How to plant and grow turnips. How to prepare the seeds and soil. How to sow seeds, plant seedlings. How to harvest (10+)
To grow turnip at the summer cottage business is simple and useful, as this vegetable produces high yields, and in its taste qualities some varieties are superior to the familiar radish. Today, gardeners easily grow both fodder and table plants.
What can be useful turnip
Turnip is an excellent source of fast carbohydrates, sugar and vitamin. So, one 1 kg of turnip root crops contains up to 50 g of sugar and vitamin C, the amount of which is 2 times more than in citrus fruits or 6 times more than in carrots. In addition to vitamin C, the root vegetable is rich in essential amino acids, vitamins B and B2.
A man in ancient times mastered the agrotechnology of the plant. Before the advent of potatoes, this food product in the northern regions was valued on par with bread. Potatoes contributed to the turnip, she turnip, became more fodder culture.
In addition to eating, our great-grandmothers skillfully used turnips as a remedy. Allyl oil, which is contained in the root, has phycidal properties. Therefore, in folk medicine, you can find recipes of the drug from turnip roots for colds, scurvy, as well as sedative and hypnotic infusions. The antimicrobial property of the lysozyme enzyme in grated turnip and its juice has a wound-healing property.
The homeland of the root crop is the sunny warm land of the Mediterranean. Even farmers of ancient Greece, Egypt and Rome grew this culture. The ancestors of the modern turnip is a wild turnip from Eurasia.
According to the classification of plants, the turnip root vegetable belongs to the genus of cabbage of the cruciferous family. The largest areas of crops are in Germany, Great Britain, Denmark, Austria and the USA. CIS countries also grow turnips, mostly on the non-black-earth soils of the Far East, Siberia and the European part of the continent. In the wild, the plant does not grow.
Turnip is a biennial plant. In the first year, a rosette of leaves and thick large roots are formed, and the following year, stems, flowers, and fruits with seeds appear. The shape of the root is as spherical and cylindrical. Turnip is characterized by the following color of the root of the root: white, yellow, purple. Turnip root is one of the most cold-resistant. Temperatures of 1-3 ° C are sufficient for seed germination, and shoots normally tolerate even small frosts. If the temperature drops below 3-4 ° C, the root crop may die.
The plant is not demanding to heat, on the contrary, turnips tolerate hot weather poorly. Therefore, it is better to choose a sunny place, but with penumbra in the midday heat. Unpretentiousness of the plant can not but rejoice, since even a not very warm summer with occasional rains is not an obstacle to getting a good harvest. The only important note to the quality of soil for radish is the presence of moisture. The most suitable planting area is low-lying areas of the garden, which are best moistened. With a lack of moisture, germination of seeds, as well as their ability to grow and rooting decreases.
Turnip grows on almost all types of soil, but still higher yields give sod-podzolic soils or domesticated peatlands.
The following crops are best suited as precursors: winter and early spring grain crops, beets, and a variety of annual herbs. The most inappropriate option - cabbage. If you want to get a double crop, organize sowing in 2 calls: spring (late April-early May) and summer (first decade of July).
Soil preparation for sowing
The first thing to prepare for spring sowing is the ground. However, this should be done in the fall. Preparation consists in cleaning the remnants of the previous plant and thoroughly digging the soil. In the spring, the land should be fertilized with rotted manure per 1 sq. M. m. 1/3 buckets. Fresh manure is not recommended for this crop. In addition to natural fertilizer, you can make and mineral, for example, nitrophoska or sifted ash. On 1 square. meter will need 1-2 tbsp. nitrofoski or 1 cup of ash. Phosphate and potash fertilizers should not be used, but nitrogen can be applied in advance, under the previous crop.
Preparation of seedlings and seeds for sowing
It is possible to grow a turnip root vegetable both through seedlings and by sowing directly into the open ground. The first option is used when spring sowing, and the second - summer.
To grow turnip seedlings need peat bags or small cups. Sow the seeds should be in the first decade of April. The seeds of the plant are very small, so in order to evenly distribute the seeds are mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 1:10. After the emergence of seedlings, only one plant should remain in the cup, that is, the strongest. To plant seedlings in open ground should be no earlier than the end of the month of May. During the growing season the plant should be fed. As a top dressing, it is recommended to use a mixture of bird droppings and water (1:15). If there is no organic fertilizer, it is permissible to use a mineral substitute, for example, nitrophoska or soluble. Feed the plant need no more than 2 times.
Sowing in open ground is carried out in a similar way. The seeds are mixed with sand, and then seeded in the furrow, which is pre-moistened. If we are talking about a small area of sowing, then everything is done with improvised tools. After sowing, the furrow must be closed up to 1.5 cm. Deeper is not necessary, since the seeds are already very small. After it is necessary to carry out mulching with peat and compaction.
If we are talking about large-scale crops, then for sowing use seeders СОН -2,8, СПУ-6, ССТ - 12В. The row spacing should be 45, 60 or 70 cm. Sowing rate is 1.5-2.5 kg / ha.
After sowing a week later, the plant gives the first shoots. During the growing season it is important to organize sufficient watering and loosening after each watering. As soon as the plant will have 2-3 leaves, it is necessary to carry out thinning. Sowing density is regulated by harrowing, transverse thinning or manually. To protect against pests such as fleas and leaf beetles, the drug Aktelik (1l / ha) is used.
Spring sowing by the end of the first month of summer will have mature roots. Traditionally, gardeners pull out mature roots if the soil is not overdried or undermined slightly. The leaves are cut, leaving the stalks in 2 cm.
On the fields for harvesting use machines: for the leaves of KIR-1.5, and for root crops - potatoes digging. Sometimes use the machine KKG-1,4, which allows you to simultaneously dig the crop and load on another vehicle. The second sowing is usually ready for harvest at the end of September.
Save the collected roots should be at a temperature of 1-2 ° C in clamps, trenches and cellar. The shelf life of turnip roots is much shorter than that of other vegetables, so it is recommended to use them first. In order to get the seeds of culture, it is necessary to plant the roots, stored in the cellar, in the ground in spring.
Most common varieties
Today, the most common are 2 varieties of turnips:
- A lot of
Osterzundom radish is a cone-shaped root crop. The bottom of the root has a white color, while the top has a light purple hue. The flesh of the turnip of this variety is very juicy, soft, without bitterness of white color. The variety grows rather quickly, with good immunity to such a pest as a cruciferous flea. The average yield per hectare is 400-500 centners.
The variety Nabo is characterized by a flat, round-shaped root crop, which is only half in the ground. The part that is in the ground is white, and the ground part is a bright purple hue. Taste radish Nabo good, the flesh is a pleasant white color with pinkish streaks.
Ways to use root vegetables
As stated at the beginning, turnips have both fodder and table varieties. Feed varieties are used as feed for farm animals. For cattle in food, you can use the tops of plants, and the roots are already going to feed pigs. Cows should be given such food in limited quantities, not more than 12-16 kg per day. This precaution is due to the presence of mustard oil in the roots and leaves of the plant, which can give the bitter taste of milk.
Dining varieties can be eaten at almost any stage of development of the root, as it lacks bitterness. There are many dietary recipes with turnip. Most often it is used in the preparation of vegetarian soups, vegetable dishes or vitamin salads.
Rules for planting seeds for seedlings
The rutabagum takes a full ripeness for quite a long time, about 110–120 days, so they plant it as early as possible. Swede is not afraid of cold weather, plus temperature for it is good. In May, planting seeds immediately in open ground, on the beds. But to speed up the aging process will help the cultivation through seedlings. The rules of planting and care are similar to the cultivation of cabbage seedlings.
It is desirable to place the seeds before sowing for 30 minutes in a cup with water heated to +50 ° C. Such heat treatment will help prevent the spread of infectious diseases. After soaking, the seed is laid out on a cloth and dried. Since the turnip seeds are very small, they are buried in the ground, mixed with sand, which has been previously calcined and cooled.
35-40 days before the intended planting in open ground, seeds are sown in containers with earth at a depth of 1.5 cm. In terms of this is approximately the first half of April. Boxes or containers are covered with a transparent lid (glass, polyethylene), thereby creating a kind of greenhouse. Before seed germination, the lid is opened daily and the condensate is wiped. As soon as the first shoots appear, the cover is removed. Seeds germinate even at + 2–3 ° C, and the optimum temperature is + 15–18 ° C. After the appearance of the first true leaflet, seedlings are thinned to a distance of 4 cm.
Planting in open ground
The main requirement for the cultivation of swede - the composition of the soil. It should not be heavy, clayey, with close adherence of groundwater. A good option is a nourishing light soil with a slightly acid or alkaline reaction, pH from 5.5 to 7. Loam, domestic peat and sandy loam will do. If the composition is far from the required parameters, the soil should be improved by adding humus, sand and peat. And it is better to do this in the fall. In the case of heavy soil, it is recommended to create high ridges, with light it is not necessary.
You do not need to plant rutabagas where cabbage grew last year, as the causative agents of common diseases can remain in the ground. Turnip, daikon, horseradish and radish are also bad predecessors. But such predecessors as legumes, potatoes, cucumbers and tomatoes are welcome.
At the beginning of May, seeds are planted on the beds with a row spacing of about 40 cm. The depth of seed placement in light soil is up to 2.5 cm, in hard soil - not more than 1.5 cm. The calcined river sand is useful here. When the seedlings sprout, they are thinned 2 times so that the distance between adult plants is at least 15 cm.
If rutabagus cultivation was carried out through seedlings, then it is planted in open ground not at the beginning of May, but at the very end of spring - the beginning of summer. On the sprout there should be already 3-4 true leaves, the distance is immediately kept 40x15 cm.
Uncomplicated care when growing swede consists in watering, feeding and creating a comfortable temperature, weeding and loosening the soil.
Too hot weather can prevent a good harvest of swede. With prolonged air temperatures above + 21 ° C, the roots do not gain full flavor and become dry. The best specimens are obtained when grown in temperatures up to +18 ° C.
Weeding and loosening the soil are carried out after the rain, especially in the first period of plant formation, so that growth does not slow down.
Watering is carried out moderate, do not allow overdrying of the soil or its overwetting. Approximately 10 liters of water per 1 m 2 will be required. Improper care, or rather lack of moisture, will lead to rapid flowering of the plant with an unfit root for food.
Fertilization is required infrequently, only 2-3 times in the first half of summer. As fertilizer, you can use both organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizers, for example, a mixture of ash and superphosphate. When buying a complete fertilizer you need to check the presence in its composition:
- phosphorus (increases sugar content),
- boron (with its lack of flesh of the root becomes fresh and brownish).
Caring for the care of turnips, it is worth remembering that fresh manure in the soil can not be made, because because of it the flesh of the root becomes porous and dry.
The rutabagum is easily attacked by pests and weakly resists diseases that it has in common with cabbage. Cruciferous flea can be removed scattered in between rows of ashes mixed with ordinary road dust. Cabbage fly is afraid of naphthalene, which is also scattered between the rows, mixed with sand in the ratio of 1/10. Cabbage aphids are removed by spraying a soap-and-ash solution: 50 g of soap and 200 g of ash are dissolved in 10 liters of water. Coping well with pests insecticides, which are sold in garden and garden stores.
Harvesting and storage
The rutabagus reaches ripeness after four months from the moment of landing, therefore sometimes it is in the ground until the first autumn night frosts. Temperatures up to -8 ° C stand vegetables without negative consequences. Therefore, in regions with a warm winter, part of the crop can not be dug, but left for the next season to obtain seed material. Or dig up for eating as needed.
For winter storage of root vegetables is recommended to get out of the ground before the onset of frost. Dirty or wet specimens are carefully cleaned of dirt and dried in air, and then lowered into the cellar, where the temperature is maintained up to +4 ° C. Lay the swede rows, sprinkled dry river sand.
It is a pity that swede today is a rare guest in the gardens and on the tables. The ease of planting and growing, caring for the swede and its useful properties deserve the close attention of gardeners. And botanists, breeders should pay attention to increasing the number of varieties and improving their quality. In the meantime, we will choose the best varieties from those that are on the market today.