salt and ground between the palms. She gives juice and it turns out very tasty. To the cabbage add a variety of vegetables - grated carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers and different types of leafy salads. Season with vegetable oil and apple cider vinegar.
Sauerkraut is a ready-made salad, in which you only need to crumble the onions and pour in a little vegetable oil. When sauteing in cabbage retains most of the vitamins. Cabbage salads are also suitable for dietary nutrition, as they contain a substance that breaks down fat and promotes weight loss.
Oak Salad (Oaklif)Oak-leaved lettuce, oak leaf lettuce or oaklif - leaf lettuce, the shape of the leaves of which resembles oak leaves. The plant forms a dense semi-sprawling outlet of medium or large size, the head is not formed. The leaves are green, red, maroon-brown color, which increases to the tips. They are pinnate, with a wavy edge and fanlike venation, very decorative. Oaklif - medium early variety, resistant to rifle and disease. Varieties of oak leaves: Altero, Amorix, Asterix, Betanto, Dubagold, Dubared, Maseratti, Torrero, Starix. The planting scheme of this salad is 30 x 30 cm. The salad does not tolerate temperature drops and is stored for a short time.
Oak lettuce has a nutty flavor, and is best combined with ingredients that do not have strongly pronounced flavors. Salad dressing with oak leaf should not be heavy and too spicy. Oaklif blends well with avocados, mushrooms, salmon, croutons, almonds, garlic. It can serve as a side dish for fried fish. Fill the dish better with vegetable oil with vinegar and salt. Beautiful "oak" leaves can also be used to decorate dishes.
Lollo rossoVariety Lollo Rosso can rightly be called one of the most beautiful leafy salads. In their production, he ranks second after Batavia. It forms a semi-sprawling rosette with fan-shaped leaves of medium size. The tips of the leaves are very small and wavy, “curly”; they are distinguished by a bright anthocyanin color of red shades, the leaves are green closer to the center. For the similarity of lettuce with sea corals, Lollo Rosso is called "coral salad."
This is an early ripe salad, the harvest of which can be harvested in 40-50 days after mass shoots. It can grow in an open and protected ground, cold-resistant, loves light and constant moisture. The salad planting scheme is 20 x 25 cm. Lollo Rosso is a decorative salad suitable for growing in flower beds next to flowers.
Salad has a nutty taste with bitterness. Most often, it performs a decorative function on a plate, decorating the dish. It is found in salad mixtures along with other varieties of salads. Good in combination with cheese, chicken liver, fried meat (pork, goose, turkey), baked vegetables, hot appetizers, salads. Popular in Italian cuisine, where it is combined with seafood. (shrimp and scallops) and spicy herbs (basil, thyme).
In addition to the variety of the same name, the variety also includes the following varieties: Carmesi, Constance, Majestic, Nika, Nation, Selvey, Revolution, Pentared, Refeta.This is a very common lettuce with a delicate buttery texture and mild flavor. Butterhead's small head of cabbage consists of tender, pale green leaves of elongated shape, inside it is crisp, outside - with a bitterness. In one head there are about 250 g of leaves.
Butterhead salad (Boston) goes well with greens and other salads, its leaves are used to make burgers, decorating dishes. Leaves can be replaced by nori in cooking rolls. In Germany, this salad makes garnishes for hot meat dishes. An excellent salad dressing will be creamy sauce, honey, balsamic, olive oil.
Iceberg (ice salad)Iceberg variety salad (crispy, ice cold, ice salad) looks like cabbage. Its growing season is about 100 days. A loose head of lettuce has an average weight of 400-500 g, although it can reach 1 kg. A medium-sized or large-sized semi-sleek socket consists of solid and thick leaves with a corrugated edge. They are shiny, juicy and crispy, color green with a touch of white or gray. When harvesting, in addition to the head of cabbage, the surrounding leaves are also cut off. The planting pattern is 30 x 35 cm. This type is very resistant to low temperatures. In the refrigerator can be stored up to 20 days. Iceberg lettuce varieties: Argentina, Barcelona, Galera, Diamantinas, Helenas, Cartagenas, Kuala, Lagunas, Nanet, Santarinas, Platinas, Fioret.
Iceberg is good in salads, hamburgers, successfully combined with meat, fish and seafood, eggs.The Batavia variety is distinguished by a large medium dense head of cabbage and a large semi-sprawling rosette. Heading in cold conditions in varieties of this type is not always clearly defined. Batavia lettuce leaves are medium, thick, whole-cut, wavy on the edge, crispy. The predominant color of the leaves is light green, green, yellowish, red-brown. The salad has a sweetish, slightly grassy aftertaste.
Grades: Afition, Bogemi, Grand Rapid Pearl Jam, Grini, Imagine, Lancelot, Lifel, Caipira, Kismi, Malis, Redbat, Risotto, Perel, Starfighter, Triathlon, Fanley, Fantime. The planting scheme is 30 x 35 cm. Today, 90% of salads that are grown using the hydroponics method (in aqueous solution instead of soil) are of the Batavia variety type.
Batavia salad is well combined with fatty meat and walnuts. On the leaves you can serve meat, fish, vegetables, as well as they are suitable for sandwiches and salads.
Romano (Roman salad)The oldest variety of romaine lettuce (romano, roman, kos salad) It is characterized by a loose half-open head weighing approximately 300 g. Socket is very dense, medium or large size. The leaves are elongated, solid, whole-cut, extended upwards. In many varieties, the top of the leaf is slightly bent inward. The outer sheets of roman lettuce are more green, in the middle - light green. Romano lettuce is suitable for cultivation both in the open and in the protected ground and even on the windowsill.
Varieties of roman lettuce: Vendel, Garnet Rose, Claudius, Xanadu, Kosberg, Legend, Manavert, Remus, Paris white, Pinocchio, Zimmaron.
The taste of Roman salad is sweet-nutty, tart, slightly spicy. Romain is a frequent ingredient in salads, sandwiches and hamburgers, it goes well with yogurt dressings, you can stew it and make mashed potatoes. Boiled romaine salad tastes like asparagus. May be stored in the refrigerator for several weeks.
Corn (field salad)Valerianella (corn, field salad, rapunzel, mung bean salad) belongs to the honeysuckle family. Растение формирует розетку из продолговатых, цельных, темно-зеленых или желто-зеленых листьев. Полевой салат можно выращивать на своем участке вместе с другими овощами. Растение выращивается конвейерным способом: высевать семена в почву нужно каждые 2 недели с весны до осени на глубину 1 см, схема посева – 10 х 35 см. Korn loves sunny location and frequent watering, with a lack of moisture blooms earlier.
Harvesting the root can be a few weeks after the formation of 4 pairs of leaves. Mash-salad can be stored in the refrigerator in a plastic bag for up to two weeks.
Delicate sweet greens with a nutty note are added to vegetable salads and soups. Mush-lettuce is used to replace lettuce or spinach. It goes well with peanut, sesame and pumpkin seed oil. When roasted, the root acquires a creamy texture, while maintaining tartness. Corn leaves decorate sandwiches and snacks. Delicious salads with a root are obtained in combination with chicken, croutons, citrus, beetroot and apples. Field salad can be served as a side dish to meat and fish dishes, mushrooms.
Some types of salads perform a rather decorative role in dishes. For example, a lollo-rossa salad, also called coral lettuce for its curly leaf tips and a rosette-like shape resembling the inhabitants of the deep sea. In the center of the rosette leaves are green, and closer to the edge - red-brown. It is because of its appearance and nutty taste with bitterness that this type of salads is more used for decoration of dishes or in salad mixtures. Perfect with meat dishes, poultry, liver and seafood.
This type of salad got its name due to farmers who supply fresh lettuce sprinkled with ice. Like many types of salads, "Iceberg" is an excellent basis for fresh vegetable dishes, in addition to meat and fish dishes. Prepare Agapimeno Gevma Iraklis salad with sea cocktail - an unforgettable taste!
Oakleaf lettuce also has the name "oak lettuce", since its leaves are similar to oak leaves and have a color from green at the roots to maroon-brown to the tips. Thanks to the nutty notes, it goes well with products that do not have a pronounced taste: avocados, mushrooms and oyster mushrooms, lean fish. Use a soft dressing without excess spices. For example, olive or sunflower oil with a small addition of salt or a drop of balsamic vinegar.
Crispy sweetish leaves with color from green to brown with small waves on the tips wonderfully suited to meat dishes and salads with nuts. Ideal complements sandwiches, vegetables and looks beautiful as a substrate for the dish.
Also called "Boston". A head of this type of salad consists of elongated light green crispy leaves. Often used in a mixture of salads, for making sandwiches, burgers and even rolls as a substitute for nori seaweed. The ideal dressing for these salad leaves will be olive oil, balsamic, various creamy mustard sauces.
Radicio salad - an Italian variety of chicory. Looks like a head of red-maroon leaves with white veins. The taste is bitter, so in salad mixtures it is used in a small amount and usually light varieties. The bitterness is softened by sweetish sauces using honey, mayonnaise, cream and juices. In the Mediterranean cuisine, radicio leaves are grilled, added to hot risotto and pasta. From the roots of this type of salad prepare a healthy coffee drink.
Frize is a type of salad chicory. Soft curled leaves are more pleasant and softer in taste, but with the same bitterness. It goes well with other types of salads, meats, cheeses and seafood.
The plant valerianella, also called corn, field salad, mung bean salad. It belongs to the honeysuckle family. It has a sweetish taste and goes well with fragrant oils from pumpkin seeds, sesame and peanuts. It gives lightness to salads with chicken, croutons, fish, meat and mushroom dishes.
Ice Salad, Crisphead, Ice Mountain, Ice Salad, Red Ice Salad.
Homeland Iceberg lettuce USA. The average weight of the fruit is 300 grams. The leaves are juicy, crunchy, light or bright green. Has not pronounced, slightly sweet taste. In the refrigerator you can store up to 3 weeks.
Iceberg is combined with any sauces. It is used in the mix of salads, as a side dish for meat, fish, seafood.
Iceberg lettuce leaves can be used in the preparation of cabbage, instead of cabbage leaves. In lettuce leaves you can serve cooked salad using as a form.
Iceberg must be stored in a refrigerator in a bag or in a plastic film.
Recently, a new variety has begun to appear - a red ice salad.
Lifley, Grand Rapid Ritsa, Risotto, Grini, Starfighter, Fanley, Fantime, Afition, Lancelot, Perel Jem, Bohemia, Orpheus, Geyser, Baston, Dachny, Jumble, large-headed, Prajan.
One of the most popular leaf salads in our country. The main feature of Batavia is a large, half-opened rosette with wavy leaves along the edge.
The taste of this salad is crisp, slightly sweet and does not have a pronounced taste, so it goes well with other salads and vegetables.
Batavia Salad is actively used in decorating dishes, in decorating sandwiches, appetizers.
It combines perfectly with fatty meat, with walnuts. Recently, a variety of Batavia with red-brown leaves has been bred. The taste of the salad is slightly more tender than that of green.
Stored in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.
Another name is oily salad.
This is a kind of kochanh salads. The average weight of a head of cabbage 250 gr.
It has a soft, delicate flavor. However, the outer leaves may taste bitter. The core of the head is crispy.
Butterhead salad is actively used to decorate dishes, sandwiches, it goes well with other salads. It goes well with yogurt-based dressings.
Can be used instead of nori strips for making homemade rolls.
One of the beneficial properties of this salad is that it relieves fatigue well.
Watercress (Zherukha, Key Kress, Spring Kress, Water Horseradish, Brun-Kress)
Varieties: Portuguese, improved, broadleaf, near Moscow
Leaves and tops of young shoots are used. They are best cut with scissors.
The taste is spicy mustard, so it can be used as an addition to the salad, as well as spicy seasoning.
Does not combine with other herbs.
Suitable for meat, fish dishes. Also prepare sauces from it. You can add both to salads and soups and omelets. It is important not to give the salad a long heat treatment.
The salad is very tender and not stored for a long time.
Oak leaf salad (Oakwood, Oaklif, Red Oaklif)
Grades: Amoric, Credo, Riviera, Dubachek.
Taste is saturated, with a gentle nut shade.
It is not combined with other salads with active and bright tastes.
Works well with champignon, avocado, smoked salmon dishes. Used in hot salads, snacks and even some desserts. Great side dish for fried fish.
For dressing fit all sauces from vegetable oil, vinegar and salt.
For a long time is not stored. Sensitive to temperature changes.
Chinese cabbage (Pak-choi, mustard cabbage, petiolate)
Pak-choi (stalked cabbage, celery cabbage, mustard cabbage, “horse's ear” and bok-choi.) Is a cabbage, which is based in Southeast Asia. The Pak-choi variety has long, white petioles and large dark green leaves.
Pak-choi cabbage is a low-calorie product (16-18 kcal per 100 g), rich in coarse fibers.
Cabbage pak-choi contains a lot of vitamin A and C, as well as K, B1, B2, PP. Eating cabbage pak-choy fresh, you save as much as possible all the vitamins.
Chinese cabbage pak choi is a valuable dietary vegetable. It is indicated for people with diseases of the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract.
Cabbage pak-choi should not be used by people taking anticoagulants (blood thinners), since vitamin K blocks the action of these drugs.
The fleshy cabbage leaves have a fresh, tender and bitter taste, reminiscent of a mixture of lollo-rosso and spinach.
Eat leaves with petioles. Cabbage is added to salads, stewed, steamed and boiled in a little water. Very tasty with cabbage soups in combination with fish, mushrooms or chicken.
When choosing cabbage pak choi, prefer medium sized forks with dark green crispy leaves.
When storing, you need to disassemble the cabbage into leaves, wash them, wrapped in a damp towel and store in the refrigerator. Store in refrigerator 7-10
It goes well with any vegetables. Suitable dressing with lemon and olive oil.
Corn (field salad, rapunzel, lamb grass, mash-salad, Feldsalat)
Corn is small dark green leaves, collected in inflorescences. Gentle leaves have a delicate aroma and sweet-nutty taste, a spicy note in which is not immediately felt.
The best root dressing is olive oil, which brightens the taste of the salad. The taste of the root will not be lost in combination with other types of green salads. The perfect pair for the corn is the chicorn salad. And yet - crispy fried slices of bacon, croutons, citrus fruits, onions, and especially nuts.
Corn retains freshness in the refrigerator for about three days.
Latuk or Salad Latuk
The homeland of the plant is unknown. Wildly growing in Western and Southern Europe, Western Asia, North Africa, Siberia (up to Altai), Central Asia, and Transcaucasia.
Vegetable culture. Mainly used as vitamin greens. The food used leaves, head, thickened stem. The leaves and heads of cabbage are edible fresh until the plant forms a stem, then they become bitter.
Juicy lettuce leaves are rich in vitamins (C, B, PP, etc.), salts of potassium, iron, phosphorus and other trace elements, carotene, contain sugars and citric and folic acids. Therefore, salad leaves are widely used in cooking, the recipe of which is primarily associated with fresh vegetable salads.
Known varieties, the so-called Roman salad or romaine lettuce with very loose heads. These include, which has become popular in stores, iceberg.
Lettuce belongs to the group of fresh salads. It does not contain sour or bitter substances. Only Chinese lettuce leaves have a sharp elongated shape. It has a sharp bitter taste and is recommended to be used in hot dishes.
The taste of this salad allows you to safely combine them with meat, fish and vegetable dishes. In cooking, it is advised to use both the leaves of this plant and the stems. Some varieties of this salad are grown exclusively for the sake of their juicy and fragrant stems.
Store salad Lettuce must be in the refrigerator in a package or in food film.
Lollo Rossa is a type of lettuce, but its leaves are curly, with a burgundy shade at the edges.
According to the content of vitamins, among green salads, it has no equal. It also contains iron, calcium, phosphorus, iodine, cobalt, zinc and magnesium. By the way, among all the vegetables, salad takes the first place in terms of potassium content, the second is iron, and the third is magnesium. Salad juice contains a lot of potassium, which is known to improve the functioning of the heart muscle.
Salad leaves are easily digested and therefore beneficial for the stomach. In addition, they increase hemoglobin, facilitate the course of diabetes, and even relieve insomnia.
Salad is simply indispensable in the diet. Lollo Rossa also helps to deal with hypertension and thyroid diseases.
Salad is especially useful for older people, as it has a good effect on mental activity and improves memory. So, if you want to be smart, healthy and slim, then include this green salad in your daily diet.
Chicken liver with lollo rossa leaves is considered a recognized masterpiece of culinary art. Fresh lettuce leaves of Lollo Rossa are enough to season with olive oil, add cherry tomatoes and onions, as well as a spice and spice mixture to get a light dietary dish. The calorie content of Lollo Ross is so small that the product can be eaten every day.
The salad is stored in the refrigerator, in food film for 7-10 days.
Chard (beetroot, beetroot soup, chard, chard, roman cabbage)
Mangold is a subspecies of beet, a relative of sugar, fodder and ordinary beets. There are stem or longish chard and chives or chard.
Chard, or otherwise beet, is a relative of spinach, it has bright green leaves with scarlet stems and veins that are well tolerated by heat treatment
In the spring, when young scapes appear, they are cut and cooked as asparagus: boils the stems, baked in a creamy sauce or bechamel, fried in egg and bread crumbs, etc.
Chard leaves are prepared as a normal green salad, or as a young cabbage: stewed in oil, added to soups, or used for cabbage.
Chard is successfully used to decorate dishes. To this end, its tender leaves can replace traditionally used lettuce leaves. Spread chard leaves on the dish, and you can put any cold snack on top of them.
Chard is widely used in the preparation of various vitamin dishes. He is good at cooking soup, borscht and, of course, a variety of salads. Braised chard is the original addition to the noodles or side dish for meat.
Leaves and cuttings of chard contain proteins and sugars, vitamins (C, B 1, B 2, PP), carotene, salts of sodium, potassium, iron.
Chard has healing properties. It is very useful to use with diabetes, anemia, kidney disease, high blood pressure. Eating it improves the functioning of the liver, cardiovascular system, promotes the growth of children, stimulates the activity of the lymphatic system and increases the body's resistance against colds. Chard is also recommended to use against radiation sickness. Gruel of chard root is a good remedy for baldness.
Stored as any green salad, in the refrigerator, in food film.
From the French Mesclun - a mixture.
Mesklan, this is not a variety of lettuce - it is a mixture of young leaves of several varieties of salads and aromatic herbs. The composition may be different, but the selection and combination, will save you from buying too much and does not even need to be washed.
Homeland, this salad - Japan.
Mitsuna, refers to pepper salads. It has leaves of an unusual shape - with sharp, chaotically rugged edges.
Mitsuna - a very fragrant salad with a mild pepper flavor. Most often it is used in a mixture with other salads.
Mitsuna exhibits, enhances the flavor and taste of the mix salad, which is added, enriches its nutritional value.
The core can be crispy, and the outer leaves are slightly bitter. You can mix with other salads, decorate dishes, add to sandwiches.
In some recipes, it is fried in a wok pan.
This is a Dutch variety of leaf lettuce.
Light green crunchy leaves wavy on the edges, collected in large forks weighing up to 300 grams.
The leaves are very delicate, not suitable for heat treatments and the preparation of hot salads.
It goes well with cherry tomatoes, canola or olive oil and balsamic vinegar.
Palla Rossa, belongs to the family of chicory salads is widely known for its nutritional and healing properties, high content of vitamins, especially C and B, salts of iron, calcium, magnesium.
Useful for diabetics and people with metabolic disorders.
The leaves are round, dark red, slightly wavy along the edge, with a whitish main vein, make it particularly attractive when preparing fresh salads. The head of cabbage is round, dense, the average weight of the head of cabbage is 215 g. The texture of leaf tissue is crisp, has an excellent taste.
Peking cabbage (Petsai, lettuce)
Peking cabbage, as well as “petsai”. The cabbage probably surpasses all other types of cabbage in terms of nutrient content and dietary properties. And this is probably the most succulent cabbage variety, so young and tender leaves with a pleasant taste are great for preparing various salads.
Beijing cabbage contains large amounts of citric acid and carotene, as well as vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B6, PP, E, P, K, U.
Also, Beijing cabbage contains many biologically active minerals, lysine - an amino acid indispensable for growth and tissue repair.
Moreover, Chinese cabbage preserves vitamins throughout the winter and is therefore indispensable in the autumn-winter period.
It is believed that Chinese cabbage is an indispensable tool for the prevention of diseases of the stomach and intestines.
Radicchieu (radicchio, radicchio)
Radicchieu - (synonyms: red endive, red chicory salad) - this is a headed salad with a bitter aftertaste. In the northern regions of Italy, several species of radicchio are grown.
Radicchio is eaten fresh with good olive oil and wine or balsamic vinegar, fried in a pan or grilled, and is used instead of plates for salads and snacks.
Radicchieu - goes well with green salads, salads with fish, seafood, poultry and fruit, it is used to cook risotto, pasta.
It can be stored in the refrigerator for several days.
Arugula (arugula, arugula, Eruka, Indau, rocket, arugula, caterpillar, walker)
Arugula belongs to the cruciferous family and is closely related to dandelion. It is a thin stalk with grayish-green leaves of unusual shape. Имеет своеобразный пряный аромат и пикантный горчично-орехово вкус.
Вкус рукколы идеально сочетается с оливковым маслом и бальзамическим уксусом, помидорами черри и пармезаном. Ее добавляют в салаты, пасту, ризотто, делают с рукколой соус песто. Так же можно приготовить безупречный гарнир, всего лишь прогрев рукколу пару минут на сковороде вместе с чесноком, оливковым маслом, солью и перцем.
Arugula is used for snacks, okroshka, cottage cheese dressing, soups. Its taste is perfectly combined with meat, fish and seafood. And yet - used as a spicy seasoning when pickling.
Choosing arugula, give preference not to large leaves, but medium. The length together with the stalk should be 9-15 cm. It is necessary to use only leaflets - the stem is more bitter.
Gentle leaves of arugula quickly fade, so there is no talk about a long shelf life.
Asparagus has two varieties - white (it is softer) and green. It is believed that the thicker the stem of asparagus - the better and richer the taste.
Asparagus is steamed or boiled in salted water, and then placed on ice. Usually, the stems are cleaned - from the middle of the heads down - and break off the wood ends.
Classic asparagus serve - with hot melted butter or hollandaise sauce.
Asparagus is served as a side dish, baked with sauce or cheese, or as an addition to other vegetables.
Asparagus can be frozen, but after that it can only be used to prepare hot dishes or sauces.
When choosing asparagus, give preference to dense, well-formed stems.
Asparagus is stored in the refrigerator for up to 5 days, but loose, not bundled.
Frieze (frese, curly endive, curly chicory)
Frize in French - curly. This is a kind of chicory salad. It has narrow, curly leaves, light green in circumference and white-yellowish in the center.
Frieze is increasingly gaining popularity in our country. It is connected with its taste with a special light bitterness, and its beneficial properties, and, not least, with the decorativeness of the salad.
Frieze is usually used in mix salads, to which it adds savory bitterness and beauty. It goes well with other leafy salads, arugula, garlic, thyme.
The sharp bitterness of the frieze organically complements the taste of fish and shrimps, meat snacks, soft cheese and citrus fruits. Frieze goes well with crispy, toasted bacon.
When choosing a Frieze salad, we pay attention to the inner bright leaves - they must be fresh, the green outer ones - not sluggish and tight-fitting.
Frize is a delicate salad, so it is not stored for a long time.
This is one of the most popular types of salad greens used in all cuisines of the world.
Spinach leaves - tender and juicy, rich green color. Winter varieties have larger leaves that are darker in color than summer ones.
It has a pleasant, sweet taste. Eating spinach, it is better fresh, but it is also good and boiled, especially since it contains a lot of protein and vitamins, which are not lost during heat treatment.
Young spinach goes well with spicy sweet and sour sauces. It is added to the mix of salads, and older leaves can be blanched and mashed. You can sprinkle spinach in vegetable oil with pine nuts - and it will be an excellent addition to pasta and any cereals. Spinach cooked soups, casseroles, omelets, etc.
When buying, choose spinach with lighter leaves on thin stems - they are younger, and therefore - more tender. Winter varieties must have strong leaves and a fresh smell.
Spinach can be stored in the refrigerator for about a week, but after 2-3 days there are practically no vitamins in it.
Chicory salad (Wittluf, Belgian or French endive)
One of the very popular picnic salads in Europe. It is cultivated in two stages: root crops ripen in summer, and in winter small dense heads of cabbage, elongated and pointed, weighing about 50-70 g are thrown out of them, this is Wittluff salad.
The pale yellow or white color of the leaves of lettuce is due to the fact that the roaches grow in the dark. And the lighter the color - the less bitterness in the leaves. No wonder translated from the Flemish Vitluf - a white sheet.
The leaves of Vitlofa crunchy and juicy, with a slight bitterness. Vitluf is prepared in different ways - boiled, stewed, fried, baked, but the most useful is to eat it raw. For salads, you can chop coaches along, across or disassemble into leaves. And to eliminate bitterness - if necessary - the leaves are washed for 15-20 minutes in lukewarm water, or immersed for 1 minute in boiling water, or soaked in salted cold water for 2-3 hours.
Dense elongated leaves are used for serving and serving portioned salads, filling them as mini salad bowls.
With heat treatment bitterness almost goes away.
Bitterness is concentrated mainly in the compacted bottom of the head of the Wittloff head, it can be simply cut out.
From the moment of cutting, the cobwebs of Wittluff retain their taste in coolness for up to 3 weeks.
Endive and Escariol (escariol)
Endive is one of the main types of chicory salads. And Eskariol is a variation of Endivia.
These two salads are almost identical in their taste characteristics and differ only in appearance. The endive has a powerful outlet of rather long, rugged, wavy-curly basal leaves, and Eskariol is wide, rounded petiolate leaves.
Both salads are colored in the range from light green-yellow to dark green.
Endive, has a high content of vitamin C., and therefore, raises immunity. In addition, endive and escariol contain inulin, an easily digestible carbohydrate that is extremely useful for diabetics and those who need a dietary supplement.
Stored in the refrigerator for up to 7 days in a plastic bag or cling film.
There is a huge amount of greens for salads. But not all of them can compare with this vegetable plant in the number of valuable substances. Fresh salad leaves contain:
- vitamins A, C, E, P, H, group B,
- iron, iodine, sulfur, calcium, selenium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium,
- beta carotene
- proteins and easily digestible fiber.