Brussels sprouts are popular with experienced gardeners, growing it is quite simple. Of all the known cabbage varieties, this one stands apart. However, in our gardens it is considered a rarity because of its peculiar capriciousness and low yield. But this is far from the case.
You can grow a vegetable in the country in the open field in the suburbs, plant directly from seed or plant seedlings first.
What is Brussels sprouts
The plant is two years old, it is distinguished by a thick stalk reaching a height of one meter. It is located long-leaf foliage, having a multi-colored blistering surface. The top of the stem is crowned with a leaf rosette.
By the autumn season begin to form small fluffy or dense kochanchiki, resembling a fork of cabbage. Their diameter is two to five centimeters, grows on one stalk from 30 to 70 pieces.
The plant is unpretentious, resistant to frost, the vegetative period is 4-6 months, so that it is recommended to grow crops by seedlings.On each stalk grows 30-70 coaches Brussels sprouts
History of origin
Culture is considered variety of white cabbage, in the wild in nature does not come across. Its predecessor is kale, which grows in the Mediterranean. The Brussels vegetable was derived by the Belgian selection specialists, which was the reason for this name.
Over time, the vegetable began to grow in Western Europe, and to the east it fell in the middle of the nineteenth century, but did not catch on because of the difficult climate. But Canadians, Americans and Westerners began to plant culture in industrial quantities.
This cabbage variety contains:
- folic acid,
- vitamins of various groups
- phosphorus, potash, magnesium, iodine, sodium salts,
- amino acids.
Cabbage is recommended for diets prescribed for children and the elderly. It helps with diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Cabbage juice has a diuretic, choleretic, hematopoietic, anticancer, anti-toxic, anti-inflammatory effect, stabilizes the performance of the pancreas, is recommended for diabetics. Cabbage helps with wound healing after surgery.
Vegetable count gourmet food. It is used in the preparation of salads, first courses, side dishes, can marinate and even freeze.
Soil preparation and sprouting of Brussels sprouts
For the cultivation of cabbage of this variety, it is necessary to take the lit area, but which is located in the “openwork” shade, for example, near large shrubs. They will cover the plants from direct sunlight, under the influence of which cabbages do not make heads of cabbage badly.
Beds for cabbage must be prepared in advance and made to the site:
- wood ash (1 l ash per 10 l of humus).
Planted seedlings should be staggered, leaving a distance of not less than 60 cm between the bushes, because the adult plant takes quite a lot of space. On acidic soils, add a handful of ashes to each well.
The vegetative period of Brussels sprouts is longer than that of cabbage. To place on the beds was not empty, you can plant beets between seedlings.
Plant care includes:
- regular watering:
- weeding and loosening the soil,
- periodic feeding.
The first dressing can be done 10 days after picking the seedlings on the beds using nitrogen fertilizers. For subsequent dressings it is good to use herbal infusions and complex mineral fertilizers. Only 3-4 seasonings are enough for a season. To prevent the long stem of the Brussels from falling over on its side, after fertilization or watering, it is periodically spud.
Experienced gardeners recommend pinching the top of the bush in the period of the beginning of tying cabbages. Thus, all forces will go to the formation of the crop, and not to the general growth of the plant, and the heads of cabbages themselves will be larger. Although it is noticed that hybrid varieties are capable of producing a rather large crop without this procedure.
As the cabbage grows, its lower leaves turn yellow. They can also be removed.
Cabbage harvesting is usually started at the end of September. In regions with a warm climate, the plant is able to remain on the beds until November, because it is well tolerated by small frosts (up to 2 degrees of frost).
Planting and care for Brussels sprouts (in short)
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in the second half of March. Planting seedlings in the ground - from mid-May to early June.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: fertile, loamy with a pH of 6.7-7.4.
- Watering: 8-10 times during the growing season. Before the beginning of the formation of kochanchik water consumption is 35-40 liters for each m², and then - 40-50 liters.
- Top dressing: 1st — a week after planting seedlings into the ground with a solution of Nitrophoska, 2nd — during the period of the formation of a cabbage solution with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of 1.5 liters per plant. When grown in fertile soil, top dressing is not needed.
- Breeding: seed.
- Pests: Babanukha, spring cabbage and sprout flies, wavy and black fleas, cabbage bedworm, fowl, aphid and moth, cabbage and rape bugs, root covertly, red bear, scoops - winter, cabbage and garden, wireworm, rape blooming.
- Diseases: keel, white and dry rot, bleaching, black leg, black and ring spots, downy mildew, mosaic, vascular and mucous bacterioses.
Brussels Sprouts Description
Brussels sprouts is a biennial plant. How to grow brussels sprouts? Growing Brussels sprouts is truly unusual: on a thick stem with a height of 30 to 100 cm or more, there are long-leafed Brussels sprouts with a bubbly surface of different shades of green and even green with a purple tint. At the top of the stem leaves form a rosette. By the autumn, small loose or dense coaches form very similar to white cabbage forks, only a diameter of 2 to 5 cm in diameter are formed in the axils of the leaves, and they can be located rarely and can literally stick around the stem - they can vary from 30 to 70 pieces. In the second year, the plant forms stalks, blooms and forms fruits in the form of small brown seeds, enclosed in pods. Brussels sprouts seeds remain viable for 5 years.
Brussels sprouts are one of the most unpretentious and cold-resistant subspecies of white cabbage, able to withstand frosts down to -10 ºC. It is one of the longest-seasoning varieties - its growing season, depending on the variety, lasts from 120 to 180 days or more, so the cultivation of Brussels sprouts is carried out mainly through seedlings. In this article we will tell you what Brussels sprouts and how they differ from other cabbage varieties, how to sow Brussels sprouts for seedlings, how Brussels sprouts grow and care for them in the open field, what kinds of Brussels sprouts for open ground are most popular. as well as the benefits of Brussels sprouts and to whom it may be harmful.
When sowing Brussels sprouts for seedlings.
The optimal time for sowing seeds of Brussels sprouts for seedlings is from mid-March to early April. The problem is that seedlings need to ensure that at night the temperature is no higher than 5-6 ºC, and during the daytime - 16-18. Therefore, it is better to locate crops on the glazed balcony, loggia or in a heated greenhouse. The humidity of the air in the room should be within 70%. Before sowing, the seeds of Brussels sprouts are heated for 50 minutes in water at a temperature of 50 º C, then immersed for 1 minute in cold water, then kept for 12 hours in a solution of microelements, washed in clean water and placed in a vegetable box of the refrigerator for a day. Then the seeds are dried so that they do not stick to the fingers.
Growing seedlings of Brussels sprouts.
Sow the seeds of Brussels sprouts to a depth of 1-1.5 cm in separate pots with well-hydrated fertile soil, consisting in equal parts of turfy ground, sand and peat with the addition of mineral fertilizers and wood ash. Before planting, spill the ground for disinfection with a solution of potassium permanganate. If you are used to growing seedlings in large containers, keep in mind that the seeds of Brussels sprouts should be planted at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. If crops are kept under glass or film at a temperature of 18–20 ºC, seedlings may appear already after 4–5 days, but immediately after they appear, it is necessary to remove the cover and set the temperature mode, which was described in the previous section. Sprouting Brussels sprouts before planting in open ground needs loosening and moistening - the substrate in the tank should always be in a slightly wet state, but in no case can it be over-moistened so as not to cause the danger of seedling seedlings. The first two weeks to water the crops do not need, and subsequently the substrate is moistened as needed.
Pick Brussels sprouts.
Pickling seedlings of Brussels sprouts, if it grows in a total capacity, is carried out in the development phase of cotyledon leaves. Before picking the soil is watered with potassium permanganate solution, after which the seedling is carefully removed from the substrate along with a clod of earth and transplanted into a separate pot, shortening the central root if necessary. After the picking, in the developmental stage of seedlings of 2-3 true leaves, they are fed with a solution of 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 l of water. Two weeks later, a second feeding is carried out, consisting of 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate and 30 g of ammonium nitrate, dissolved in 10 l of water. After each feeding should be watered substrate water at room temperature.
Two weeks before transplanting into open ground, it begins to harden, bringing containers with seedlings to an open terrace or balcony every day, and each time increasing the duration of their stay in the open air. When the seedlings can be on the street during the day, it will be possible to plant it in the open ground.
When to plant Brussels sprouts in the ground.
When to plant Brussels sprouts on the garden bed? When seedlings will get 4-5 true leaves. This can occur in the time period from mid-May to early June. For Brussels sprouts choose southern or southeastern slopes, brightly illuminated by the sun. It is good, if siderats, potatoes, carrots, cucumbers, legumes, cereals or onions were growing on this site before Brussels sprout, but after such vegetables as all types of cabbage, turnips, turnips, radishes, radish, daikon, tomatoes and beets, Brussels sprouts cabbage can be grown on this site only after 4 years.
A week before planting Brussels sprouts on the garden bed, it is no longer watered, and just before planting, the soil in the pots is abundantly moisturized.
Ground for Brussels sprouts.
Mostly Brussels sprouts love fertile loamy soil with a pH of 6.7-7.4. It is necessary to prepare a plot for Brussels sprouts in the fall: the ground is dug up by shovels to the depth of the bayonet and lime is added if necessary. In the spring the soil is fertilized - a bucket of compost or humus should fall on each m², and a teaspoon of urea, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and 2 cups of wood ash should be put into each well.
How to plant Brussels sprouts.
Planting of Brussels sprouts is carried out on an overcast day or in the evening after sunset. How to plant Brussels sprouts in open ground? The location of the holes is 60x60 cm. Dig holes a little larger than the root system of seedlings, place fertilizers mixed with earth in them, put them in a hole from a pot or from a container seedling with an earthy clod, place it in the hole, fill the holes with soil, lightly compact it and pour it.
Care for Brussels Sprouts.
Cultivation of Brussels sprouts in the open field is not much different from the cultivation of white cabbage. To protect the seedlings from the main pest of the family - the cruciferous flea - the area is sprinkled with wood ash. Brussels sprouts do not need hilling, especially since the lower coaches can rot. 3–3.5 weeks before harvesting, Brussels sprouts are decapitated — the top of each stem is pinched and the rosette leaves are cut. This is done in order to Kochanchik gained more volume.
The rest of the Brussels sprouts care is carried out as usual: regular and sufficient watering, weeding and loosening the plot, feeding and protection from pests and diseases, if necessary.
Watering brussels sprouts.
Brussels sprouts are moisture-loving. During the growing season, watering is carried out 8-10 times, spending about 35-40 liters of water per m² before the beginning of the formation of coaches and 40-50 liters from the moment of their formation. Of course, if the weather is rainy, the frequency of irrigation and the amount of water consumed per m² must be adjusted.
Top dressing of Brussels sprouts.
Brussels sprouts in the open field, if you grow it in barren soil, needs fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. The first time Brussels sprouts are fertilized one week after planting seedlings on a bed, using a solution of 1 tsp of Nitrophoska for 2 plants. The second dressing is made at the beginning of the formation of coaches on the stems - 25 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate are dissolved in a bucket of water, 1 teaspoon of Nitroammophos is added and 1.5 liters of this solution are spent for each specimen. If your Brussels sprouts grow in fertile and well-fertilized soil, then it may not need additional feeding.
Pests of Brussels sprouts.
All cruciferous pests and diseases are common, which is why we so often remind you that you should not grow one plant of the family after another on the same plot. Of the pests most dangerous for representatives of the cabbage cruciferous flea, but there are other insects that can adversely affect the quantity and quality of the crop of Brussels sprouts. For example: babanukha, spring cabbage and sprout flies, wavy and black fleas, cabbage bedworm, ognevka, aphids and moths, cabbage and rape bugs, root covertly rootbirds, bearfish, shovels - winter, cabbage and garden, wireworms, rapeseed flowers and others.
Insect control should begin with preventive measures, because it is easier to prevent the appearance of pests than to waste time and energy on fighting them. What methods of protection will help you prevent harmful insects from appearing at the site or at least reduce the risk of their occupation of Brussels sprouts to a minimum?
Firstly, the observance of crop rotation, secondly, the implementation of agrotechnical culture, thirdly, pre-sowing seed treatment and preparation of the site for sowing or planting the crop, fourthly, strict observance of the rules for the care of plants and the last - cleaning the site of plant residues crops and deep digging of the soil after harvest.
If, despite all your work, the pests still appeared, try to cope with them with non-toxic drugs - best of all folk remedies. If time is missed and insects have proliferated, it will be necessary to resort to chemical preparations, among which it is better to prefer bacterial insecticides harmless to plants.
Diseases of Brussels sprouts.
Brussels sprouts in the garden often suffer from diseases such as keel, white and dry rot, bleach, black leg, black and ring spots, downy mildew, vascular and slimy bacterioses and mosaic.
The best way to protect Brussels sprouts from any infections is to carry out the prevention measures described in the section on crop pests. If the disease still struck the Brussels sprouts, and folk remedies against fungi did not work, use the treatment of plants with fungicides, for example, Fundazol or Maxim, whose toxicity to the human body is greatly exaggerated. As for bacterial or viral diseases, they are unlikely to be cured, so the affected specimens need to be removed from the site and burned.
Cleaning and storage of Brussels sprouts
Maturation of Brussels cabbages begins 3-3.5 months after planting seedlings in the ground, but do not rush to harvest, because the taste of Brussels sprouts only improves from exposure to low temperature, and without loss of quality this variety tolerates cooling down to -6-7 ºC. Cleaning begins with the lower coaches, allowing the upper to gain the desired volume and acquire the density. Mass harvesting is carried out when leaves begin to fall, in the axils of which coaches have formed. You need to have time to remove them before the thermometer shows a temperature of -10 ºC. Стебель рубят у корневой шейки, верхушечную почку и листьевую розетку обрезают, а кочанчики, оставленные на стебле, могут храниться в таком виде около трех месяцев.
Для более длительного хранения брюссельскую капусту выкапывают или вырывают с корнем и, обрезав на ней листья, прикапывают в погребе, разместив вплотную друг к другу – на 1 м² может поместиться до 30 растений.
Можно обрезать кочанчики с кочерыжками, уложить их по 3-4 штуки в ящики и хранить в погребе. And you can wrap them in plastic and put them in the refrigerator for 1.5 months. The longest storage provides freezing.
Types and varieties of Brussels sprouts
Varieties of Brussels sprouts delight their diversity. Despite the fact that the Brussels sprouts is a crop with a long growing season, that is, late-ripening, among its varieties there are early ripening with a ripening period of about 130 days, medium-ripening, ripening for 130-150 days, and late ones that need 150-170 and more days.
Early Brussels Sprouts.
The most famous early varieties of Brussels sprouts are:
- – Garnet bracelet - this fruitful cold-resistant hybrid, which withstands frosts down to -7 ºC, ripens 120 days after transplanting into the ground. The height of the stem is 60-70 cm, the number of kochanchik on one plant is from 30 to 40. Coins are rounded, medium-sized, purple-red, dense, after heat treatment they acquire an excellent delicate taste,
- – Casio - cold-resistant high-yielding variety of Czech breeding with a stem height of up to 1 m with large, weighing up to 15 g, rounded and dense pancakes of green color and excellent taste, which can be up to 70 pieces per plant,
- – Dolmic - Dutch hybrid with a stem height up to 50 cm. Yellow-green cabbages weighing up to 20 g acquire a delicate taste after cooking,
- – Rosella - a high-yielding variety of German selection, the average weight of the coaches is 13 g, the main value of the variety is the almost simultaneous formation and maturation of the coaches,
- – Franklin - a fruitful hybrid with rounded green coaches of excellent taste.
In addition to the described, early-maturing varieties include Rudnef, Isabella, Commodore and Explorer hybrids, Frigate, Oliver.
Mid-season Brussels sprouts.
The most popular varieties of Brussels sprouts can be considered:
- – Diamond - a highly productive and disease-resistant hybrid variety with coaches up to 3 cm in diameter, dark green in color and pleasant taste,
- – Garnet - hybrid cold-resistant variety with a stem up to 70 cm high, on which from 30 to 40 rounded maroon roaches are rooted,
- – Funny company - sredneroslaya, tasty Brussels sprouts with dense green kochanchikami with purple tint. The weight of each fruit is 10-12 g,
- – Boxer - high-yielding cold-resistant hybrid variety, resistant to diseases and pests, with rounded kochanchiki green color and excellent taste,
- – Perfection - a productive variety of the Russian selection, the best Brussels sprouts for the Urals, Siberia and Moscow region. Cots of green color of excellent taste.
Mid-ripe varieties Hercules, Dower Riesen and the hybrid Maximus are also well known in the culture.
Late Brussels sprouts.
This category of Brussels sprouts is represented by varieties:
- – Gruniger - cold-resistant variety with a greenish-orange cabbage weighing up to 18 g and with a diameter of 4 cm. From staying on a light frost the taste of fruits improves,
- – Curl - one of the best and high-yielding varieties of Brussels sprouts of Czech selection with a stem height of under 90 cm, with a number of roaches with an average weight of 15 g and a diameter of 5 cm.
Brussels sprouts - contraindications.
Brussels sprouts are contraindicated in people with impaired pancreatic function, as they may develop hypothyroidism. Goitrogens contained in Brussels sprouts suppress the production of hormones by the thyroid gland, and the indoles do not allow the gland to iodine uptake.
In people with Crohn's syndrome, gastrointestinal diseases, Brussels sprouts can cause bloating due to increased gas formation caused by fructose residues - fructans.
The harm of Brussels sprouts for gout sufferers is the high content of purines in it.
People with high acidity of gastric juice should treat Brussels sprouts with caution, eat it infrequently and do not overeat.
Brussels sprouts / Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
The soil: loamy, rich in organic matter, slightly acidic or neutral
Watering: moderate, abundant in hot and dry weather
Temperature: develops better at +18. + 22 ° C, adult plants stand frost
Diseases and pests: cruciferous flea, aphid, cabbage bedworm and scoop, cabbage moth, thrips, vascular and mucous bacterioses, fusarial wilt.
Disease control measures: the use of resistant varieties, strict adherence to crop rotation and all growing conditions.
Sowing and growing
Brussels sprouts have a large growing season (it takes about 180 days from sprouting to harvesting), so it is grown only by seedling, otherwise the rodents will not only have time to mature, but will not even form. Seeds are sown at the end of March - beginning of April in a greenhouse or on a bed covered with film, and the seedlings grow poorly in an apartment in containers. In two months she is ready for transplant to a permanent place.
Brussels sprouts love light, fertile soil, do not like the wind, withstand slight frosts. All summer, it will not differ from ordinary cabbage: kochanchiki the size of a walnut formed only in the autumn.
Early: Brilliant F1, Oliver, DopmikF1
Medium early: Rosella, Long Island
Mid season: Casio
Late: Falstaff, Curl
About other varieties of Brussels sprouts, their characteristics and characteristics, read the article "The best varieties of Brussels sprouts".
Hercules - late variety. Bred in VNIISSOK. The height of the stem is 45–60 cm. There are 20–30 coaches on the plant: not very dense and loose, 3-5 cm in diameter, composed of corrugated leaves.
Care and watering
After 10 and 20 days after planting, feed the cabbage with nitrogen fertilizer (make sure that there is no overdose, and then collect some leaves). In the second half of the summer you can feed potassium phosphate fertilizers. Watering should be moderate (abundant in the heat), followed by loosening the soil. Dead leaves are removed, and a month before harvesting (in early September) they pinch the apical buds of highly developed plants - this will stop the growth of the stem and will contribute to the formation of coaches. However, it is impossible to pinch leafy tops without coaches in underdeveloped plants, this can lead to rotting of the cut and death of the whole plant.
Brussels sprouts do not spud, since the first coaches are located at the base of the stem. Plants have a strong root system, they are quite high - up to 1 m, they are best tied to a support.
Composition and use
Graceful cabbages of Brussels sprouts represent a nutritionally embodied dream of nutritionists. We need to start with the fact that at low calorie content they contain a lot of proteins, and their vitamin composition differs not only in diversity, but also in impressive size. For example, Brussels sprouts can compete with blackcurrant in terms of vitamin C.
Benefit for the whole family
- The composition of the Brussels sprouts includes natural pigments (carotenoids), actively opposing the destruction of the retina. Vitamin A will help preserve and improve visual acuity. Regular consumption of this vegetable will help preserve vision and save on visits to an optometrist.
- Vitamin C and dietary fibers reduce the acidity of gastric juice and help cope with heartburn.
- Dishes with Brussels sprouts will help to cope with the delay of the chair. Cellulose in its composition will gently clean the intestines and restore its normal operation.
- Brussels sprouts is a good prevention of respiratory diseases. β-carotene with antioxidant activity reduces the risk of asthma, viral infections, emphysema.
- With regular use of this vegetable in the diet (especially if you cook it without adding butter, cheese and other high-calorie foods), cholesterol levels decrease. This is due to the choleretic effect.
- Brussels sprouts, possessing anti-inflammatory properties, helps to strengthen the vascular wall and has proven itself in cardiac abnormalities.
- The high content of vitamin C not only positively affects all metabolic processes, but also serves as an excellent support to the immune system.
- Brussels sprouts help to quickly recover in the postoperative period or after blood loss, as it not only has a positive effect on blood composition, but also stimulates the synthesis of red blood cells.
Even if you do not consider all of the above, Brussels sprouts is the vegetable that must necessarily be included in the diet of each woman. It contains a substance (indole-3-carbinol), which inhibits the multiplication of cells that cause breast cancer. Thus, using this vegetable, you reduce the risk of developing this disease.
Also, this product is recommended for those who are planning to have a baby. Folic acid helps the woman's body “tune in” to a future pregnancy, normalizes hormones and increases the chances of successful conception.
Waiting for a child is a good reason to review your diet. Brussels sprouts are simply necessary during this period.
- Folic acid, the content of which is quite large here, protects against the risk of developing congenital pathologies such as spina bifida or cleft palate.
- Calcium will help the expectant mother to keep her bones, nails and teeth, and vitamin C will increase the body's resistance to various infections.
- The composition of this vegetable is almost no fat, but there is a large amount of vegetable protein. This allows you to replenish nutrients, without extra calories. This feature is very important when the expectant mother begins to gain weight.
- Another argument in favor of this product is the high content of vegetable fibers. They will bring the intestines back to normal and serve as a good prevention of constipation, which often accompany the last weeks of pregnancy.
Not less useful is Brussels sprouts in the children's menu. Thanks to vitamin K, it will help the formation of the child’s skeletal system. And do not forget about other vitamins and trace elements - a growing body needs them much more than the already formed.
Men who regularly eat dishes with Brussels sprouts are less likely to suffer from sexual disorders. This vegetable has a beneficial effect on potency and increases fertility (the ability of sperm to fertilize). In addition, Brussels sprouts reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
Like all products, Brussels sprouts have their own contraindications.
- Individual intolerance (most often manifested as heartburn).
- Do not get involved in this product to those who suffer from flatulence. Brussels sprouts can enhance this unpleasant phenomenon.
- It is contraindicated for people with irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn's disease.
- With care, it should be used with reduced thyroid function.
And how much can you?
Restrictions on the use of this cabbage for a healthy person does not exist. Another thing is that very often the dishes from this product are accused of having a bitter taste and an unpleasant smell. This happens when improperly prepared Brussels sprouts. To its taste opened in full, it is important not to digest. Peeled from dry and colorless upper leaflets, the cabins are no more than 5 minutes long. immersed in boiling water, and then for a few seconds - in cold water. Frozen vegetables are also better to boil no more than 10 minutes.
Brussels sprouts are known in the world and under the romantic name “Rozenkol” - cabbage-rose. Strange as it may seem, it is the pragmatic Germans who noted the similarity of the miniature fruits of Brussels sprouts with the plant, which is a symbol of grace.
Brussels sprouts - this is one of those products that must be present on the menu of a pregnant woman. Of course, this does not mean that you only need to eat it, but it will be very good to introduce dishes with it into your diet 2-3 times a week. Brussels sprouts in the menu of a pregnant woman can be stewed, boiled, fried or baked. But if you need to get the maximum benefit from this product, then it is better to eat it raw, adding to the composition of salads. This is especially important if a woman needs to get rid of constipation. Also, almost all the benefits will remain, if the cabbage boil for a couple.
In the period of lactation, too, should not abandon the Brussels sprouts. True, dishes with her need to be postponed until the moment when the baby is 2 months old. Like all new products, you need to enter it into your menu with caution, starting with very small (100 g) servings. At the same time it is important to observe how the baby feels. If he has colic, constipation or, on the contrary, diarrhea, other allergic reactions, it is better to refuse Brussels sprouts for another 4-5 weeks. But such phenomena are very rare. As a rule, kids perfectly carry these healthy vegetables in my mother's menu.
When breastfeeding, Brussels sprouts are best eaten boiled, baked or stewed. It is better to refuse dishes with raw vegetables or fried kocheshkas, since they are more likely to cause flatulence in mothers and children.
In baby food
The intestines of a child who has not yet turned one year old are in the process of constant restructuring, and he needs time to get acquainted with products previously unknown. This process is much simpler if this “stranger” is included in the mother’s diet and they are already familiar with them in absentia through breast milk. But in any case, cabbage is introduced into the diet of the child only after he has mastered the juices, cereals and mashed zucchini and potatoes.
Brussels sprouts are recommended to start giving after the baby is six months old. At the same time it is better if he first becomes acquainted with her cousin, the cauliflower, as it is a little easier to digest. Despite the fact that usually Brussels sprouts do not cause allergies, you should start to enter it carefully. This is done by giving a new dish in the morning feeding, at 0.5 tsp. If no allergic phenomena (rash, peeling, colic, constipation or diarrhea) appear during the day, then the portions gradually increase. While the baby does not have teeth, Brussels sprouts are boiled or baked and made into vegetable purees. Later it is cut into small pieces so that the child can chew it himself.
People with diabetes have to pay a lot of attention to their diet. Brussels sprouts in this disease not only acts as a useful and nutritious product, it can also be used as a medicine. Doctors, for normalization of the sugar level, recommend daily drinking 200–300 ml of juice of this vegetable, dividing this amount into 2 doses. You can increase its beneficial properties by adding to it the juice pressed from carrots, green salad.
But the simple inclusion of dishes from Brussels sprouts in the menu will bring many benefits. Substances in the composition of this vegetable have the ability to restore and activate the pancreas. Low carbohydrate content allows almost no limit on the size of servings. It does not matter how the dish will be cooked.
Another disease requiring the strictest diet is pancreatitis. And here it is important not only to protect the diseased organ from irritating effects, but also to get the maximum benefit from the permitted products. Brussels sprouts fully meet both requirements. It not only almost does not contain essential oils that are irritating to the pancreas, but, on the contrary, to some extent contributes to its recovery. Well, on the useful composition, we have already mentioned.
When pancreatic Brussels sprouts best stew, bake or boil. So the body will receive all the valuable substances, and reduce the irritating effect on the intestines. Excluded fried foods. Fresh vegetables are also contraindicated, but they can be replaced by juice, which, just like diabetes, can be taken for medicinal purposes. Servings, after remitting sharp pains, should be made minimal, starting with a few spoons of vegetable puree, and gradually bringing them to 100-150 g.
For slim figure
Nutritionists have long concluded that in order to look good, it is not necessary to starve yourself. Simply make the menu so that it includes foods with low calorie content. For those who want to lose extra kilos, it is enough to include dishes with this vegetable for 2 weeks 2-3 times a day. It is better if Brussels sprouts will be raw. It can be salads with it or the juice of this vegetable mixed with carrot or celery juice. For dinner, Brussels sprouts can be braised with other vegetables or baked. You can include lean meat and fish in the menu. The duration of such a diet can reach from 2 weeks to a month. During a diet, the following foods are traditionally limited:
- pasta and bakery products,
- alcohol and coffee.
- 300 g of Brussels sprouts,
- 3 medium potatoes,
- 1 medium onion,
- 100 g chicken breast,
- 1 egg
- 1 clove garlic,
- 1 tbsp. l olive oil.
Peel potatoes, boil and mash in mashed potatoes. Fry onion and garlic, add chopped chicken breast to them, and bring to half-cooked. Кочанчики капусты разрезать на 4 части, смешать с картофельным пюре и обжаренной куриной грудкой. Туда же добавить сырое яйцо и тщательно перемешать.
Форму смазать маслом, выложить в неё смесь картофельного пюре, курицы и овощей и запекать, посыпав сверху натёртым сыром, 20 мин. при температуре 200°. Готовую запеканку сверху посыпают нарубленной зеленью.
- 250 g Brussels sprouts,
- 300 grams of potatoes
- 1 medium carrot,
- 1 tbsp. l vegetable oil
- greens and salt to taste.
Potatoes are cut into strips and dipped in boiling broth, salted to taste and left to cook over low heat. Onions and carrots finely cut and fry. Brussels sprouts 2 min. blanch in boiling water and spread it to the roasting vegetables. 5 min. until potato is cooked, fry is added to the soup. The finished dish is sprinkled with chopped greens.
Omelet with cheese
- 300 g of Brussels sprouts,
- 2 tbsp. l milk
- 2 eggs,
- 100 g of hard cheese
- vegetable oil and salt to taste.
Cabbage for 3 min. blanch, cool in cold water, then cut in half and slightly fried. Beat eggs with milk, add cheese there, salt and pour it to roasted cabbage. Bring an omelet to readiness. The finished dish is decorated with greenery.
- 200 g chicken breast,
- 500 g of Brussels sprouts,
- salt and spices to taste.
Chicken breast cut in half in the middle. The resulting pieces are cut lengthwise and beat off. Spread cabbage on meat, salt and wrap. Depending on your taste, they can be steamed (20 minutes) or baked. In this case, cabbage is better to boil for 4–5 minutes. in boiling water and only then cook the rolls. Cooking temperature for baking is 190 °.
Soup with Brussels Sprouts and Mushrooms
- 100 grams of Brussels sprouts,
- 2 pcs. potatoes,
- 1 carrot,
- 1 onion,
- 50 g of mushrooms (preferably white),
- 1 tomato,
- 1.5 Art. l butter,
- 2 l broth,
- salt, spices to taste.
Legs of mushrooms are separated from caps and passer with sliced tomatoes, carrots and onions. Caps are cut, dipped in boiling broth and cooked on low heat for 20 minutes. After that, peeled and chopped potatoes are put into the broth. In 10 minutes. there also add browned vegetables, sliced in half cabbages of Brussels sprouts, salt and cook another 5-7 minutes.
Salad with carrots and green peas
- 200 grams of Brussels sprouts,
- 1 medium carrot,
- 3 tbsp. l green peas,
- 1 tbsp. l low-fat sour cream or yogurt.
Cabbage chopped and mixed with grated carrots and peas. Add sour cream and salt to taste. To give a salad zest, you can add cumin or black pepper.
Cabbage stewed with celery
- 500 g of Brussels sprouts,
- 50 g celery root,
- 0.5 cups milk
- 2 tbsp. l butter,
- 1 tbsp. l flour.
Wash cabbage for 2–3 min. immersed in salted boiling water. Passeroot celery cut into small strips in butter, add flour there and fry a little. The milk is heated and added to the celery and flour in a thin stream. There also pour 0.5 cups of broth, in which cabbage was cooked. The resulting sauce, stirring, boil for 2 minutes, put cabbage cabbages into it, cover with a lid and bring to readiness for another 2-3 minutes.
Drink for losing weight
- 3 fork of brussels sprouts
- 50 g pumpkin seeds,
- 0.5 carrot,
- 3 tbsp. l pomegranate juice (optimally - if it is squeezed, and not restored product).
Products are placed in a combine, whipped and diluted to the desired consistency with cold boiled water.
Salad from fresh brussels sprouts and beets
- 150 grams of Brussels sprouts,
- 150 g of boiled beets,
- 50 g celery,
- 50 g of arugula,
- 1 tbsp. l vegetable oil
- 0.5 tbsp. l lemon juice.
Cabbage is washed and chopped. Beets rubbed on a grater and mixed with chopped celery. Arugula leaves are torn by hands. All ingredients are mixed, salted and filled with oil and lemon juice.
Casserole with greens
- 500 g cabbage,
- 4 eggs,
- 0.5 cups milk
- 50 grams of cheese (better than hard),
- 1.5 Art. l butter,
- 1 bunch of parsley,
- salt, spices to taste.
Cabbage is boiled in salted water for 5 minutes. and cool a little. The cabbages are fried in preheated butter and poured with a beaten mixture of eggs and milk, to which add chopped greens. The dish is salted, sprinkled with grated cheese on top and baked in the oven at 180 ° for 30 minutes.
Brussels sprouts, despite their exotic appearance, can not only diversify the diet with original dishes, but also bring real benefits. Its use will help to normalize the intestines, stock up on vitamins. For future mothers and women who are breastfeeding, these elegant forks will help to restore the supply of nutrients and share them with the baby. In addition, this dietary product contributes to weight loss.
Soil requirementsFor seeds prepare a special mixture (sod land + sand in equal proportions). After this, 2 spoons of wood ash and 1 spoon of superphosphate are added to this mix. Earthen mixture is filled in the boxes for seedlings and poured over with the drug "Chom" (15 g per 5 l of water). Grooves are made in the substrate with a depth of 1 cm (the distance between the furrows is 10 cm), after which the seeds are laid, covered with soil, and lightly pressed.
The temperature in the room with the boxes should be about 20˚С. The light does not have to be good, but you should not keep the boxes in the cellar or basement with a complete lack of lighting. In a week, shoots begin. During this period, it is necessary to reduce the temperature during the day to + 6-8˚С, and at night - to + 9-12˚С.After the appearance of the first true leaf of a young cabbage, it can be swooped down (transplanted) to another place (a more spacious box or cup). It is also worth knowing that when picking to another place, cabbages need to be buried in the ground to the cotyledon leaves. Seedlings need to be watered with water at room temperature + 18-20˚С. It is important to fertilize the seedlings. This is done in 2 stages:
- After the appearance of two leaves in a young plant, it is fed with a nutrient solution (a half-tablet of a microelement per 1 l of water).
- In the period of hardening seedlings. At this time, top dressing is a mixture of 1 spoon of urea and potassium sulfate in a bucket of water (70-100 ml is poured into each plant).
Before planting on the site you need to harden cabbage. To do this, 15 days before transplantation, boxes / cups of seedlings should be regularly carried out in the sun and tempered with low temperature (it is important not to overdo it, after all, the plant has not yet gained strength).
The seedlings ready for planting in the open ground should have 5-6 sheets, the thickness of the stem is about 5 cm and the height is not less than 20 cm. A week before planting, watering is completely stopped (it does not harm the plant). The day before planting in open soil, the plant is watered abundantly, so that as much ground as possible is stuck to the roots.
Seed preparation for plantingWhen sowing Brussels sprouts, it is imperative to carry out preparatory actions. Seeds before planting should be wrapped in a damp cloth for 4-5 days. After that, the seeds are immersed for 15 minutes in warm water (50 ° C), and then cold for a minute (carry out these actions to prevent possible diseases). Next, the seeds are soaked in a solution of nitrophoska (1 tsp. For 1 liter of water) for 15-16 hours.
For better resistance to frost, seeds are stored in a refrigerator at -1 ° C. These actions are important because they save the plant from diseases and pests, increase resistance to frost.
Scheme and depth of landingYou have seedlings of Brussels sprouts, now it is necessary to properly plant it in open ground. To do this, follow certain rules of landing.
Since the plant grows to an impressive size, you need to allocate enough space when planting on the site. The width between the rows should not be less than 0.6 m. In the row, the distance between plants should be at least 40-50 cm. The depth of planting should correspond to the length of the roots of the seedlings. It is better to hide the stem in the ground a little, than to leave the roots on the surface.
Adding an article to a new collection
Growing Brussels sprouts is a process available to any gardener. If you have already mastered the treatment of the rest of the crucifers, and, for example, white cabbage grows well in your area, then there should be no problems with its "large" relative.
This extraordinarily useful culture, containing huge reserves of vitamin C, protein and minerals, has one important feature - it is extremely slow. It takes almost half a year from sowing to harvesting, so if you want to include cabbage in your diet in the summer, it's better to choose kale, broccoli or cauliflower.
How to sow Brussels sprouts
Bearing in mind that from sowing to ripening in different varieties of Brussels sprouts it takes from 130 to 180 days, and taking into account the climate of your region, you need to choose the dates of sowing of seeds. For example, if you live in the middle lane and purchased late Brussels sprouts, then seedlings should be dealt with in early April.
Brussels sprouts like cool weather and do not tie up coaches in the heat, so choose the sowing time so that the ripening period falls on a period with an average daily temperature not higher than 18-20 ° C.
Seed preparation for sowing
For those who are going to plant several bushes of Brussels sprouts "on trial", the best option would be to buy seeds that have undergone industrial training. The seeds, disinfected, pickled from diseases and parasites, treated with a growth stimulator, are more expensive, but they will give good shoots and will not require extra effort. But if you plant a solid amount of seedlings at once, then it will be cheaper to buy the simplest seeds, and then process them yourself.
For processing will require:
- immerse the seeds in water heated to 50 ° C for 20 minutes
- after that immediately cool under running water for 1-2 minutes,
- soak for 12 hours in a solution of Kornevin or Appin,
- rinse and place in the fridge for a day (box for vegetables),
- dry the seeds so that they do not stick to your fingers during sowing.
Sowing Brussels sprouts for seedlings
Sowing Brussels sprouts should be made in separate pots with a mixture of turf land, peat and sand (in equal proportions). Before sowing, add 3-4 st.l. wood ash and 0.5 tbsp. superphosphate to 1 kg of the mixture. If planting is performed in large containers, then the distance between the seeds should be at least 4 cm.
The seeds are buried by 1.5 cm, moistened, and then the container with them is carried out to the balcony. For the best quality of the seedlings, the air temperature during the day should be no higher than 16-18 ° C, and at night around 5-6 ° C, in addition, the room should be sufficiently humid (about 70%).
The first 2 weeks the seedlings are not watered, and then begin to ensure that the soil was always slightly wet, not pouring, but not overdrying it. In the development phase of cotyledon leaves, cabbage must be dived into separate containers, if necessary, pruning the main root. This should be done by pre-watering the seedlings, and together with a clod of earth.
How to feed the seedlings of Brussels sprouts
The seedlings of the Brussels sprout are fed twice during the cultivation, and after each feeding they are watered abundantly. The first time they do this is when 2 true leaves develop on the seedlings. To prepare the mixture in 10 liters of water dissolve 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium sulfate. The second time (after 2 weeks) the solution is changed. Now for 10 liters of water you need to make 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 20 g of potassium sulfate.
Planting brussels sprouts in the ridge
The seedling is considered ready to move to a permanent place when 4-5 true leaves develop on it. This most often happens by the end of May or the beginning of June.
Preparing Brussels sprouts for planting begins 2 weeks before the action itself. Gradually (from 30 minutes a day) the seedlings stay in the open air adjusted to 24 hours and only then they are planted. 4-5 days before planting, the seedlings are no longer watered, and several hours before the procedure, the soil is abundantly moistened with water.
For planting Brussels sprouts in the ground is better to choose a cloudy day or spend it in the evening when direct sunlight does not fall on the ridge.
The most active Brussels sprouts grow and bear fruit on fertile soils with a pH of 6.7-7.4, as well as in illuminated areas. For it is necessary to choose a place where crucifers, tomatoes and beets did not grow in the last 4 years. In the spring, dredged and deoxidized from the ridge in the spring, they are put in a bucket of compost or humus per 1 square meter, and 2 cups of wood ash, 2 tbsp. superphosphate and 1 tsp urea.
Cabbage is placed according to the scheme 60 × 60 cm, while the holes should be slightly larger than the seed pot. Cross the seedlings together with a lump of earth, sprinkle with soil, compact it and shed it abundantly.
When and how to feed Brussels sprouts
Fertilizers applied under Brussels sprouts increase your chances not only for a good harvest, but also for healthy plants, so you should not skip feeding. In total, during the cultivation on the ridges, this culture needs 2 mineral dressings, however, if you grow it on fertile soil, you can get by with just one.
How to water Brussels sprouts
This culture is moisture-loving and responsive to irrigation. They need to be carried out every week, consuming 30-35 liters of water per 1 square meter before the appearance of kochanchik, and 40-45 liters after they begin to form.
After watering the cabbage must be plowed and rid of weeds. During periods of rain or high humidity, the frequency of irrigation should be reduced and to prevent stagnation of water in the root zone of plants.
Pests and diseases of Brussels sprouts
In this, Brussels sprouts are also similar to all other crucifers - they suffer from the same diseases and are afraid of the same pests. Of insects on landings, it is most often possible to find a cruciferous flea, cabbage leaf beetle, cabbage and sprout fly, wavy and black flea beetles, cabbage blanket, ognevka, aphid and moth, cabbage and rapeseed bug, bear, scoop, wireworm and rape bloom
Brussels sprouts after invasion of cabbage leaf beetle
The most common diseases of Brussels sprouts are kila, white and dry rot, black leg, black and ring blotch, downy mildew, vascular and slimy bacterioses and mosaic.
How to protect brussels sprouts
Prevention of diseases and the invasion of insects is always cheaper than the fight against them. Therefore, in order to protect your Brussels sprouts, do not forget about a number of measures:
- observe crop rotation, do not plant crucifers on the same ridge for several years in a row,
- remove all plant residues from the ridges,
- do not put diseased plants in compost, but take out or burn,
- regularly remove weeds from the ridges,
- Do not skip mineral supplements and do not replace them with organic ones,
- at the first signs of disease, remove the affected plant, and spill the soil under it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate,
- regularly pollinate plants and ridges with wood ash or its mixture with tobacco dust,
- for massive attacks of pests, use insecticides Ambush, Decis, Karate, Rovikurt, Corsair, etc.,
- if there are signs of fungal diseases, treat the plantings with fungicides Quadris, Fundazol, Skor, Topaz according to the instructions.
The best varieties of brussels sprouts
If you do not know which sort of Brussels sprouts to choose, focus primarily on the climate of your region and such an indicator as the ripening period. If your summer is short, choose early ripening varieties, if there is enough time before the cold, you can experiment with medium and late ripening.
Early ripe varieties of Brussels sprouts (ripening period up to 130 days): Garnet bracelet, Dolmic, Isabella, Casio, Commander, Rosella, Rudnef, Franklin.
Mid-season varieties of Brussels sprouts (ripening period from 130 to 150 days): Brilliant, Boxer, Merry Company, Garnet, Hercules, Dower Riesen, Perfection.
Late maturing varieties of brussels sprouts (ripening period from 150 to 180 days): Grüniger, Curl.
Now that you know everything about growing Brussels sprouts, you just have to buy seeds and be patient. Perhaps already this season you will have a new favorite among vegetables.
Good and bad predecessors
Before planting seedlings in open ground, it is worth remembering that this place grew earlier. There are cultures after which it is possible and even necessary to plant Brussels sprouts. But there are those after which it is impossible to plant the plant.You should not plant Brussels sprouts after the following crops:white cabbage or any other cabbage, beet, turnip, tomatoes, radish and radish. If you plant Brussels sprouts after these crops, you can forget about a good harvest.
If you plant Brussels sprouts after legumes, sideratov, potatoes, onions, cucumbers or cereals, then additional feeding is not necessary to make the soil. These crops are excellent precursors to Brussels sprouts.
Watering and dressing cabbage
Consideration of fertilizers for Brussels sprouts, we begin with a description of the soil, which is ideally suited to the plant. Indeed, depending on the soil and the amount of fertilizer will be different.This culture is not demanding on the substrate, but it is worth picking up fertile loamy soil that “breathes” well. The soil should be wet, but during the drought the cabbage does not dry due to the structure of the root system. If you plan to plant on a new land, then it is worth making about 4-5 kg of humus per each meter of occupied area, or use the following mix:urea, superphosphate, potassium chloride and nitroammophos.
After the fertilizer, the beds are dredged and watered with a solution of potassium permanganate (1.5 g per 5 l of water). Another treatment option is the drug Fitosporin, which is used 2 weeks before disembarking.In turn, 10 days after planting the cabbage, it is necessary to feed it with nitrogen fertilizers. (do not overdo it, otherwise the plant will die). В конце июля – августе нужно внести вторую порцию подкормки– калийно-фосфатные удобрения.
Поливать брюссельскую капусту нужно умеренно. В жаркую погоду можно чуть сильнее залить растение, при повышенной влажности от полива можно отказаться. Не стоит слишком сильно заливать капусту, иначе столкнётесь с гнилью корней.
Hilling and loosening the soil
In the process of growth, Brussels sprouts are being spudded several times with a small layer of earth (should be done carefully so as not to fill up the lower cabbages).
As stated above, the plant loves the soil, which perfectly passes oxygen. Therefore, it is often necessary to loosen the ground so that the roots of the plant do not suffocate.
Protection against pests is as important as watering and fertilizing a plant. In the absence of treatment or prevention of disease, you will not get the desired yield.
Brussels sprouts are affected by the same pests as white cabbage. Therefore, if Brussels sprouts and white cabbage are planted on the plot, then prophylaxis should be carried out in both species.
Let us turn to the list of parasites that interfere with the plant.
1. Cruciferous fleaThese parasites make a net of cabbage leaves, gnawing through them numerous holes.
The following solution will help protect against them: 1 tbsp. l 70% vinegar per 10 liters of water. Enough one-time processing.
The biological remedy for flea is leaf lettuce, which is planted between the rows.
2. Cabbage fly
Holes on irregularly shaped sheets make an insect, the adults of which do not harm the plant. The larvae cause harm. They lay a fly in the ground near the plant. Larvae destroy young plants of early varieties.Fighting a pest is better before hitting the cabbage. To do this, sprinkle the soil around the plant with a mixture (100 g of wood ash, tobacco dust and 1 l of ground black pepper). Also used tobacco solution (200 g of tobacco per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 liter of soap). The solution is cooled, filtered and sprayed both the plant itself and the soil near it.
A parasite disposal option is mulching of the soil with wax paper, which will create an additional barrier to the pest.
3. Landing stock and scoop
Butterflies that lay eggs on the opposite side of the cabbage leaf. Green caterpillars completely devour the leaves and cabbage loaves.It is necessary to fight with the pest quickly, so that the plant does not wither. You can use a solution of wood ash (300 g of ash and 1 spoon of liquid soap in 10 liters of water). Also slowing the spread of caterpillars earthing up and loosening the soil.
The simplest option is a fine mesh, which is covered with bushes. Thus, the butterfly simply will not be able to lay eggs on the leaves.
Everyone is familiar with these parasites, as they affect almost all plants in the garden.To fight with aphids should be as follows: 150 g of wood ash, 150 g of tobacco, 1 tbsp. l liquid soap, 1 tbsp. l ground mustard, pour a mixture of 2-3 liters of hot water (80-85˚С) and insist day. After the solution has infused, it is filled with 7 liters of water and filtered. The treatment is carried out every 3-4 days, spraying the affected area with aphids. Also in the fight against aphids, other popular methods are also suitable, which can be applied to Brussels sprouts.
5. Slugs and snailsThese pests can easily be removed mechanically, however, if the bushes are very badly affected, you can use popular methods of pest control. To destroy snails and slugs, you need to prepare a mixture: 2 tablespoons of ground pepper, 2 tablespoons of mustard, 2 tablespoons of salt and 500 g of wood ash. On a sunny day, sprinkle the soil around the Brussels sprouts, and immediately loosen to a depth of 4-5 cm. On the same day, in the evening, they are treated a second time (500 g of ash + 1 tablespoon of ground pepper). The mixture is sprinkled on the body of the plant.
Processing is done at intervals of 4-5 days.
The benefits of Brussels sprouts for human healthSo we moved to the final stage of this article, in which you will tell you what qualities appreciate Brussels sprouts and why it is worth eating more often.
Brussels sprouts contain many useful substances, such as B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B9), vitamin C (the content of which is several times higher than in ordinary cabbage), vitamin PP and carotene. Cabbage contains riboflavin as much as dairy products.
Due to its composition, Brussels sprouts are on a par with medicines.Sok Brussels sprouts restore the pancreas. It is also very useful for people with diabetes. Juice has anti-infective, hematopoietic and anti-inflammatory effects.
Brussels sprouts stimulate wound healing and have a tonic effect.
Also, Brussels sprouts can be consumed by those who follow the calories or want to lose weight. 100 g of cabbage contains only 35 kcal. Therefore, 1 kg of vegetable calorie equivalent to 100 g of pork.
We told you all about the cultivation of Brussels sprouts at home, outlined the rules of maintenance and mode of irrigation, taught to plant seedlings and destroy plant pests. Follow the rules outlined above, and be able to get a great harvest.