Cabbage is difficult to attribute to unpretentious cultures. It is quite demanding on air humidity and watering, as well as light. But this does not stop summer residents who have already gotten the handle, and behind their backs have a whole list of tricks of growing cabbage.
The technology of cultivation of white cabbage
So, consider a list of basic requirements and possible problems that you will encounter when growing white cabbage:
- It all starts with growing cabbage seedlings. Early varieties boldly begin to plant in March, to work with varieties with later maturity begin around April. We plant seeds from the ground, poured into the boxes, and germinate at a temperature of at least 17 ° C in good lighting conditions. After the emergence of shoots, it is lowered to 15 ° C and then the first two true sheets appear before diving. When growing and caring for white cabbage seedlings, it is important to constantly monitor the humidity and not to overdry the soil.
- Growing white cabbage is permissible only in that corner of the vegetable garden, where representatives of cabbage did not grow up to it. The most important thing is to ensure moisture balance. Overdried soil will destroy the seedlings, and too much moisture will lead to cracking of the formed cabbage heads.
- For successful cultivation and care of white cabbage, it is necessary to ensure the culture temperature of about 18-20 ° C. If it is cool for a couple of days, nothing will happen, but four days of cold will lead to flowering earlier than the allotted time, and this directly affects the formation of the head.
- Diseases of white cabbage - the result of improper watering and neglect of the basic rules of cultivation. Among white cabbage diseases, gardeners are usually confronted with gray mold and powdery mildew, aphids and weevils. Of course, the use of chemistry in such cases is inevitable, but it is worth trying to prevent these difficulties. Never plant cabbage more than four times in one place, and also try to avoid preparations from plant-based infusions.
Romanesco cabbage - growing and care
Romanesco cabbage is a relatively new type of cabbage, which is interesting for its appearance and taste. Caring for romanesco cabbage is not complicated, and anyone who wants can grow it on their plot.
Cabbage romanesco not so long ago appeared in Russia. This vegetable, originally from Italy, was bred by breeders in the 90s of the 20th century as a hybrid of cauliflower and broccoli. Romanesco is also known as “Romanesque broccoli” or “coral cabbage”. It can grow anyone who planted ordinary cabbage, although there are some nuances here.
The appearance of the vegetable is unusual: the inflorescences of romanesco cabbage are rows of yellow-green cones growing closely to each other, surrounded by green leaves. The height of some plants can reach 1 meter, and the cabbages gain weight up to half a kilo. The plant is an annual plant and is essentially a type of cauliflower.
Preparing the soil for growing cabbage Romanesco
For landing you need to pick up and prepare a place. The best option for planting - a place where previously grew cucumbers, onions, tomatoes or potatoes. It is not recommended to plant romanesco in the place where other crucifers grew: turnips, turnips, cabbage, radishes, lettuce. General diseases and pests prevent this. Seed beds should be located on the well-lit side.
The soil should also be special: Romanesco's cabbage does not like high acidity, but it feels great in alkaline soil, therefore it’s better to produce or add wood ash to the soil at a rate of 0.3-0.5 kg per 1 square meter before planting seedlings. The cabbage will also respond well to compost.
Sowing cabbage seeds is carried out towards the end of April. The air temperature in the room where the seedlings will be located should be below +20 degrees, in a month the boxes with the sprouts should be placed in a cooler place. When growing cabbage Romanesco you need to control the lighting so that the seedlings do not stretch out, water the plants as the topsoil dries.
After 40-60 days from the time of sowing, the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place at a distance of 60 cm from each other. The distance between the rows should be at least 0.5 meters. In advance, in accordance with the climatic conditions of the region, it is necessary to calculate the time of transplantation so that the setting of inflorescences falls on the summer period, when the average temperature will be + 17-18 degrees.
This is a very important point - the romance is demanding on the temperature regime during sowing and ripening - adverse weather conditions may not allow inflorescences to develop.
Proper care of Romanesco cabbage
For romanesco cabbage is easy to care for. Be sure to:
- Water it plentifully, but in such a way that the land does not have time to dry up and does not become swampy.
- Inspect the plant and remove pests, especially caterpillars, which devour the cabbage leaves. You can spray the plant with special solutions from insects, if the pests have already appeared. For prevention, it is recommended to plant plants next to cabbage that scare away pests: marigolds, marigolds, celery, mint, garlic.
- Loosen the soil around the plants, weed, preventing the weeds from growing.
- Feeding plants is also part of romanesco cabbage care. For her, organic and mineral fertilizers are suitable: mullein, superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and others. It is necessary to make dressings no more than three times per growth period, in the same proportions as when caring for other types of cabbage.
Harvest can be after the final maturation of the head. If you remove with the removal, the cabbage will ripen and lose juiciness. It is better to store the harvest in frozen form all winter, fresh, it is stored no more than a week.
“Romanesque broccoli” is a dietary product rich in vitamins, fiber, trace elements, containing few calories, but at the same time rich. Carotene, vitamins C and B, zinc and mineral salts in romanesco more than in the usual broccoli and cauliflower. Recipes and photos of romanesco cabbage in cooked form can be found in a variety on the Internet. You can cook it by adding to the usual dishes instead of cauliflower or broccoli. For people who need to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, romanesco will be an excellent addition to the diet.
Observing the technology of cultivation and care, you can achieve a good harvest of romanesco cabbage. The correct timing of planting and maturation of the plant, feeding, protection from pests, watering, lighting will not be difficult, you need to be more careful about the air temperature and then unusual cabbage will not only decorate any garden in summer and the table in winter.
Agrotechnika red cabbage
Red cabbage is a variety of white cabbage, bred by breeders of Western Europe in the 16th century. The coloring of the leaves gives the anthocyanin pigment contained in them.
The best option for growing red cabbage is loamy soil.
In terms of the content of vitamins and minerals, red cabbage, the cultivation of which in the middle lane is not very common, is superior to white cabbage. Used mostly in the preparation of various salads, side dishes, pickles. In terms of ripening share three varieties:
- early varieties (70-90 days),
- medium grades (120-130 days),
- late varieties (130-170 days).
When growing red cabbage, it should be remembered that it has a slower fork formation and is considered a long day plant for this reason.
Agrotechnics cultivation of red cabbage
Growing technologies do not differ much from common white. Loves open sunny places, light fertile soil. If the need arises, the site under the spring planting is limestone in autumn. Before planting, you can make mineral or organic fertilizers. Manure can be applied to the soil in the same year for late-ripening varieties, and for early ones it is preferable to bring in a year.
Take good yields every year allows the cultivation of red cabbage on loamy soils, as they are well retain moisture.
In terms of ripening divided into three varieties: early varieties (70-90 days), medium varieties (120-130 days), late varieties (130-170 days).
It is not recommended to plant cabbages annually in the same place, this does not affect the yield for the better. Planting is best alternated with garden crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, beets and legumes of all varieties. Rest from the cultivation of cabbage soil should not less than 3 years.
Cabbage is grown in rassadny way. Early varieties are sown on seedlings from early to mid-March; medium and late varieties are sown on seedlings from mid-February to mid-April. Planting cabbage seeds as soon as possible. The seedling needs thinning and pickling.
The term of cabbage planting on a permanent place in the open ground - the end of May, the beginning of June. At a permanent place of growing seedlings determined after 5-8 true leaves. The distance between the seedlings is observed at least 60-70 cm with 70 cm row spacing. Only early ripening varieties can be planted. When planting, each plant is buried in comparison with the original planting by 1-2 cm. The root is not bent, straightened as far as possible. The point of growth must be above ground.
Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant, and its seeds germinate at a temperature of + 2 + 3 ºС. The adult plant withstands frost -8-10ºС, seedlings and young plants up to -5ºC.
That is why it is better to plant cabbage so that the buds are formed in the fall or spring, when there are no strong temperature fluctuations during the day, and the heat subsides. Let the development of seedlings go slower, inflorescences will be larger. And if you are still worried that frosts will hit during the season, try to grow plants in a greenhouse.
How to choose seeds and how much to take them
First of all, pay attention to the cabbage varieties. In the State Register of Russia there are four types of cabbage such as romanesco, which are recommended for cultivation in personal farms and are suitable for use in home cooking:
- Puntoverde is a mid-season variety with a large head of about 1.5 kg.
- Veronica is also a mid-season variety with a large head up to 2 kg.
- Pearl is a medium late variety whose fruits reach 0.8 kg.
- The emerald cup is a medium early variety with small heads of fruits of 0.5 kg.
The first two varieties give high yields - under good conditions, with 1 sq. M. You can collect up to 3-4 kg of cabbage. The third and fourth varieties bark 2.5 and 2.2 kg per 1 sq.m. respectively.
It is better to take large seeds for sowing. In this case, you can sow like this - one large seed and 1-2 small ones. Those. and you need to purchase seeds with this information in mind. On sale you can find packaging for 25/50/100 or more seeds.
For seedlings, cabbage seeds are planted romanesco 45-60 days before planting seedlings in the ground (this is usually done at the end of April, but it is better to focus on the air temperature: fruit set in this crop occurs at a temperature of 18 degrees). Sow the seeds should be in containers, maintaining a temperature of 20-22 degrees until until sprouts appear - so they quickly hatch. Then the temperature can be reduced to 8-10 degrees during the day and 6-8 degrees at night. So we harden our seedlings, and it will come out strong and squat, with a developed root.
It should be remembered that when growing romanesco cabbage, it is necessary to maintain moderate lighting and not allow the soil to dry out.
Sowing in open ground
If you decide to plant this vegetable with seeds in the ground, then you need to start doing this in May, having previously moistened the bed. Sowing is carried out at a depth of 2 cm, with a distance of 50-60 cm between the holes. Sprouts will appear approximately in July.
If you decide to plant seedlings, then with proper care for it, after 45-60 days, you can transplant cabbage into the ground. Here you should also leave a distance between plants of 60x60 cm.
Please note that the soil for planting should be prepared in advance. The fact is that the cabbage Romanesco does not "love" the soil with high acidity. Therefore, determine the acidity level of the area where you are going to plant this vegetable and, if necessary, reduce the acidity by liming or adding wood ash (approximately 0.3-0.5 kg per 1 square meter).
Lime the soil should be in the fall, and in the spring on the garden under the cabbage, you can make parted compost, manure or complex fertilizer for cauliflower.
Neighborhood with other cultures
Cabbage romanesco will feel good in those beds, where such cultures used to grow:
It is not recommended to plant this vegetable on the beds after crops such as:
At the same place romanesco can be grown for 3 years, after which it is recommended to transplant it to another place (you can only return to the old place 5 years after transplantation).
Particular attention in the cultivation of cabbage Romanesco should be given top dressing. Too late or excessively abundant feeding can damage the ovary and instead you risk getting ordinary cabbage leaves.
For the season should do 3 dressing:
- The first feeding is done a week after you planted the seedlings in open ground. To do this, add 10 liters of bird droppings or mullein and complex mineral fertilizers (approximately 1 tablespoon) per 10 liters of water.
- The second feeding should be carried out 2 weeks after the first. Here, 10 liters of water should be added with ammonium nitrate (30 g), potassium chloride (2 g), superphosphate (40 g) and boric acid (2 g).
- The third dressing should be done when the cabbage has just appeared head ovaries. To 10 liters of water should be added half a liter of bird droppings or mullein, as well as superphosphate (30 g), ammonium nitrate (30 g) and potassium chloride (20 g).
More fertilizing is not necessary.
The rest of the cultivation of cabbage Romanesco is no different from the cultivation of cauliflower, so if you have already sown such a culture, then you should have no problems.
Watering and loosening
Like other types of cabbage, Romanesco loves moisture, especially at a time when rosettes, leaves and heads are formed on the plant. Water the vegetable should be regular and abundant, but not swamping with the beds.
Water temperature is an important parameter, because too cold a liquid can cause illness or abnormal plant development. With regard to Roman cabbage, it is important to take it as a rule to water it, starting from seedlings, with water from 18 to 23 degrees (“room temperature”). Such water can be obtained simply by pouring it in advance into buckets, and leaving it to warm up normally. It is not worth while to overheat the liquid, because watering with too hot water, as well as too cold, is not desirable.
In addition, remember that cabbage should be watered only with separated water. Also distilled and fresh water is suitable.
Do not forget about loosening the soil around the plants. Weed beds and do not let the weeds grow. In rainy weather it is possible to loosen the aisles to a depth of 12 cm, in arid - up to 6.
Diseases and pests
Romanesco cabbage diseases and pests are common with the cruciferous family (cabbage), in particular, among the diseases we should beware:
- mucous bacteriosis - a disease caused by a violation of the irrigation system,
- black leg - manifested through the blackening of the stem of seedlings,
- mosaic - viral disease, manifested in the form of spots of various forms on the leaves,
- Alternaria - fungal disease, which manifests itself in the form of brown spots on the leaves or concentric loads on the affected areas.
Among the pests you should beware:
- a bit later,
- cabbage flies,
- cabbage aphids,
- cruciferous flea,
- covertly covert caveman, etc.
The fight against diseases and pests here is identical to those measures that should be carried out with similar diseases in other crucifers.
Exotic cabbage is harvested in the middle of autumn (approximately in October). During this period, it is possible to observe taut, fully formed inflorescences. The crop should be harvested on time, preventing it from stagnating on the bush, otherwise the heads will lose their succulence, begin to rot or dry.
It is better to collect the fruits in the morning, while the plant is not heated under the sun.
Where and how to store
You can store romanesco cabbage in the refrigerator for 4-7 days, after which it begins to lose its beneficial properties and deteriorate. However, it can also be frozen - in this case, the cabbage will be stored an order of magnitude longer, without losing its nutritional and beneficial properties. There are also many ways to preserve this culture.
Adding this culture to your diet will allow you to restore the sensitivity of your taste buds and get rid of the metallic taste in your mouth. Кроме того капуста романеско улучшает эластичность сосудов, укрепляет их и разжижает кровь. Наличие изоционатов в овоще помогает в борьбе с раком, а также другими образованиями.
Клетчатка, которой также богата капуста, улучшает работу кишечника, позволяя избавиться от таких проблем, как диарея, запор или геморрой. Также эта капуста прекращает процессы гниения и брожения в кишечнике.
Although the cabbage romanesco refers to such crops that do not cause allergies in most people, in case of suspicion of an allergic reaction, its ingestion should be stopped. Excessive consumption of insufficiently treated heat cabbage can cause bloating and diarrhea, as well as gas formation processes. Limit consumption of vegetables should people with heart disease and problems with the thyroid gland.
In other cases, romanesco cabbage can and should be eaten, because it has a pleasant texture and no less pleasant soft, nutty and creamy taste. Moreover, this vegetable perfectly replaces the usual cauliflower in traditional dishes made from it. An excellent choice for all who watch their figure, eats mainly vegetable food and just wants to have a plant with original appearance on its site.
A distinctive feature of this unique plant is the shape and location of the inflorescences. They look like pyramids of bright green color tightly pressed to each other. Cabbage inflorescences are compared to a fractal spiral, since each of its buds is composed of many small buds of the same shape.
Inflorescences are surrounded by large blue-green leaves. Depending on growing conditions and variety, this cabbage can reach a height of one meter by autumn, and also have fruits up to half a kilogram of weight. Such dimensions do not depend on the time of planting.
The best predecessors
An important point in choosing a place for planting this plant is what kind of culture has grown on this place before. If tomatoes, legumes, onions, beets, cucumbers and potatoes grew on the plot, this is a good place to plant Romanesco cabbage. At the same time, it is not necessary to plant this plant in the soil, if before that radish, cabbage, turnip, radish, rutabaga grew on this place.
Lighting and location
Since during the cultivation of this plant in the soil bacteria appear, in one place it should not grow more than three years in a row. At the same place it is recommended to replant Romanesco cabbage after five years. It is recommended to plant in well-lit wet places. Moisture is especially important when inflorescences form in a plant.
The soil should be normally acidic, consisting of black soil or loam. Very likes this plant alkaline soil. In the early spring period, it is necessary to feed the soil with dolomite flour or wood ash (per 200-400 g per square meter).
Mineral and organic fertilizers soil fertilized in the fall before digging the ground. Well this culture will respond to compost introduced into the ground.
Conditions for growing seedlings
The most important thing in planting this crop is to create the most suitable temperature regime for it. In the room where the seedlings are planted, until the first shoots appear, the air temperature should not exceed +20 ° С. One month after the seedlings are formed, the ambient temperature must be reduced by 10 ° C so that it does not exceed 8 ° C at night. This can be achieved by moving containers with seedlings on the balcony.
During the growth of seedlings seedlings should be watered regularly, adjust the lighting of plants, because in very strong light they quickly stretch the stems. Seedlings with proper care should come out strong and low, with good strong roots, in addition, it must withstand adverse conditions.
Landing in open ground
Seedlings need to be planted in open ground, depending on what the cabbage is intended for, what kind of precocity at the variety and what climatic conditions in your latitudes.
Gardeners recommend planting Romanesco cabbage manually, and machine landing is also possible. It is necessary to take into account what kind of irrigation scheme you will have - in the wells or using a drip irrigation system. Seedlings should be planted 45-60 days after you have sown the seeds.
Peculiarities of care
Ordinary cauliflower does not require particularly complex personal care, and the close variety of Romanesco is not very different from it. When performing some mandatory procedures, your plants will give a good harvest.
Cabbage "Romanesco" need water regularly, but at the same time, do not allow the soil to dry out or marsh. Check shrubs for pests such as caterpillars or cabbage moths. Clean the garden bed of weeds.
From the quality of watering the plant directly depends on its yield and the formation of inflorescences, as the variety "Romanesco" loves moisture very much. If you do not water "Romanesco" in sufficient quantity, the inflorescences will not tie up at all. Also, drought will affect the formation of the outlet and head.
Plants also need to be properly administered. You can get just a bush of cabbage leaves, and do not get a harvest at all if fertilizer is applied too late or in too large a volume. During the season this crop is fertilized three times.. A week after you planted the seedlings, feed the plant for the first time.
In ten liters of water mix half a pound of mullein or bird droppings, add 20 g of complex mineral fertilizers. The second time it is necessary to fertilize the soil two weeks after the first time. Stir in ten liters of water and a half tablespoons of ammonium nitrate, two tablespoons of superphosphate, two grams of boric acid and the same amount of potassium chloride.
The third time you need to feed "Romanesco" after the start of tying the heads. The fertilizer recipe is similar to the previous ones: ten liters of water, half a kilogram of bird droppings or mullein, one and a half tablespoons of superphosphate, the same amount of ammonium nitrate, one tablespoon of potassium chloride. After that, the plant will not need additional feeding.
Like cauliflower, this variety does not like sour soil, for this reason it is necessary to chill sour earth in autumn. Also, the land should be prepared in the spring - scatter a couple of buckets of rotted compost or manure into a square meter bed under cabbage. Complex boric fertilizers are added to the fertilizer mixture, and components such as molybdenum and copper must also be present in them.
Pests and diseases
In the variety "Romanesko", among other things, similar to cauliflower pests and diseases. Mucous bacteriosis It happens from a violation of the watering system for cabbage. On its flowers appear watery stains that begin to rot. To get rid of the disease, you should carefully cut wet stains with a knife. If it is not possible to get rid of all stains, the plant must be picked and burned.
Disease "blackleg" manifested by blackening the stems of seedlings. The plant dies. It is difficult to get rid of this disease - it is necessary to disinfect the soil, process the seeds, disinfect the seedlings from the bacteria. Infected bushes should be destroyed immediately.
With the disease "mosaic"that is transmitted by a virus, spots of various shapes appear on the leaves of the bush. The leaves become dull and die. Since this disease is not treatable, it is necessary to combat pests that carry the virus.
With alternariose brown spots appear on the leaves, the edges of the leaves themselves become dark. Concentric circles also appear on the bushes affected by the fungus. To protect the plants from this fungus, it is necessary to process seedlings and seeds with special means. It is also useful to treat plants with Bordeaux mixture.
Like cauliflower, variety "Romanesco" such pests are dangerous: cabbage fly, cruciferous flea, cabbage aphid, covertly covert, cabbage tree. The timely processing of plants with the help of numerous insecticides helps to fight them.
Exotic Italian Cabbage should be collected in the middle of autumn. During this period, on it are fully formed tight, star-like inflorescences. The harvest must be collected on time, otherwise the cabbage heads will lose their juiciness and tenderness. It is stored in the refrigerator for up to one week, but if it is frozen, then, without losing its qualities, it will be stored for a much longer time.
This variety of cabbage is not so difficult to grow, besides it is very useful, is used in various dishes and will become a real fractal decoration for your garden.
Description of the variety and characteristics
Romanesco is an amazing variety that delights with its decorative effect. The fruit is a complex of inflorescences that resemble pyramid corals with many round protrusions. They are securely covered with dense blue-green large leaves. The variety has received two more "popular" names: "Romanesque broccoli" and "coral cabbage".
Romanesco is a type of cauliflower, so the farming of these vegetables is largely the same.
Homeland varieties consider Italy. It is here that genetics have worked on the breeding of this hybrid. Subject to the rules of cultivation, receive specimens, reaching a height of 100 cm.
Romanesco tastes closest to broccoli, but has its own characteristic nut-creamy flavor. Vegetable suitable for frying, roasting, blanching. In the preparation of cabbage of this variety there is one feature: it cannot be subjected to heat treatment for a long time, since it is possible that not only taste but also nutritional properties may be lost.
Choosing a landing site
Romanesco cabbage, the cultivation of which will not be difficult, prefers neutral, not acidic soil. An important criterion for choosing a landing site is what kind of culture was here last season. Best predecessors:
You should not plant romanesco on those beds that were occupied by radish, other varieties of cabbage, radishes, onions last year. It is recommended to prepare the ground before planting the Romanesco.
- To introduce ash or dolomite flour at the rate of 200-300 g / m 2.
- Dig the soil with manure or compost at the rate of 2 buckets per 1 m 2.
The optimal soil for planting cabbage of this variety is black soil or loam. A vegetable bed can be prepared in the fall, reducing the acidity if necessary by adding ash and fertilizer, digging shovels on a bayonet.
Growing romanesco seedlings is no different from the technology of growing cauliflower. Sowing seeds produce in such a way as to plant seedlings in open ground in 45-50 days. For the southern and northern regions, these are different landing times. When growing romanesco in the middle zone, seeds are sown in mid-April.
Planting material is pre-soaked for several hours in warm water. Then planted in separate containers. Most often use small plastic cups. The optimum temperature for seed sodding is + 18-20 ° C. After seedlings appear, it is necessary to reduce the temperature during the day to + 12-15 ° C. At night - up to + 6-8 ° С. In this way, seedlings are hardened, which is especially important for growing romanesco in regions with a climate that is quite harsh for heat-loving crops.
It is not recommended to keep the seedlings in well-lit places. This is fraught with stretching the stems and the slow formation of leaves.
Planting in open ground
Seeds planted in mid-April by the end of May will become strong, stocky plants. At this time their transplanted into the open ground.
The procedure consists of several stages.
- In the prepared garden make holes at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other.
- Carefully remove the plant from the cup along with the earthy clod.
- Immerse it in the hole so that the base of the stem is at ground level.
- Fill the hole with earth and slightly condense it.
- Water the plants.
Calendula and marigolds can be planted along the bed perimeter. They are able to deter pests.
For romanesco recommended moderate watering. It is important to prevent drying and waterlogging of the soil. With a lack of water, the inflorescences may not start. Watering the cabbage should be under the root, avoiding the ingress of fluid on the outlet and the cabbages.
You must regularly inspect the plants for pests. To combat them, tobacco dust or sifted wood ash is sprayed over cabbage every 10-14 days.
Also compulsory care is the timely removal of weeds. Periodically spiked to the roots of the soil and humus. If the summer is too hot, to prevent burns and drying of the ovaries, the leaves above the head lift and tie.
In order to control weeds and retain moisture, several times a season, the ground in the garden is covered with a thick layer of dry grass.
During the vegetative season, romanesco cabbage is fed three times.
- 7-8 days after planting seedlings. Pour over a solution of mullein or poultry manure prepared from 10 liters of water and 0.5 kg of organic matter. In the resulting solution is recommended to make 20 g of complex mineral fertilizers.
- After 14-15 days after the first feeding. For this purpose, prepare a solution of 10 liters of water and 2 tbsp of superphosphate, add 2 g of boric acid and potassium chloride.
- Carried out during the beginning of the formation of cabbage heads. The solution is prepared from the following ingredients: 0.5 kg of mullein or bird droppings, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, 1 tablespoon of potassium chloride, 10 liters of water.
Completed feedings are enough for the normal development of the plant and the formation of the fetus.
This disease is otherwise called “wet bacterial rot.” Get rid of it is quite difficult. It is important to perform a number of measures that reduce the risk of plant damage by this disease:
- Disinfect the seeds before planting seedlings, keeping them for 2-3 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Disinfect seeding containers.
The first sign of the disease - the appearance of watery spots on the sheets and flowers. The affected areas quickly increase in size and begin to rot. Methods of struggle:
- with a sharp knife cut out the spots,
- if it is not possible to remove all the affected areas, the plant is removed from the bed and burned.
This disease can occur at the stage of growing seedlings. The first sign of trouble is the darkening of the base of the stem. Soon, this area becomes brownish, becomes watery and rots. The disease is caused by the fungus R. Olpidium, R. Pythium and Rhizoctonia solani. The older the plant, the more resistant it is to the black leg.
The main measure of prevention is the correct watering, which does not allow waterlogging of the soil. Important and disinfection. If necessary, the soil is steamed. In especially difficult cases, a complete replacement of the soil is recommended. Measures to combat the disease are in the treatment of land and plants with sulfuric preparations.
The first signs of this disease are so invisible that you can skip them. The mosaic begins to declare itself by the appearance of yellowish, randomly arranged veins on the leaves of cabbage. This is a viral infection, the fight against which is quite complicated. It consists in the treatment of plants Bordeaux liquid.
Of the pests most often appear aphid, cabbage fly, cabbage, cruciferous flea, slugs. Get rid of them through the use of insecticides. Among them are the means of complex action and specialized to combat a particular type of pest.
Scientists-biologists and experts of the exact sciences have published many works devoted to the romanesco cabbage, but there is still no definite answer not only to the question of the origin of this vegetable, but also the degree of relatedness of the romanesco and all known types of cabbage. There is a version that Romanesco is a hybrid of cauliflower and broccoli, but it is impossible to find strict evidence of its truth in serious biological literature..
Breeders carefully call the Romanesco cabbage a subspecies or cauliflower cultivar. There is a certain duality in these definitions: not quite a color, and, it seems, not a hybrid.
Scientists and mathematicians, devoting many works to describing the Romanesco fetus through complex equations, put forward the theory that this culture was born quite recently, only at the end of the 20th century. Such assumptions are caused by the spiral form of inflorescences, which obeys logarithmic equations well. Therefore, they say, not only breeders but also 3D-designers clearly participated in the creation of cabbage, introducing some tricky genes into the cabbage. This bright-green vegetable looks rather strange, but at the same time very beautiful.
A set of unusual spiral Christmas trees brings back memories that once the whole country wanted to fly into space.
However, such theories are broken by historians who claim that this cabbage was known before our era when it was grown by the Etruscans. Ostensibly they brought Romanesco to Tuscany, from where it spread further. More cautious researchers believe that this cabbage is known only from the XVI century, but one way or another, its widespread distribution began about 100 years ago.
The fact that cabbage is from Italy confirms its name: romanesco means “Roman”. Its other famous names are coral cabbage, romance broccoli.
Of course, broccoli and cauliflower had the opportunity to pereopylitsya and in the wild without human intervention, but in authoritative sources, this version is not confirmed. Well, the assumptions about extraterrestrial origin (appearing on the basis of the correct form of inflorescences) seem fantastic at all. Существует даже версия, что Романеско попала к нам на Землю, выпав из неопознанного летающего объекта.
Романеско без листьев напоминает космическую ёлку
Форму этой капусты сравнивают и с набором пирамидок, и с гигантской раковиной, но все попробовавшие блюда из неё описывают их как деликатесные, нежные, без сильного запаха и горьковатого привкуса. Compared to the known varieties of cauliflower, Romanesco is somewhat sweeter. Its stems are softer than broccoli. Romanesco is simple in culinary processing, it is also suitable for making salads, although gourmets say that you shouldn't eat it raw.
Description and characteristics of Romanesco cabbage
Romanesco, like any cabbage, belongs to the cruciferous family. The appearance, structure of the plant and agrotechnics is very similar to cauliflower, but the shape of the head makes it doubt that it is the same kind. Its light green flowers are folded into regular figures, arranged in strict spirals. The whole design of the head consists of several pyramids, each of which, in turn, is also built from smaller pyramids, and in all the figures the spiral following of the flowers one after another is observed. Inflorescences are very tightly "pressed" to each other, and dark green leaves border them in a circle. Many gardeners plant Romanesco surrounded by flowers and get the original landscape composition.
Romanesco thickets resemble a flowerbed with outlandish flowers
The weight of the fruit is not very large, rarely more than half a kilo, although the roaches look impressive. Taste and smell resemble the usual cauliflower, but differ in the flavor of the nut. In terms of chemical composition, its fruits are superior to most garden crops: they have a unique set of both normal food components and vitamins and microelements. Romanesco cabbage is suitable for frying, stewing, baking, cooking various first courses. She cooks pretty quickly.
From the dietary and therapeutic and prophylactic points of view, the uniqueness of Romanesco is difficult to challenge. Nutrition experts describe the following benefits:
- due to the large amount of vitamin A Romanesco improves eyesight,
- the presence of antioxidants helps in the prevention of cancer,
- a high iron content leads to an increase in the production of red blood cells, and consequently, to an improved supply of oxygen to all cells of the body and an increase in the activity of brain cells,
- at the expense of dietary fiber, fiber, a unique set of vitamins improves digestion, reduces cholesterol and blood sugar, serves as a prophylactic against many infectious diseases,
- Due to the high content of B vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin K, this product is recommended for people suffering from heart disease.
How to grow cabbage Romanesco
Romanesco cabbage farming is a bit more complicated than that of white cabbage or ordinary cauliflower: it is quite whimsical, and the slightest violation of growing conditions can lead to failure, to the extent that the fruits may not get tangled. For the formation and growth of the heads, the temperature is not very high (about 18 ° C).
Romanesco cabbage varieties are usually grown through seedlings, and only in the southernmost regions can direct sowing of seeds be possible.
To obtain cabbage Romanesko need to prepare seedlings. It is grown in an apartment or in a greenhouse, but it is much more difficult to do this in an apartment: it requires a lot of light and a relatively low temperature. The best soil composition is a mixture of sod land, peat, sand and humus. It is better to sow the seeds not in a common box, but in separate cups, ideally - in peat pots. Drainage must be placed on the bottom. Depth of seeds is carried out at 0.5–1 cm, after which the soil is compacted and watered.
At first, the room temperature will fit, but when shoots appear, it should be reduced by a week to 8–10 ºC, and at night - by another couple of degrees. In the future, it should be 16–18 ºC during the day, and no more than 10 ºC at night. Romanesco cabbage, which grew up in a warm apartment, in the garden can not even tie heads.
Seedlings Romanesco similar to seedlings of any other cabbage
The sowing time is also important: it is better if the head is tied up on the garden in spring or, on the contrary, in early autumn. And since seedlings ready for planting should be 1.5–2 months old, sowing seeds for summer crop consumption should be in early spring, no later than the beginning of April.
Seedlings should be in the most bright place of the apartment, at the solar window. Moisturizing requires moderate fertilizing and watering with a weak solution of potassium permanganate is highly desirable. Pikes are best avoided. The main thing in growing seedlings is not to allow sharp fluctuations in temperature, humidity and ensure sufficient illumination.
The basic techniques for caring for Romanesco cabbage are the same as for most garden plantations: watering, feeding, loosening, pest and disease control.
It is demanding of high humidity, but does not like waterlogging of the soil: watering should be regular, sufficient, but moderate. In the initial period of growth, watering is required about twice a week, then they should become weekly (of course, everything depends on the weather and climate of the region). First, a square bucket of water grabs a bucket of water, and as the bushes grow, more are needed. Water does not have to be warm, you can use any. It is better to water under the root, especially after the heads have already been outlined.
Before the formation of Romanesco heads, in appearance it differs little from other types of cabbage
After irrigation, loosening with weeding is necessary. Of course, loosening is possible only before the closure of the leaves. During this period, it is highly desirable and regular hilling of plants, activating the growth of adventitious roots.
During the earthing up, it is very useful to add wood ash to the roots.
Romanesco consumes a large amount of nutrients. Despite the fact that it is planted in well-fertilized soil, making fertilizer in each planting hole, during the growing season at least three additional feeding is required, not counting the regular pouring of ash to the roots. The best fertilizer should be considered mullein infusion (1: 10) or diluted infusion of bird droppings.
With the droppings you should always be careful: this extremely concentrated substance can burn the plants when used ineptly. But in experienced hands, bird droppings are a very valuable fertilizer. To obtain a nutritional infusion, it should be mixed with water (1:10 by volume) and allowed to wander for 2-3 days. The resulting infusion is required to dilute another 10 times, and only the resulting weak solution can be poured under the plants.
Bird droppings can be bought at any garden store.
The first feeding is required two to three weeks after transplanting: about half a liter of nutrient solution per plant. After a week and a half, the dose can be doubled. And after another two weeks mineral fertilizers should be added to the infusion of organic matter, since at this time the cabbage also needs trace elements.
In addition to azofoski (20–30 g per bucket of infusion), one should add 1.5–2 g of boric acid and ammonium molybdate. It is only necessary to take into account that these substances slowly dissolve in cold water, therefore, they must first be diluted in a small amount of hot and poured into a bucket with a nutrient mixture.
With a lack of molybdenum, romanesco heads grow coarse and have an unnatural color, and boron gives plants the power of growth and resistance to disease.
Romanesco, like ordinary cauliflower, reacts in an original way to sunlight: on the one hand, it does not tolerate shading and must grow in open places, and on the other hand, its heads darken and develop poorly in bright light. Therefore, when the appearance of heads the size of an egg, they should be systematically pritenyat. The simplest option is breaking the upper leaves. The plant is not at all harmful, and the crop grows better.
Romanesco suffers from the same diseases and is damaged by the same insects as any cabbage. If signs of disease or pests appear, treat the beds with appropriate preparations.
Like other cabbages, not only people eat Romanesco
In no case can you delay the harvest. Crumbled heads look less aesthetic, they begin to decrease the content of nutrients, and the tender flesh quickly becomes coarse. Heads should be cut with a sharp knife along with the stems: they are also edible, wholesome and tasty.
Romanesko kept bad, it should be eaten in a week or two, and otherwise cut into convenient pieces and freeze.
I first tried this cabbage recently. I went to the market for other products, stumbled upon this miracle of nature and could not resist - I really liked the look of this unusual vegetable. To taste it turned out more tender. But its main highlight is an unusual appearance. Her inflorescences are like little Christmas trees, in my opinion, very relevant with the onset of cold weather. I baked it in the oven with cream sauce and cheese. It turned out very tasty.
My sister and I have been trying to grow Romanesco cabbage for two seasons. It does not work. It grows well, the seedlings are strong, but when they are transferred to the ground they wither. Although everything seems to be done according to the recommendations of experienced gardeners: we plant on the beds after a tomato or potatoes.
Appearance, of course, unusual. I have her son calls edible flowers. But the taste is very mediocre, do not compare with broccoli. It even seemed to me that the taste is worse than the usual color.
Romanesco cabbage is an original and healthy vegetable, much like the usual cauliflower, but distinguished by its exquisite taste and more capricious in its cultivation. However, this does not mean that it is impossible to get his harvest at the dacha: for lovers of garden experiments, this is a very suitable culture.