Poultry often suffer from various diseases that affect all individuals in different ways.
Particularly often on large poultry farms laying hens suffer - they develop salpingitis. This disease causes great damage for the entire farm, as the birds stop laying eggs.
Salpingitis can occur in any layer, but all egg-bearing breeds are considered the most susceptible to this disease.
What is salpingitis in birds?
During the course of this disease, the laying hen begins to inflame the oviduct. Each bird carries less and less eggs, which directly affects the income of the entire farm.
Most often young layers of all egg-bearing breeds suffer from this disease. The fact is that they are more vulnerable to any negative factors that may affect the occurrence of this disease.
Inflammation of the oviduct can occur among the population of any layer.it is not known when this disease was first recorded.
Its pathogens are the most common pathogenic microorganisms - staphylococcus, which live in large numbers near the birds.
Most likely, this disease arose at the same time when a person began to actively use hens for his own purposes.
Salpingitis is a very dangerous disease. It affects not only the number of eggs that a hen can carry in one year.
In a state of neglect, it can cause the death of the entire population of hens, and this, in turn, is very unprofitable for the economy. The meat of such layers is usually not suitable for use, therefore the level of losses increases significantly.
Causes of disease
In the manifestation of this unpleasant disease, the main role is played by unfavorable feeding factors.
If the feed does not contain the required amount of calcium, vitamins A, O, E and choline, then the chickens very quickly develop salpingitis.
That is why farmers need to closely monitor the proper feeding of their birds, because it directly affects its condition.
Besides, the cause of salpingitis can be any traumatic factor. Very often, individuals who were subjected to shocks, fell from a great height, or had a ruptured oviduct suffered from inflammation of the oviduct.
In young hens, salpingitis can be caused by too large eggs that they cannot even carry. They constantly linger in the oviduct, which can cause its rupture.
Another reason for the development of inflammation of the oviduct, is considered a variety of infections that occur on the background of penetration into the body of a chicken of various microorganisms and parasites. Also, salpingitis often develops on the background of inflammation of the cloaca.
Course and symptoms
One of the first symptoms that indicate the occurrence of inflammation is an increased fat deposition.
It shows that the chicken carries fewer eggs and that it may soon suffer from salpingitis. Veterinarians divide the course of the disease into several stages.
The very first stage is characterized by pathological changes in fat metabolism.. An increase in cholesterol and choline levels is recorded in chicken blood. Gradually, cholesterol begins to be deposited on the body of the chicken, increasing its weight.
The next stage of the disease is almost always fatal. During the opening of the diseased bird, the veterinarians discover a complete degeneration of the liver, which indicates serious toxicosis. It is explained by a change in the metabolism caused by an increased concentration of cholesterol in the blood.
It is possible to diagnose this disease by the behavior of the bird and by blood analysis. As a rule, salpingitis can occur in acute and chronic form.
Sometimes the disease is asymptomatic, so if there is the slightest suspicion of inflammation, it is necessary to take a blood test from a chicken. Most often, this condition is characteristic of the chronic course of the disease.
In the acute form of a laying hen, the number of eggs laid per day is significantly reduced. At the same time she eats little and looks completely depressed and tired. After 15 hours, the hen's temperature rises by 1 degree, and after a while cyanosis of the crest appears.
In order to accurately diagnose the disease, it is necessary to take a sick bird in hand and examine it in detail. Palpation will feel that her stomach is enlarged.
At the same time the bird feels discomfort, therefore when walking it drags along the ground. In more advanced cases, the chicken cannot walk. As a rule, without treatment, the bird dies in just a few days, causing damage to the entire economy.
Immediately after the diagnosis of salpingitis, the bird must be quickly treated, otherwise it may die soon.
As a rule, the treatment of the disease consists in proper nutrition of the laying hen. She should receive a balanced diet, additionally containing vitamins A and E, as well as proteins that will help her get energy to fight the disease.
In more advanced cases, it is almost impossible to do without a medical solution. The patient of a hen is injected into the cloaca 20 ml of vaselineto avoid irritation if the bird has a stuck egg.
In other cases, inflammation should be treated in this way: you need to do several intramuscular injections of synestrol (1 ml of 1% solution), pituitrin (50 thousand units twice a day for 4 days).
If microorganisms are the cause of inflammation of the oviduct, then birds should be given sulfonamides and antibiotics that act on the identified group of microorganisms.
After the completion of antibiotic treatment, one should never forget about probiotics, which will help restore the normal flora microflora.
The main prevention of inflammation of the oviduct is a fully balanced diet in laying hens.
Particularly attentive to the diet of the bird should be treated at the moment when they begin to lay: immediately after puberty and after the winter break. It is at these moments that the birds are most vulnerable.
In addition to the feed you can add vitamins and calcium, however, it is necessary to take into account the productivity of each bird. It is also desirable to fully control the lighting mode in the hen house so that the birds get enough rest.
As prevention, laying hens can be given potassium iodide in the amount of 3 mg iodide per adult chicken. Sometimes farmers give 40 mg of chlorane chloride for 20 days. This will help make the chicken more resistant to various unpleasant infections that can weaken the hen and cause salpingitis.
Salpingitis is a common disease. Most often it occurs in chickens of egg breeds, therefore, breeders need to especially carefully monitor the health of their birds.
Launched salpingitis quickly becomes the cause of the death of the hens, which is reflected in the total income of the farm, so a healthy bird is the key to the success of each farmer.
Causes of problems
Experts agree that problems with the oviduct in chickens began to appear in times of human domestication. In conditions of crowded chickens in a small room, conditions are created for the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the oviduct. Under the influence of infection in the oviduct, an inflammatory process, called salpiginitis, begins.
Salpiginitis is an inflammation of the oviduct caused by the penetration of staphylococci and streptococci into it. Often it occurs in conjunction with inflammation of the abdominal cavity - yolk peritonitis. This disease is associated with penetration into the abdominal cavity of the content of exploding follicles (yolks) of the ovary.
Oviduct diseases cause huge losses to farmers, as they directly affect the productivity of the hens. In advanced cases, inflammation and loss of the oviduct leads to the death of the entire poultry population on the farm.
Etiology of diseases
In addition to exposure to pathogenic microflora, the risk of damage to the oviduct and the launch of inflammatory processes of salpiginitis and yolk peritonitis in it occurs for the following reasons:
- Unbalanced nutrition. Excess protein in chicken feed combined with a lack of vitamins D and E and choline. Particularly often young laying hens suffer from this, in which normal microflora die in the oviduct.
- The abundance of fat in the feed. Inflammation of the oviduct can be provoked by too high-calorie food. Hoping to speed up the growth and the onset of the egg production of a young chicken, the owner tries to regale it with too fatty food. The young ones, in fact, begin to rush ahead of the time set by nature, but the oviduct for this process does not have time to develop, and as a result it becomes inflamed and falls out.
- Injuries. If the chicken hits, falls from a height, it can cause a violation of the integrity of the oviduct canal. Young layers can suffer from rupture of the oviduct when too large an egg is released.
- Secondary infection. Salpiginitis develops after infection of the chicken with infectious diseases. Most often salpiginitis is a complication of inflammation of the cloaca.
- Inflammation due to prolapse of the oviduct. The internal organ that has fallen out is in contact with the external environment, where it encounters a mass of microbes. As a result, pathogenic microflora enters the body and causes inflammatory processes.
- Irrational organization of lighting in the hen house. The constant presence of bright light in the chicken coop creates the illusion of a long light day in birds. The bird's body begins to develop at an accelerated pace and sexual maturity and the onset of egg-laying are rapidly occurring. The oviduct at the same time lags behind in development and begins to inflame from too early onset of egg-laying.
- The reduced tone of the walls of the oviduct. This phenomenon is observed in birds contained in cages. Lack of physical activity makes it difficult for eggs to pass through the oviduct. Due to the delay, inflammation begins.
The first signs and symptoms of inflammation
A clear symptom of developing inflammation of the oviduct is its swelling and protrusion of chicken cloaca. But long before this, one can suspect the onset of inflammation on the following grounds:
- Reducing the number of eggs laid.
- Deformed eggs or eggshells.
- Discharge from the cloaca of mucus, yolk or protein masses.
- Decreased activity and loss of appetite.
- Persistent diarrhea. The presence of systematic diarrhea indicates pollution of feathers around the cloaca.
The basis for diagnosing inflammation of the oviduct is observation of the habits of the hen and blood analysis. Salpiginitis occurs in two forms:
- Acute - the hen sits in the nest for a long time, eats poorly, moves little. As the inflammatory process intensifies, the chicken body temperature rises, the scallop turns blue.
- Chronic - is mostly asymptomatic, characterized only by a decrease in the number of eggs. In this case, the diagnosis is made on the basis of a blood test.
For accurate diagnosis of salpiginitis, a bird examination is performed. The laying has an increase in the abdomen. When feeling it, the chicken actively pulls out, as it experiences pain during palpation. An enlarged belly prevents the hen from walking; it literally drags along the ground.
Planning to use laying hens? Details about this in our article.
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How to help a hen?
It is recommended to start treating inflammation and prolapse of the oviduct at home with the normalization of the diet of birds. In the feed should be the optimal content of vitamins and minerals. Especially important is the balance of vitamins A, D, E and group B. Feed yeast, fresh greens, meat and bone and grass meal help solve the problem.
Specific treatment depends on the causes of inflammation. It is necessary to begin with introduction to the foul place of 20 mg. Vaseline to prevent internal breaks during the passage of large eggs. The oviduct protruding outside is washed with water and then with a two percent solution of tannin or alum. After washing, you can try the procedure of repositioning the oviduct inside. The oviduct and finger are lubricated with petroleum jelly and the organ is introduced inside the cloaca.
If the oviduct fails to be set right the first time, it is possible to treat the precipitated part as follows. For 7-10 days, the oviduct is washed with brine (2-4 teaspoons per 250 ml of water). The procedure is carried out twice a day. The same solution can make microclysters. To prevent inflammation, chicken is given daily half-tablets of Trihopol (Metronidazole) and one-sixth of Sulfadimezine daily. The oviduct after such treatment can get into place on its own or is reset. After setting up the oviduct, the hen is dried with probiotics and vitamins.
Inflammation of the oviduct without its prolapse is treated with drugs. The intramuscular injections are made to the hen:
- Sinesterol - 1% 1 ml for three days.
- Pituitrin - 50 thousand units. twice a day for 4 days.
If the inflammation of the oviduct is caused by microorganisms or is a complication of a previous illness, a layer of antibiotics and sulfonamides is prescribed to the hen:
- Baytril - 2.5% 0.5 ml.
- Gamavit - 1 cu.
- Calcium gluconate –1 cub.
Drugs are administered within 5-7 days. After treatment for two weeks, the hen is sealed with probiotics (Linex 1 ml daily) to normalize the intestinal microflora.
It is recommended to lay the hen out of the rest of the herd for the duration of treatment. It is advisable to organize the content in such a way that the bird saw the congeners. But they did not have the opportunity to get to it.
Forms of the disease
Salpingitis can occur in two forms: acute and chronic.
In the acute form, egg laying decreases sharply. A hen loses his appetite, looks tired, exhausted. Also, there is an increase in body temperature (1-2 °). Later manifested blue scallop.
In the chronic form, the disease proceeds with almost no symptoms. The only thing that can change is a change or absence of egg-laying. Chickens can carry testicles without a shell; when lugging the oviduct, hard lumps are felt, protein secretions appear. In this regard, any "inadequate" behavior of the birds should cause concern. If there is a suspicion of salpingitis, it is better to have a blood test in the laboratory that confirms or refutes the presence of inflammation.
The easiest way to help a chicken is to wash the oviduct with saline. For 250 ml of water you will need 4 teaspoons of salt. Inject the solution through an enema, making sure that there is no egg in the oviduct. The tip of the enema should be lubricated with petroleum jelly. In addition to this, during the week the bird should be treated with sulphadimezin (one sixth of a tablet per day) and trichopol (half a tablet). Medicines should be crushed, diluted with water and poured into the beak. If the oviduct fell out, it should be washed with water and then with a 2% tannin solution. Then you can try to independently set the fallen body in place with a finger, pre-smeared with petroleum jelly.
In the case of the choice of drug treatment, you need to start a course of intramuscular injections:
- Sinesterol (1% 1% for three days),
- Pituitrin (50 000 IU 2 times a day for four days).
- Baytril (2.5 percent, 0.5 ml once a day),
- Calcium gluconate (1 cube / day),
- Gamavit (1 cube / day).
Rules for keeping young stock
Chickens and young chickens should preferably be kept separate from the layers and the masterbatch. Young animals have other needs for nutrition, maintenance and lighting. On one square meter it is desirable to keep no more than 5 individuals. If, during puberty, young chicks start to gain weight too actively, the rate of concentrated feed decreases. Replace reduced feed should be greens. If the young growth is stunted in growth, it is necessary to increase the amount of feed rich in protein.
In egg-laying chickens, puberty occurs at about 5.5-6 months. To determine the health of livestock can be on the appearance of feathered pets. Rapid growth, good weight gain, excellent appetite, smooth shiny feathers are signs of bird health. It is undesirable to accelerate the introduction of the young individual into the composition of the hens. The chicken's body must ripen naturally, otherwise it will inevitably have problems with the onset of egg production.
Причины выпадения яйцевода
Яйцевод курицы – это проток, который предназначен для выведения зрелых яиц из яичников. У всех птиц развит только левый яичник и левый яйцевод, а правые яичник и яйцевод не развиты. The left oviduct with the upper end goes into the cavity of the ovary, and the posterior thickened end flows into the cloaca. The cloaca is the opening that ends the rectum and the oviduct.
The main reason why a chicken has an oviduct is inflammation of the organs of egg formation. It may develop due to too early start of young individuals in the egg-laying. This happens when farmers speed up the process of egg formation in young stock by increasing the daylight hours - artificial lighting is served almost all day and night, or they start feeding the chickens with too fatty foods. As a result, biologically mature birds begin to be born. Also, the cause of loss of the oviduct is an improperly formed or too large egg. Excessive egg production can also lead to organ loss.
Excessive egg production can lead to loss of the oviduct
The first symptoms are that it becomes difficult for the chicken to lay eggs. The back of the oviduct swells up and goes to the cloaca. Constipation or diarrhea can begin, which is why the feathers around the cloaca are dirty from secretions.
In the neglected case, the oviduct is clogged with cheesy masses. At this stage it is almost impossible to cure a bird. Veterinarians are advised to slaughter a chicken with such symptoms.
Cloacal prolapse in laying hens. Treatment:
- wash the protruding part with warm water and 2% tannin solution,
- hands to disinfect the solution,
- finger and oviduct lubricate with petroleum jelly,
- gently push the organ inside.
Sometimes this procedure succeeds, and the problem does not return. With the loss of cloaca in chickens, susceptibility to pathogenic microorganisms increases, so it is not possible to delay treatment. If the fallout is repeated, the bird is shown to the veterinarian to determine the cause. To do this, you will need to take blood for analysis, in laboratory conditions the type of pathogen will be determined. After that, it is possible to assign a course of antibiotic therapy. In some cases, the doctor will advise not to delay and slaughter the bird to prevent infection of the entire population.
The course of antibiotic therapy for chickens
Salpingitis: symptoms and treatment
Salpingitis in laying hens is a very dangerous disease. It leads to the fact that the chicken ceases to run. If you start a disease, the bird will die, and even the rest of the livestock will be infected.
Salpingitis is an inflammation of the oviduct, the development of which contribute to:
- The content of chickens in the cells. This is a common problem in large poultry farms.
- The ingestion of chicken streptococci and staphylococci. When cloaca falls out, pathogens enter the body and cause inflammation.
- The lack of nutrition in poultry vitamins, an excess of protein. When monotonous feeding only cereals, no greens in the diet, the bird does not receive calcium, vitamins A, B, E.
- Excess fat in food. The introduction of large amounts of fatty foods contributes to the early onset of the period of egg production. In this case, the genitals of a young chicken do not have time to properly form.
- Trauma, falling from a great height. In this case, the integrity of the oviduct may be compromised.
- Too large egg in a young individual. It cannot safely exit, is in the channel for a long time and causes its inflammation and rupture.
- Complication of oviduct prolapse.
- Too much lit time in the day. This factor also contributes to the early egg production of an immature specimen.
Diseased salpingitis chicken lays eggs without shell
A chicken sick with salpingitis stops nesting or lays eggs without a shell (or an irregular shape). She begins to increase the deposition of adipose tissue. The individual behaves atypically, sluggishly, it has no appetite, and the stomach swells, diarrhea begins.
On large poultry farms to treat the disease is impractical. Diseased birds are removed, carry out the adjustment of the livestock feed.
In a small courtyard, where every hen is on the account, the following measures are taken:
- The diseased individual is isolated. If she has an oviduct, it is reset as described above.
- The chicken is seared with an antimicrobial drug (for example, Baytril).
- Replace grain with professional compound feed or protein-vitamin-mineral concentrate (BVMK). You can make the mixture yourself, taking into account all the needs of poultry in protein, vitamins, fats, minerals and carbohydrates.
Important! The meat of chicken fallen from salpingitis in no case can not be eaten.
If the chicken has an oviduct, what to do, it is considered in detail. But the procedure does not always give a positive result, it is easier to prevent this trouble. For the prevention of problems with egg production, the chicken ration should contain mineral supplements with vitamins A, B and E. It is imperative that the season be given enough green food to the bird.
Note! Young individuals are given a potassium iodide solution to prepare for the first egg laying. It is added to the feed at the rate of 2 mg per chicken. You can give choline chloride (20 mg per bird). Light day in preparation for egg-laying should be 9 hours. This will allow future layers to mature fully and correctly, which will prevent the risk of loss of the oviduct during the first laying.
So, the content of pullet chickens suggests a competent approach and preventive measures to prevent problems with the egg-forming organs. In case of detection, the oviduct is repaired, and if necessary, the treatment course with antibiotics
Moldy food poisoning has already been considered as the cause of catarrh and goiter blockage. Another result of feeding a moldy feed to a bird is poisoning.
It is characterized by abundant saliva, vomiting, diarrhea, general weakness, and sometimes paralysis. Poisoning is treated with saline laxatives, antibiotics of the tetracycline group. Birds are also fed with a solution of potassium permanganate in the quantities indicated above.
To prevent poisoning, the cake must be heated for 2 hours at a temperature of 70-75 ° C.
Poisoning poisons of animal feed occurs when feeding rotting meat or fish. It manifests itself with diarrhea, sometimes bloody, sagging wings.
The bird is depressed, its feathers are ruffled. The treatment consists of flaxseed decoction, as well as a 0.1% aqueous solution of potassium permanganate instead of water.
Stress factors are irritants that lead to the overpotential of the bird.
These include: poor nutrition or prolonged lack of food, crowded premises, crowded chickens, unhygienic housing conditions, catching and transplanting poultry, vaccination, loud noise or excessively bright light, etc.
The bird's body, in response to these factors, mobilizes all forces, which leads to their rapid depletion. Stress may not have obvious external manifestations, but it affects egg production, growth, and the general condition of the bird. The task of the poultry farmer is to minimize damage from the effects of stress.
Stress factors can be divided into two groups: factors caused by human negligence (improper living conditions, food), and objective factors caused by necessity (transportation or graft of chickens, vaccination). If the former remain entirely on the conscience of the poultry farmer, then the latter can be reduced through proper nutrition and early preparation of the birds.
The negative impact of stress factors is reduced, if several days before the intended procedure in the poultry diet include easily digestible proteins, a complex of vitamins, in addition to introduce vitamin C and reduce the amount of calcium.
Anti-stress nutrition is administered 3 days before the intended situation and continued for 3 days after it. There are also some tricks to mitigate specific stressful situations. For example, to catch a bird is better in blue light.
The human eye with such illumination well distinguishes objects, but the chicken, on the contrary, sees nothing.
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