Do you like vegetables and want to diversify your diet? Start growing turnip urgently. The process does not take much time and effort, but the harvest of beautiful and tasty root crops will delight with its taste.
Who is this mysterious turnip - briefly about the main thing
If, having heard this name, you have imagined some kind of exotic culture, we hasten to please you. In fact, turnips are nothing more than fodder turnips, at least by that name, it is better known. This is a two-year root vegetable from the cruciferous family. On its upper, above-ground part, a magnificent rosette of wide leaves on juicy petioles develops. Accordingly, the culture has family ties with turnips, radishes, turnips and cabbage. There are many varieties of turnip, and among them there are both table and fodder varieties. The first ones are gladly grown in vegetable gardens for consuming juicy fruits in salads and second courses. The second - a good help for animals from the farm.
Feed turnip species are more powerful, broad, foliage with light pubescence. Table varieties have smaller leaves, besides, they are smooth and juicy.
As already mentioned, turnip is a biennial plant, although it is often grown as an annual. If the goal is to get only the fruits, it is completely removed in the first season. The fruits themselves are round or elongated and, depending on the variety, may be white, yellowish or purple. There are varieties in which all these colors are present at the same time.
To collect the turnip seeds, it is left to winter in the beds, and the next summer the plants bloom with racemes of yellow buds. At the end of flowering in their place pods are formed with small maroon-black seeds. This culture is multiplied by them.
We select and prepare a place for planting turnips
In general, planting and caring for turnips in the open field is not a difficult task, because the plant is unpretentious. It is suitable for cultivation in almost any region and will grow in any soil. However, a really good harvest (especially forage species) will turn out to be taken on a rich and fertile land. Fodder turnip grows best on loam and black soil, as well as in turf and peat soil.
The site for the cultivation of turnips must be prepared in advance, even in the fall. It should be deeply dug up, making organic and mineral fertilizers, namely:
- manure (rotted) - 1 bucket per 3 square meters. m
- nitrophoska - 1.5 Art. on 1 square of area.
Fresh organic can not be used, otherwise the fruit will darken, will crack and lose taste.
It is not necessary to make potash-phosphorus compounds and nitrogen fertilizers. The latter are permissible to use a year before sowing turnips, that is, when growing plants predecessors.
For turnip should take a sunny plot, better in the lowlands, where the moisture is longer, which he loves. It is important to avoid places where water stagnates, otherwise the fruit will rot.
It is good if in the previous season the beds planned for growing turnips grew:
After plants from the related family of crustaceans, it is possible to plant fodder turnips no earlier than 5 years.
The time when you can sow turnips depends on the method and the specific purpose of its cultivation. Most often, fodder turnips are sown:
- In the spring. In open ground, seeds are sown at the end of April, and seedlings are sown at the beginning of the month, transplanting it to a vegetable garden in May. Such root vegetables can be eaten in the summer.
- Summer. In early July, the seeds are planted right on the garden in order to harvest the fruits for winter storage by autumn.
Some gardeners plant seeds before winter, which is also acceptable. So it is possible to harvest a couple of weeks earlier.
Ways to plant a turnip
When it comes to growing turnips for livestock feed, most often such plantings occupy a decent area. Definitely in this case, the seeds are sown immediately in open ground. And if you decide to plant in your garden a couple of beds of high-quality dining room juicy turnips, you can try to make it a seedling method. Let's look at both ways.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Shallow grooves should be made immediately before sowing. Enough and a couple of centimeters, otherwise the seeds will germinate for a long time. Between these beds should be left at least 40 cm. Root crops need space to grow in breadth, and it will be more convenient to care for them with a wide row spacing. To fine seeds lay down more evenly, minimizing the thinning, they are mixed with sand before sowing. Sown grooves need to be slightly covered with earth.
Three kilograms of turnip seeds can sow 1 ha of land.
And one more thing - if necessary, the seeds are pre-soaked. This allows them to accelerate germination, and, accordingly, to bring the harvest time closer.
Sowing turnips in seedlings
As already mentioned, planting turnips for seedlings is carried out in early April. Germination they are quite good and after a couple of weeks sprouts will appear. It is better to sow at once into separate pots, for example, peat-baking plants - turnips do not tolerate transplantation. In each pot you need to put a few seeds ("in reserve"), lightly cover them with sand and spray well. As usual, a film is put on top. When the seedlings grow a little, you need to choose the strongest and most developed. The rest - cut off with scissors, without pulling them out so that in each pot there is only one plant left.
Seedlings can be planted on the garden not earlier than the second half of May, when the frosts are gone. To do this, make holes, leaving between them a distance of 20 cm with a width of 50 cm between rows. Seedlings are transplanted one by one into each well by transshipment or together with peat pots.
Growing a turnip - the basics of care for the beds with fodder turnips
The most difficult thing in caring for a crop is determining the rate of irrigation. The taste of turnip is influenced by the amount of moisture. If it is in excess, the fruits become watery and lose their taste. The lack of and rare watering also adversely affect the crop, adding bitterness to it. Therefore, it is important to focus on the state of the soil and take into account the amount of precipitation. On average, watering the beds should be no more than 2 times a week. This is quite enough, except when the summer is dry and hot. Then you may need another watering.
The rest of the care for turnips is easy and you will need to spend a couple more activities:
- Thin the bed if the seeds are sown immediately in open ground.
- Periodically remove weeds and loosen the soil.
- Twice feed planting using organic matter (infusion of chicken manure or manure). The first feeding in 3 weeks after disembarkation. Fertilizers are applied for the second time at the beginning of summer by adding superphosphate to the infusion. It will increase the sugar content in the fruit, making it more tasty.
The last item is optional for fertile soil. There, the culture can grow and produce a good harvest without additional feedings.
If the turnip is attacked by pests, treatment with garlic extract or a fungicide is necessary (Actellic). In case of a disease of culture, bacteriosis, kila, black leg and mosaic will help Quadris or Fundazol.
Whether the roots have ripened, determined by the aerial parts of the plant. If the lower leaves began to wither and dry - it's time to start cleaning. Turnips planted in spring are harvested in June, and sown in the summer in September. It is important to catch up to the real frosts (minus 6 ° C), otherwise the fruit will freeze, become sluggish and unsuitable for storage. Store turnips in the cellar, laying in a single layer (preferably on the boards). Also, the fruits are well preserved in a trench in the garden, provided that it is covered.
Turnips have high yields: from 1 hectare up to 150 centners of fruits can be obtained, in particular, fodder varieties.
Thus, the cultivation of turnip and care for him is almost no different from planting turnips or radish. By choosing a suitable place for him and ensuring the necessary conditions for growth, you can collect a good harvest of succulent root crops. And you can regale them not only on your own, but also share them with animals from the farm.
When and how to plant turnip seeds in seedlingsTurnip is not difficult to grow, so it is often planted with seeds immediately in open ground. If you have a late spring or you want an early harvest, then try to grow seedlings. To discard bad or empty seeds, they are dipped in salt water. Empty seeds will float, and good seeds will settle to the bottom.
Before planting, it is also recommended to disinfect the material in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After that, the seeds need to soak, swollen, they quickly sprout. When sowing turnips to seedlings, you can adjust yourself about a month and a half before planting in open ground. More accurate dates depend on when you want to harvest.
The turnip seeds are small, so when sowing they are mixed with sand for even sowing. It is best to sow in peat cups, so as not to damage the plant when landing in open ground. After sowing, the seeds are sprinkled with sand with a centimeter layer, sprayed and covered with film, put in a warm room.
The optimum temperature for seedlings from 5 to 15 degrees Celsius, it is desirable that the place was shaded. After the appearance of the first shoots they are thinned out, leaving the strongest ones.Care for turnip seedlings is watering and carefully loosening the soil. Young seedlings can be fed complex mineral fertilizer. Two weeks before transplanting in open ground spend hardening seedlings. Seedlings for an hour are taken out on the balcony or on the street, gradually increasing the time of maintenance on the street up to a day.
How to plant seedlings on the siteFor planting, prepare the pits at a distance of 30 cm from each other; observe the width of the rows between rows up to 60 cm. Peat cups of seedlings put in the holes, sprinkle with soil and pour. After the moisture has settled, grind the bed with peat.
How to waterWith watering you need to be careful - because of the lack of water, the pulp will taste bitter, because of its excess it will become watery and tasteless. Abundant watering is needed during the period of active growth, then the water rate is reduced. Optimal watering should be no more than two times a week. When drought often, with heavy plantings look at the soil moisture.
What to feed
Feed turnips are twice fed with organic fertilizer - a solution of chicken manure or infusion of slurry.
In July, superphosphate is added to the organic solution so that the roots are sweeter. Not bad add fertilizing manganese, boron and copper. It is desirable to combine them with irrigation, the soil after the procedure should be loosened.
When to harvest and store turnip roots
Turnip roots are harvested at the end of June. It is advisable to clean as soon as ripening, since turnips are not stored in the ground for a long time. It is better for digging to use forks, holding turnips for tops. If you have done summer sowing, harvest will begin by the end of September.For storage of turnip in the winter, fruits are picked tight without damage. The tops of them are cut off under the base, leaving one and a half centimeters. Storage room should have a temperature range from 0 to 2˚С and humidity up to 90%. Alternatively, you can dig a trench and, having laid the fruit, sprinkle it with peat on top and cover with a moisture-proof material.
How to deal with pests and turnip diseases
Turnip is a cabbage plant of the cruciferous family. Diseases and pests are practically the same as those of all cruciferous and cabbage plants, so turnips cannot be planted after cabbage, radish, turnips. Compliance with crop rotation is the first measure to prevent plant diseases.
Diseases amenable to treatment, retreat when treated with fungicides. With diseases such as keel and fomoz, diseased plants should be removed from the garden to avoid contamination of the rest of the planting.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to disinfect the planting material and fertilize these unusual plants in the garden with potash and phosphorus-potassium compounds, which enhances the immunity of the roots.Insect parasites attacking turnips: cabbage fly, sacral flea, cabbage aphid, bugs and caterpillars. Insects eat turnip leaves, which naturally affects the further development of the plant.
In the case of caterpillars, they will have to be assembled by hand, and then treated with a soap solution. You can rid turnips of other pests with the help of folk remedies. From aphids helps broth tops of tomatoes, onions and garlic. From bedbugs and fleas - a decoction of the same tops, dandelion infusion, hot peppers and wood ash.
Turnip is an unusual plant for us, but nonetheless useful and tasty. Due to the low calorie turnips - a godsend for those who suffer from excess weight.
Biological features of turnips like plants
Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) belongs to the cabbage family. This is a biennial plant. In the first year, root crops and a rosette of leaves are formed; in the second year, the plant blooms and forms seeds. Turnip seeds are round, smooth, small, brown in color. The mass of 1 thousand seeds is 1.5-3.8 g. They remain viable for up to 5 years.
Turnip - the most cold-resistant plant of the roots. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-3 ° C. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 8-10 ° C. Young plants withstand frosts of up to -6 ° C, adults - up to -8 ° C. Early ripening varieties are less resistant to frost than late ripening ones.
In Russia, mostly grown varieties of turnips of the European subspecies. The shape of the roots they can be flat, rounded, oval and elongated. The outer color of the roots is yellow or white, and in some cases the head of the root can be violet or green. Pulp of root crops - yellow or white. The bark is thin, smooth. Root crops are immersed in the soil for one third or half of their length. The leaves are dissected, less often whole, pubescent, but they are smooth. Root mass from 200 grams to half a kilo.
In varieties of turnip of the European subspecies, roots are used for food, both raw and after cooking.
Recently become popular varieties of turnip Japanese subspecies. The plants form smooth, beautiful, round or flat-rounded root vegetables 5–20 cm in diameter with white color. The leaves are whole.
Japanese turnip roots have a less pronounced European flavor. They accumulate up to 17 mg% of vitamin C, a number of other valuable components. Differ in precocity.
Along with root vegetables, many varieties of the Japanese subspecies also use leaves for food. Their leaf plates are thin and delicate, characterized by a significant content of ascorbic acid (up to 75 mg%), carotene (1.8 mg%), and mineral substances.
There are leafy forms of Japanese turnip. Plants form a shallow root crop and a well-developed leaf rosette consisting of large, undressed leaves. This green product contains up to 75 mg% ascorbic acid, then 3.3 mg% carotene.
In the republics of Central Asia, local varieties of a subtype of Afghan turnip are grown. These root crops are flat-round, with red or white bark.Afghan turnips содерж to content ↑
Choice of turnip
We usually grow varieties of both old Russian selection (Petrovskaya) and Japanese (Geisha). In addition to these varieties recommended by the State Register, the varieties are Mayskaya yellow green-headed, Milan white violet-head, Golden ball, Snow Maiden, and others.Turnip Petrovskaya ↑ to content
Cultivation of turnips - optimal conditions
Turnip - light-loving plant. Good illumination contributes to the accumulation of vitamin C root crops. It places high demands on light in the initial period of growth. This plant is a long day.
The optimum temperature for growing, root growth - 15-20 ° C. Low positive temperatures provoke the flowering of plants.
For normal turnip growth, sufficient moisture in the soil and air is necessary. It is particularly demanding on soil moisture during the period of germination and the beginning of the formation of leaves, as well as before harvesting. Watering in these terms has a positive effect on the taste and yield of root crops.
Suitable for the cultivation of turnips are loamy and sandy soils, cultivated peatlands. It tolerates increased acidity of the soil. Grades of turnip with flat root vegetables put up with a small arable layer (15-18 cm).
The best predecessors are crops under which organic fertilizers are applied: cucumber, zucchini, tomato, legumes, potatoes, corn. It is not necessary to grow turnip in acidified areas, after cabbage. Turnips and other cultures of the cabbage family should return to their former place no earlier than 4 years later.
Turnips have a significant need for batteries.
Nitrogen is required throughout the growing period, it contributes to an increase in protein content in root vegetables. When it is abundant, the growing season increases, and the quality and quality of the product decreases. In the first stages of cultivation, the growth of the root is important phosphorus nutrition.
Фосфор стимулирует рост корней, повышает устойчивость растений к неблагоприятным условиям, повышает сахаристость корнеплодов.
Калий способствует накоплению овощем протеина, углеводов, аскорбиновой кислоты.
Для нормального роста и развития растений также важны кальций, магний, бор, медь, марганец.
Посадка репы — агротехника
Turnip is a ripening crop that allows you to sow it several times per season. Mostly it is grown in two, less often - three terms. For summer consumption, seeds are sown in spring - in Kuban at the end of March - April, and in central Russia - the end of April and the beginning of May. Harvest is ready in 60-70 days.
July sowing is acceptable for autumn use; the growing period is 50-60 days. To lay in winter storage, sowing is carried out in late July-early August, the harvest is harvested after 70-75 days.
When spring sowing, soil begins to be prepared in autumn. Carry out a autumn perekopka with the introduction of the necessary fertilizer. In the spring, deep loosening (up to 20 cm) with the introduction of the remaining part of fertilizers is carried out. For summer sowing, the soil is dug up to a depth of 20-22 cm, watered before sowing (15-20 l of water per 1 m 2.
Turnips can be grown on a flat surface (in summer) or on ridges or ridges (in spring). The distance between the rows is 30 cm.
It is grown 2-3rd culture after the introduction of manure. If no organic matter is added, then 2-3 kg / m 2 of humus are given under the crawl. Phosphate and potash fertilizers are applied in the fall (2/3 doses) and under pre-sowing treatment (1/3 doses). Nitrogen fertilizers are fed in the spring. Approximate doses of fertilizers: urea - 10-15 g / m 2, superphosphate - 30-40 g / m 2, potassium chloride - 15-20 g / m 2. If necessary, conduct liming soil.
Seed preparation for sowing includes sizing and soaking. For convenience, uniformity of sowing the seeds are mixed with sand or a mixture of sand with superphosphate. In the marked rows make grooves 1.5-2 cm deep, which, if necessary, moisturize. Sowing with irrigation is especially important during summer and autumn growing periods.
The seeding rate is 1-0.15 g / m 2. Depth of seeding is 1-2 cm. It is also possible to sow in a nested way, 2-3 seeds per nest with subsequent thinning. Shoots usually appear on the 4-7 day, depending on the temperature.
Care of crops includes the fight against soil crust, for which they spend a small, 3-5 cm, loosening. For the entire period of cultivation spend 3-5 inter-row treatments.
Prior to the formation of three true leaves on plants, they are thinned. The distance between plants in the range of 6-8 cm (with summer crops - up to 10 cm).
On 1 m 2 place about 48 plants.
The soil should be constantly wet, irrigation rate of 10-20 liters of oxen per 1 m 2. Watering is recommended to alternate with loosening.
The main points of agro technology of turnip cultivation are:
- the fight with cruciferous flea and cabbage fly,
- ensuring sufficient moisture and purity of the soil,
- ensuring optimal plant density.
Harvesting and storage of turnips
For summer consumption, roots are picked selectively when reaching a diameter of 6-8 cm. For autumn and winter consumption, turnips are removed before the onset of frost in one go. Plants pull out of the soil, immediately pruned leaves. The yield is 2-5 kg / m 2.Turnip Snow Globe
Turnip is well kept in winter. The optimal storage temperature is 0-1 ° С, the optimum air humidity is 90-95%. Root crops are sprinkled with wet sand or peat, they can also be stored in plastic bags. All this allows you to provide yourself with fresh root vegetables for the whole year.
Planting and care for turnips (in brief)
- Landing: turnip for food in the summer time sown at the end of April, and for storage - in the first decade of July. Seedlings of turnip are sown in seedlings in early April, and seedlings are planted in the open ground from mid to late May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: sod-podzolic peatlands or loams with a pH of 5.0-6.5.
- Watering: plentiful, at the rate of 5-6 liters of water per 1 m², 1-2 times a week.
- Top dressing: on scanty soil - 2 times per season with a solution of bird droppings (1:20) or mullein (1:10). In June or July, superphosphate is added to the solution, which increases the sugar content of the roots.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: spring cabbage and sprout flies, wavy and cruciferous flea, cabbage moth, aphid, rape bugs and tsvetoyedy.
- Diseases: kila, bel, mosaic, black leg and vascular bacteriosis.
Vegetable turnip - Description
In the first year of life, the turnip forms a root crop and a rosette of leaves, and in the second year - flowers and seeds. The leaves of the plant of fodder varieties may be pubescent, and salad varieties are distinguished by smooth leaves. The shape of the root can be cylindrical, spherical, rounded or rounded elongated. The color of the turnip rhizome, depending on the variety of the plant, can be yellowish, white, violet or combine any of these flowers in one root crop. Yellow flowers of turnip, blooming in the second year, are collected in a brush. The fruit is an elongated pod with black or dark red seeds. Turnip is a relative of such crops as turnip, rutabaga, radish, radish, daikon, mustard, horseradish and all kinds of cabbage. Currently, many table varieties of this tasty and healthy culture have been bred. We will tell you when to sow turnips for seedlings and when to plant turnips in open ground so that they do not die from return frost, how to grow turnips in the garden, what types of turnips exist, how and when to collect them, where and how to store them, and also This valuable food and fodder culture has useful properties.
Sowing turnip seeds.
Planting turnips and care for them are simple and easy. Spring sowing of turnips in the ground carried out in late April or early May, and summer - in the first decade of July. Growing turnips through seedlings begin in early April. Small seeds are mixed with coarse sand at a ratio of 1:10 and sown in peat pots, then sprinkled with a layer of sand 1-1.5 cm thick, carefully sprayed from a fine spray and, covered with glass or film, placed in a warm place.
When planting turnips in the ground.
Transplantation of seedlings into the open ground is made when spring return frost is avoided - from the middle to the end of May. To the question "When to plant turnips in Siberia?" We answer: when the steady warm weather comes. Since turnip is very much in need of moisture, choose a sunny or slightly shaded place on a lowland area. The best predecessors for turnips are beets, strawberries, winter crops and spring crops and annual grasses, and after cruciferous crops it is possible to grow on a turnip site no earlier than after 4 years.
Soil for turnip.
The most suitable plant loam and sod-podzolic peat with a pH of 5.0-6.5 pH. The soil in the garden should be prepared as early as autumn: under digging to a depth of 20-25 cm, make rotted manure in the amount of one bucket per 3 m² and one glass of wood ash or one and a half cup of Nitrophoska per 1 m². Do not use fresh manure for fertilizer - from it the root of the root may darken and lose its taste, and the skin will crack.
How to plant a turnip in open ground.
Dig holes at a distance of 20–30 cm, observing 40–60 cm wide aisles. Carefully remove the watered seedlings from the cups together with the earthy clod, put them in the hole, cover it with soil, compact it around the seedlings and pour it. Seedlings grown in peat pots can not be removed from them, but placed in the hole directly with the dishes. When water is absorbed, grind the bed with a layer of peat.
How to grow a turnip.
Planting and care of turnips in the open field are carried out according to the same rules as the cultivation of turnips or turnips - you have to water the garden, loosen the soil on it, in time to remove weeds and make additional feeding. Loosening to a depth of 8 cm and weeding is carried out after watering or rain. Before the first loosening, it is advisable to sprinkle a bed of ashes or mustard to scare off cruciferous flea. If you sowed turnip seeds directly into the ground, then as soon as the seedlings appear 2-3 leaves, it is necessary to thin them.
Watering the turnip.
Growing turnips and caring for them provide, in the first place, timely watering of the plant, since root crops acquire bitterness from lack of moisture. At the same time, excessive moisture makes them watery. Watering turnips need abundant, but the water should not wash away the soil from the top of the root, as this makes it green and loses its nutritional value. The water consumption at the initial stage of growth is 5-6 l per m² of beds, and from the moment of fruit formation the rate should be reduced to 3-4 l per unit area. The frequency of watering 1-2 times a week, although the weather may make adjustments to the schedule.
Top dressing turnip.
On scanty soils, turnips are twice fed with organic matter twice a season — a solution of chicken manure (1:20) or slurry (1:10), adding superphosphate to the organic solution in June or July to increase the sugar content of the roots. Turnip responds well to additional feeding manganese, copper and boron. Fertilizers are applied to moist soil, and after the solution is absorbed, the soil in the garden bed should be loosened. If you grow turnips in fertile and well-fertilized soil, then you can not add top dressing.
Turnip Pests and Diseases
Like all other cruciferous crops, turnips can suffer from diseases such as kela, belle, mosaic, black leg, and vascular bacteriosis. Of the pests, the most dangerous for turnip can be considered flies - spring cabbage and sprout, as well as wavy and cruciferous flea, cabbage moth, aphids and bug, rapeseed bug and tsvetoeda. Detailed information about these diseases and pests can be found in articles devoted to the cultivation of turnips, daikon, swede and other plants of the Cabbage family, which are already posted on our website.
You can cope with turnip fungal diseases by treating the area with fungicides - Fundazole, Quadris, Fitosporin and other drugs of similar action. There are no funds from diseases such as mosaics, so sick specimens should be immediately removed and burned. As for pest control, planting dust with plants is effective against fleas, and other insects need to be destroyed with insecticides - Aktellik, Aktar and similar preparations. But the most reliable protection of turnips from diseases and pests is the strict observance of crop rotation, agrotechnics of culture and timely care.
Turnip harvesting and storage
On average, turnip ripening takes 24 weeks from the time of sowing. When technical ripeness is reached, the lower leaves of the turnip turn yellow, wither and dry. Turnips sown in spring are harvested from the end of June as they mature. These roots are not stored for a long time. And root crops for winter storage, depending on the variety, are harvested in September or October. Do not allow freezing of root crops - at a temperature of -6 ºC they become flabby and lose their keeping quality.
When harvesting, root crops are pulled out or undermined, removed, cleaned from the ground, cut tops of the tops, leaving only about 2 cm, and laid under a shed to dry. For storage, only whole, healthy and dry root crops are suitable with no signs of mechanical damage, disease or pest damage. Keep turnips in storage at a temperature of 0 to 2 ºC and air humidity within 85-90%, putting the roots on the flooring of the boards. It is possible to dig a trench up to 1 m deep in the garden in the direction from south to north, put turnip roots in it, sprinkle them with dry earth or peat and cover with moisture-proof material on top.
Types and varieties of turnips
Turnip varieties are divided into yellow and white ebony. The difference is that the roots with yellow flesh contain more dry matter than those with white flesh, and they are better stored, but white meat varieties are more productive. The best varieties of turnip with yellow flesh are:
- – Long bortfeld - variety with underdeveloped tops. The leaves are bright green, raised. The elongated yellow root is immersed in the soil at half the length and is pulled out with difficulty, since it has branched roots. The flesh is yellow, medium juicy and excellent taste,
- – Finnish bortfeld - variety with strong green tops and raised leaf stalks. Root crop of dark color, half immersed in the soil, has many roots and is poorly extracted from the ground. The flesh of this variety is yellow, juicy and tasty,
- – Greystone - A variety with an average amount of tops and raised green and yellow leaves on yellow petioles. The root crop, rounded and flattened from above, is recessed by a quarter, in the part protruding from the ground it is greenish, scaly, and yellow in the lower part. It has few roots, so it is easily removed from the soil. The flesh is yellow, feeble and low in flavor - a typical turnip fodder,
- – Yellow violet - variety with less developed tops and raised bright green leaves on purple petioles. A round-oblate root vegetable, dark purple above and yellow at the bottom, is pulled out without considerable effort. The flesh is yellow, tasty, but weak,
- – Yellow tankard - variety with strongly developed tops and half-raised green leaves on green petioles. An elongated root crop, green at the top, yellow at the bottom, overgrown with roots, immersed in the ground at half the length, therefore it is difficult to remove. The flesh is juicy, dark, good taste.
The best varieties of turnip with white flesh:
- – Ostersundom Turnip (Ostersundom) - variety with underdeveloped tops and half-raised green leaves on purple petioles. The elongated root crop is purple on top, white at the bottom, half-length deepened and overgrown with roots, therefore it is removed with effort. The flesh is white, of medium taste with bitterness,
- – Six Week Turnip - variety with underdeveloped tops and raised bright green leaves with light green petioles. The greenish in the upper part and the white in the lower rounded, slightly flattened root crop is recessed into the ground by a quarter of the volume, has a small number of roots, therefore it is easily removed. The flesh is white, juicy and of excellent taste,
- – Norfolk white round - a variety with highly developed tops and semi-raised green leaves on purple petioles. The root crop is rounded, flattened from the top and bottom, purple, and the color intensity is stronger in the underground part. The root crop is immersed in the ground only one fifth of the length, therefore it is easily pulled out. The flesh is white, juicy, good taste,
- – Round Redhead - Turnip with developed tops and raised leaves on purple petioles. The rounded-flattened root crop, dark purple at the top and white at the bottom, is immersed in the soil for a third of the length, therefore it can be easily removed. The flesh is medium juicy and good taste,
- – White ball - variety of new, with a rounded root, sitting in the ground to the middle of the length. Ground part of the root purple color, underground - white. The flesh is white and juicy.
Useful properties of turnip.
The main components of turnip, positively affecting human health, are essential oils, organic acids and flavonoids. Referring to dietary foods, turnips help get rid of constipation, cleansing the intestines from toxins, regulates metabolism, strengthens the immune system and improves appetite. As a bactericidal agent, turnip has a positive effect on the intestinal microflora, improves the digestive process, cleanses the body of parasites. Anti-inflammatory effect of the product is manifested in the treatment of upper respiratory tract, diseases of the throat and oral cavity - for example, the expectorant effect of turnip allows you to quickly clear the lungs of mucus in bronchitis.
The essential oils contained in the turnip improve the activity of the circulatory system and purify the blood of cholesterol, and its copper and iron contribute to the replenishment of blood with hemoglobin, preventing the development of anemia.
Another feature of turnip is its ability to lower blood sugar levels, preventing wear and loss of blood vessel elasticity and helping to lose weight. And potassium compounds contained in the plant remove excess fluid and sodium salts from the body, which has a positive effect on the urinary system, bones and heart.
The phytocomponents contained in the turnip are able to serve as a prophylactic against cancer, activating the antioxidant defense mechanism of the body.
Brief description of cultivation
- Sowing. For the consumption of turnip in food in the summer it is sown in the last days of April, and for winter storage in the first decade of July. Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in early April, while the seedlings are transplanted into open soil in the second half of May.
- Illumination. The site should be well lit.
- Priming. Suitable for cultivation is sod-podzolic peat or loam with pH 5.0–6.5.
- Watering. It is necessary to water bushes plentifully 1 or 2 times in 7 days, at the same time from 5 to 6 liters of water are taken for 1 square meter of land.
- Fertilizer. When grown on poor soil, the plant is fed twice during the season, for this purpose, use mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20). In June or July, the nutrient solution is mixed with superphosphate, it helps to increase the sugar content of root crops.
- Breeding. Generative (seed) method.
- Harmful insects. Весенние капустные и ростковые мухи, волнистые и крестоцветные блошки, капустные огневки, тля, рапсовые клопы и цветоеды.
- Заболевания. Кила, бель, мозаика, черная ножка и сосудистый бактериоз.
На протяжении первого года роста у турнепса формируется корнеплод и листовая розетка, при этом на второй год у кустов появляются цветки и семена. In lettuce varieties, leafy plates are smooth, while in forage, they are sometimes pubescent. Root crops have a spherical, rounded long, cylindrical and rounded shape, they can be painted in white, pale yellow and purple or in one rhizome any of these shades can be combined. Clustery inflorescences consist of yellow flowers, flowering begins in the second year of growth. The fruit is an elongated pod, inside of which there are seeds of a dark red or black color. Such a plant is considered a relative of the following crops: turnips, swede, radish, radishes, daikon, mustard, horseradish, and all kinds of cabbage. To date, there are a large number of table varieties of turnips.
Growing turnips from seeds
Growing a turnip on your site is quite simple. In the spring, seeds are sown in open soil in the last days of April or the first in May, and in summer in the first decade of July. Seeding turnip seeds in seedlings is carried out in early April. The seeds of such a plant are very small, so before sowing they are recommended to be combined with coarse sand (1:10). Sowing is carried out in peat pots, then the seeds are covered with a thin layer of sand, the thickness of which should be from 10 to 15 mm. Crops are moistened from a fine sprayer, at the same time containers from above cover with a film or glass, and then they are cleaned in a warm place.
Growing turnip seedlings
When seedlings appear, the most powerful of them should be left in the tank, while the extra ones should be pinched off. Pulling them out is not recommended, because of this, the root of a developed plant can be injured. To care for the seedlings of such a culture should be exactly the same as for seedlings turnips, turnips or radishes.
What time to plant
Seedlings of turnips are transplanted into the open soil after the spring frosts return behind. This time, as a rule, falls on the second half of May. In mid-latitudes, seedlings are planted on a bed only after warm weather has been established.
Turnip is a moisture-loving crop, so for its landing it is necessary to choose a well-lit or slightly shaded area, located in the valley. Beet, strawberries, winter and summer crops, and annual herbaceous plants are good predecessors of this crop. In the area where representatives of the Cruciferous family were previously grown, it is possible not earlier than four years later.
It is best for such a culture to be suitable soils such as sod-podzolic peat or loam, while the pH should be from 5.0 to 6.5. The soil should be prepared in the autumn, it should be dug up to a depth of 20 to 25 centimeters, and 1.5 st. Nitrofoski or 1 tbsp. wood ash and 1/3 part of the bucket of rotted manure per 1 square meter of land. It is impossible to introduce fresh manure into the soil, because of this, the pulp of the root crop loses its taste and becomes dark, and cracks will appear on the peel.
Rules for planting in open ground
Prepare the landing holes, while the distance between them should be from 20 to 30 centimeters, and the distance between the rows - from 40 to 60 centimeters. Seedlings before planting must be watered abundantly. Then the plant, together with a lump of earth, is carefully removed from the container and placed in a prepared hole for planting. The hole should be filled with soil, then it is well tamped around the plants and watered abundantly. If for growing seedlings peat pots were used, they are planted directly in them in the open soil. After the liquid is fully absorbed into the ground, its surface must be covered with a layer of mulch (peat).
What is different from turnips?
First, turnips are usually smaller than a swede, the size of a golf ball, with a creamy white, smooth skin. The rutabaga is much larger, its rough skin is creamy white and partly purple, with a characteristic “collar”. Although there is a perception that rutabaga is a product of Russian, not Scandinavian selection, one thing is clear - this is a northern vegetable, which significantly loses its taste in a hot climate.
At present, new, and, as they say, leading varieties ahead of their predecessors have begun to appear: Lizi, Marian, Ruby. But little is known about them, and getting them is not always that easy. Therefore, the Krasnoselsky variety is considered the most popular among Russian gardeners - a strong middling in all respects.
How to grow?
Neutral and acidic soil is best suited for turnips.:
- cultivated peatlands.
For this plant, it is better to pick a wet soil., but, at the same time, do not allow water to stagnate, so clay and sandy soils should either be excluded or diluted with peat.
The main rule when planting rutabagas is not to plant it after (for at least three years) closely related plants, such as turnips, cabbage, all types of radish, but tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes are considered to be quite good predecessors for this crop.
Prepare beds for swede since the fall by fertilizer:
- humus or compost: 2-4 kg per 1 sq. m,
- 10 grams of ammonium nitrate,
- 15 grams of superphosphate,
- 15g of potassium salt.
Vegetable planted in two ways: seedlings and immediately into the ground.
Seeds are sown in pots or containers with a special earthen mixture to a depth of 2 cm. Holes must be present in the dishes at the bottom. Seedlings swede should be grown in exactly the same way as any other: watering, spraying and fertilizing. Boxes with seedlings can be installed directly at home on the windowsill. The first shoots will appear within a week.
With the appearance of three sheets of seedlings, about a month later, the plants are transplanted into a garden bed. Planted swede followed in cloudy and cool weather. Two weeks after transplanting, fertilizer is produced with liquid manure, and after the root crop is formed - with mineral fertilizer. Sowing in the ground
Swede sow, on average, at the beginning of May, when the top layers of the soil are wet, to a depth of about 2.5 cm and with a distance between rows of 40 cm. For example, on a bed a meter wide, two parallel grooves are made, keeping a distance from each other. The seeds of this vegetable are small, therefore they are used sparingly: only half a gram of seed is spent on a bed of 5 squares. Following the grooves are leveled, mulched with peat (or other mulching material) and watered.
Open field maintenance
- When the seedlings become stronger and obviously begin to interfere with each other - it is time to thin out 4 cm apart, and when the plants have four leaves, they are thinned again to a distance of 15 cm.
- One of the main secrets of successful landing or swede sowing is wet soil, therefore the grooves should be moistened beforehand. In order for moisture to reach the seeds, the beds are compacted, and after a few days they destroy the crust formed on the soil.
- During the season, for swede, two procedures for loosening between the rows are required, for the first time to a depth of about 10 cm, for the next 5 cm, and also 2-3 weedings.
- It may happen that on the garden as if extra plants are being formed - this is not scary, they can be safely transplanted to another place, the main thing: together with a piece of land. But the strongest plants should be left on the main bed, forming rows in a checkerboard pattern.
- In the middle of summer, it is best to fertilize swede with a solution of manure: 1:10 (where one part of the litter, 10 parts of water), with a calculation of about 10 liters of solution per 5 squares. This solution can be poured between the rows of a regular watering can without a nozzle.
- When the growing season comes - this is the period of the most active growth of the plant, the swede needs to be watered several times a week, as well as a little spud.
- Swede - a very moisture-loving plant, so during dry periods it is worth watering at the rate of 2 liters per 1 m2, and later 7-8 liters, while moistening the soil to the full depth, and not just at the tops.
Common mistakes in farming
Mainly, this is the choice of soil and place for a bed (it is worthwhile to dwell on the northern part of the plot), as well as the balance in irrigation: the disadvantage - the root crop becomes hard and bitter, too much watering - the fruits lose their taste and become watery. Therefore, it is better to water the beds with turnips more often, but try not to flood them.
Collection and storage
Starting to grow turnips, you should determine the objectives: whether it will be a product for cooking, or a feed option.
Harvesting vegetables produced before the onset of frost, cutting off tops and small roots. It is best to store swede in cellars in boxes, sprinkling root vegetables with river sand or peat, at a temperature not exceeding 4 ° C. If the site is located in the southern latitudes, with warm winters, the swede can be dug as needed.
Diseases and pests
The biggest drawback of swede - low resistance to pests and diseases. The main enemies of this plant are:
- Cruciflo flea.
They fight it with the help of wood ash, pouring between rows. Cabbage Fly.
This pest drives a mixture of naphthalene and sand, in a ratio of 1:10, which also processes inter-row spans, and repeat the procedure after two weeks.
How can you avoid problems?
There is no universal answer to this question, but there are a couple of tricks that should be noted:
- Minerals. Phosphorus increases sweetness in the swede, and if the plant lacks boron, its flesh becomes brown and fresh.
- To avoid plant disease, the seeds are subjected to heat treatment: the water is heated to 50 ° C and the seeds are soaked in it for half an hour, then dried in a cloth and mixed with calcined sand.
Rutabaga is an excellent source of vitamin C and fiber, folic acid and potassium. British social research recognized this vegetable as one of the most dangerous (along with other hard fruits: pumpkin and turnip) - still, after all, one fifth of the respondents indicated that it was the one who suffered in the kitchen. But these difficulties, as well as not the simplest cultivation, should not stop you, because this is the case when all efforts pay off.
Pest and turnip disease control
In the first stages of turnip growth, before the formation of the first pair of true leaves, which is about 10 days after emergence, the cruciferous flea and cabbage fly are most dangerous for plants. From cabbage flies, it is recommended to apply drugs Bazudin or Medvetoks to the soil. From the cruciferous flea beetle, Spark helps well (10 g tablet per 10 g of water). If you do not take appropriate measures, in hot, dry weather, cruciferous flea can completely destroy the seedlings. Against the cruciferous flea, it is important to keep the crop area moist.
Of the more radical measures to deal with flea and cabbage flies, it is possible to recommend dusting the area with lime, tobacco dust or ash.
Of the diseases turnip can be affected by the keel and mucous bacteriosis. To avoid this, when sowing, it is necessary to water the soil with a solution of colloidal sulfur, adhere to crop rotation.
When growing turnip in open soil, it is necessary to care for it in the same way as turnip or turnip. This plant needs to ensure systematic watering, weeding, fertilizer and loosening the soil surface.
The soil surface is loosened to a depth of 80 mm, while removing all the weeds. This procedure is recommended after rain or watering. Before loosening the surface of the bed for the first time, it is recommended to fill it with a layer of mustard or wood ash, this will allow to scare the cruciferous flea.
If the sowing of seeds was carried out directly into the open soil, then after the seedlings develop 2 or 3 true leaf plates, they will need thinning.
To grow turnip in open soil was successful, it must be watered in a timely manner, as due to the lack of roots, the taste of root crops becomes bitter. If you water the bushes excessively strong, then the roots will become watery. Watering such a culture should be plentiful, while trying to make sure that the water does not erode the soil from the top of the root crop, because because of this, it begins to turn green, and its nutritional value is noticeably reduced. While the seedlings are young, when irrigating, 1 to 5 liters of land is taken from 5 to 6 liters, and when roots start to form, the amount of water is reduced to 3-4 liters of water. On average, turnips are watered 1 or 2 times in 7 days, but the amount of watering is strongly influenced by the weather.
When grown in poor soil, such a plant should be fed 2 times during the season, for this purpose organic fertilizer is used: slurry solution (1:10) or chicken manure (1:20). At the same time, in June or July superphosphate must be added to the nutrient solution, this will increase the sugar content of root crops. Such a culture responds well to additional fertilizing with copper, manganese and boron. The nutrient solution should be applied to the moistened soil, and when it is absorbed into the ground, its surface must be loosened. If the culture is grown in nutrient soil, in which all the necessary fertilizers have been applied, then it is not necessary to feed turnips.
Best Yellow Meat Varieties
- Long bortfeld. The plant in this variety is very poorly developed. Raised sheet plates painted in rich green color. Yellow root has an elongated shape, it is immersed in the ground only ½ part. Pulling it is quite difficult, since it has branched roots. Yellow medium juicy pulp has a high taste.
- Finnish bortfeld. The plant is painted in a rich green color, with petiole leaf plates being raised. The dark root crop is immersed in the ground for ½ part, it is difficult to pull it out of the ground, as it has a large number of roots. Juicy and yellow pulp has a high taste.
- Greystone. Shrubs have an average amount of tops. Yellow or green raised leaf plates have scapes of yellow color. The round crop is flattened on top, it is buried by ¼ part in the ground. The part that is located above the soil is pale green scaly, while the bottom is colored yellow. The roots of the root a little, in this regard, it can be very easy to pull out of the soil. The variety is a typical fodder turnip, its yellow flesh is unproductive and unacceptable.
- Yellow violet. Plant in the bushes underdeveloped. The color of the raised leaf plates is rich green, and their petioles are purple. The shape of the root is rounded oblate, the upper part is dark purple and the bottom yellow. It is very easily removed from the earth. Weak yellow flesh is very tasty.
- Yellow tankard. The bushes in the bushes are highly developed, half-raised leafy plates are colored green, as are their petioles. The upper part of the elongated root is green, and the lower is yellow, with many roots on its surface. The root crop is buried in the ground by ½ part, in connection with this it is folded to pull out. Dark and juicy pulp is quite tasty.
Popular varieties of turnip with white flesh
- Osterzundom (Esterzundom). The bushes of the bushes are poorly developed, the half-raised leaf plates are painted green, and their petioles are purple. The upper part of the elongated root is purple, and the lower is white. It is buried in the ground for ½ of the length, on its surface there are many roots, in connection with this it is quite difficult to pull it out of the soil. The taste of white flesh is medium with a slight bitterness.
- Six week. The bushes in the bushes are poorly developed, the saturated green raised leaf plates have greenish petioles. A slightly flattened rounded root vegetable has a white bottom and a pale green top. It is buried in the soil on the part and it has few roots, therefore it is very easy to pull it out of the soil. Juicy white pulp has a high taste.
- Norfolk white round. In the bushes, tops are highly developed, half-raised leaf plates of green color have purple petioles. The rounded root crop is flattened immediately above and below, it is purple, while its lower part is of a more intense color. The root crop is buried in the ground only 1/5 of the part, in connection with this it is very easy to pull it out of the ground. Juicy and white flesh is quite tasty.
- Round Redhead. The plant has developed bushes, raised leaf plates have purple petioles. The shape of the root crops is rounded-flattened, while their upper part is dark purple and the lower part is white. It is buried in the ground at 1/3 part, while it can be easily pulled out of the ground. Tasty pulp has medium juiciness.
- White ball. This variety has appeared recently, the shape of root crops is rounded, they are buried in the soil by ½ part. The top of the root is purple, and its lower part is white. Juicy flesh has a white color.