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Kolonovidnye apple: varieties, photos, description

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Most people at the mention of the word "garden" represent a large plot of land with planting spreading trees. In fact, in recent years, breeders have made a truly revolutionary step, creating almost miniature trees, characterized by high yields. It is to such plants is a columnar apple.

The story of the emergence of compact apple trees

Almost 50 years ago, a Canadian gardener discovered a tree that looked rather strange. The apple tree had a thick, straight trunk, but it did not have the usual side branches. Instead, there were many short fruitful shoots, which ripened a large number of beautiful fruits. The appearance of this type of tree led to a stable mutation, which resulted in a vertical crown shape. The gardener took cuttings from this strange tree and planted them on apple-tree stocks. Thus, in 1964, the first variety of a columnar apple appeared, called “Vazhak”. This unusual tree immediately attracted attention.

Already in the first years after the appearance of these trees, breeders began to produce varieties with fruits of different shapes, sizes and tastes. This was facilitated by the fact that the unique attributes of these apple trees are easily transmitted during seed propagation. The taste of the fruit of the original Macintosh tree is still considered the benchmark for these plants.

Tree description

The height of the columnar apple trees does not exceed 2.5 m. However, their width is only about 0.5 m. There are no long side branches around the central shoot. These trees are characterized by their precocity. In some cases, with regular fertilization of the soil, they yield in the first year after planting. A columnar apple yields a good harvest only if the plant is provided with ideal conditions for development.

Depending on the height of the columnar apple trees are divided into:

Until recently, such plants were grown only in specialized industrial gardens, but over time they began to appear more and more often in home gardens. Amateur gardeners appreciated all the advantages of such miniature trees. In some farms can be found apples that are not grown in open ground, but in large pots. Such trees are not only a source of fruit, but also an element of landscape design.

The positive properties of the columnar apple

The apple-tree is colony-shaped, the reviews about which are mostly positive (having read them, many want to buy such a tree for their own plot), is a plant with a set of truly unique properties. On its trunk a multitude of shortened lateral shoots of fruit-bearing type are formed. These branches branch away from it at an acute angle. At the same time, the columnar apple trees, the photos of which perfectly reflect their features, have a very compact crown and a small root system. Such features of these trees make it possible to create dense stands with high yields in a small area. Another important advantage of these apples is that they are not too high, which facilitates not only the harvest, but also the care of them.

The disadvantages of apple-tree

Despite all its advantages, these trees have 2 major drawbacks that prevent their rapid distribution in domestic gardens:

  1. They have a rather high price.
  2. A short period of fruiting. So, already 5-8 years after planting the seedlings, the yield of these apple trees is significantly reduced, which necessitates frequent replacement of trees with young ones.

Selection of seedlings

For planting the most suitable annual plants. It is better to purchase saplings of columnar apple trees in special nurseries with a good reputation. When choosing planting material take into account not only the type of tree, but also its condition. Thus, the seedling should not be dry, have signs of mechanical damage and disease. It should not be foliage and pests. You should also consider the frost resistance of the acquired plant, since even the best varieties that are not adapted to the cold winters will not be able to grow in our climate. When transporting seedlings, their root system is wrapped with a damp cloth and covered with polyethylene.

Kolonovidnye apple (varieties):

  • summer ("Medoc", "President"),
  • autumn ("Vasyugan", "Gene", "Titania"),
  • winter ("Moscow" and "Amber Necklace", Currency "," Bolero "," Arbat ").

Yield

Kolonovidnye apple trees, varieties of which have quite significant differences, bear fruit well from 4 to 15 years. The tree itself can reach 50 years of age, but after 15 years of its yield is significantly reduced, and it can not be restored. That is why upon reaching 15 years such trees are replaced by young ones. 6-12 kg of fruits (depending on the variety) are harvested from one columnar apple.

Preparation of landing holes

Apple-shaped kolonovidnye, reviews of which for the most part only positive, need proper care. Despite their miniature, they have a rather voluminous root system. That is why, when planting seedlings, quite large pits are dug out so that the roots are placed freely. The vaccination site should be above ground level. In the pit add 4-5 kg ​​of rotted manure or compost. You can also use mineral fertilizers. To do this, take 70 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium, 50 g of dolomite flour, and bring them into each planting pit.

After the roots are laid out, the seedlings are filled with water. When the water is fully absorbed, they are covered with fertile soil and make a recess around the trunk. Planted trees are watered again, and the soil around them is mulched. Some gardeners use trellis before full rooting of seedlings, due to which they remain upright.

Tree planting

Landing is made in spring (April) or in autumn (September-October). When spring planting, some varieties of columnar apple trees bloom in the first year of planting. Some gardeners remove flowers, giving the plant its strength. In this case, the next year you can get quite a decent harvest.

The best place for planting such apples is lowlands, in which in winter time snowdrifts gather to protect the trunks of the trees from freezing. Saplings of the columnar apple are placed in rows with an interval between them of 90-100 cm. This distance provides easy access. Between the plants in the row, the interval is 40-50 cm. With this arrangement, apple trees can plant up to 200 seedlings per 1 hundred square meters.

When placing trees, an important principle should be taken into account: all varieties should be divided into groups (summer - with summer, winter - with winter). This is due to differences in the agricultural practices of these plants. All varieties differ in terms of pruning, feeding, spraying and harvesting. Proper placement of apples on the site will reduce the labor costs for their cultivation.

Another advantage of the columnar apple trees is that, thanks to their compact crown, they practically do not give shading on the site. Therefore, many gardeners in such gardens grow not only trees, but also strawberries, the bushes of which are planted between trees.

Features of the columnar apple

Scientists have found that such unusual characteristics of the columnar apple directly depend on the special gene Co. In these plants from the trunk branches depart at an acute angle, and they grow almost along the conductor. In this regard, such apple trees are externally similar to pyramidal poplars. Such an apple-tree has a thickened trunk, on which grows many small branches, and flower buds are located on their tops. Skeletal branches of simple apple trees are much more powerful than lateral branches of columnar apple trees. Often they are replaced by spears, rags, or collar. The shoots of such a plant are quite thick, with shorter internodes located on them. Dwarf varieties have a lower tendency to branching as compared with medium growth (1.5-3 times) and tall (3-4 times). After the tree is 3–4 years old, the lateral branches cease to grow. In the case when the apical bud is injured, the growth of the plant will stop, but at the same time the side branches will begin to actively grow. In this regard, those gardeners who want to grow a columnar apple should do everything in order for the plant growth point to remain at least for the first 2 or 3 years. The apple tree will begin to bloom and bear fruit at 2 or 3 years of age. The harvest in the first 5–6 years becomes more abundant every year, but from 7–8 years of plant life it is observed to be consistently high, but this is only in the case when the apple tree is provided with proper care. The columnar apple tree bears fruit no more than 15–20 years; after this period, most of the ruts die. But if you grow strong or medium varieties or a tree that was grafted on seed rootstocks, then in these cases a rejuvenating pruning can be used that can significantly prolong the life of the apple tree.

Apple trees such as columnar trees are ideal for owners of small gardens. So, instead of one ordinary apple tree, you can land several dozen columns. There are 2 different types of columnar apple trees:

  • varieties that have a gene So,
  • simple varieties that were grafted on superdwarf clone stocks (they are shaped like columns).

Conclusion

When planting a cone-shaped apple tree, you must remember that in 15 years you will need to replace old unproductive trees with young ones.

Compliance with the basic rules for the care of columnar apple trees will help grow healthy and high-yielding trees, who will delight you with their elegant beauty and generous harvest.

The main thing to remember that in the care of Kolonovidky There are no trifles.

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