Since ancient times, people grow grapes. It has an amazing taste, as well as medicinal properties, for which it is used in medicine. To date, there are about 8 thousand grape varieties, differing in origin, selection methods and biological features. The most fruitful and picky crop in temperate climates is the famous Transformation grape.
Origin of the variety
To maintain youth and beauty to man be sure to include grapes in the diet. It consists of useful vitamins and trace elements, as well as antioxidants (natural substances) that slow down the aging process of cells.
Grapes Transformation refers to varieties that ripen in the early stages. He received recognition of the hybrid variety not so long ago, but already ranks first in the top ten of the best varieties of culture. The grape variety Transfiguration by amateur breeder Viktor Krainov has been developed.
So far, the variety of this crop is not included in State Register of Breeding Achievementsapproved for use. But this does not affect its popularity among gardeners, because the Transformation grape variety has taken the best qualities from the main varieties: the minimum time for harvesting, excellent taste, high and stable yield. The good quality of this variety is that it brings stable and high yields not only in the southern regions, but also where the climate of temperate latitudes prevails.
Description of grapes Transformation
Grown grapes of this variety in the southern part Russia, in the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine. Gardeners living in the central European part of Russia do not cause fear that agrotechnology is aggravated and plants require additional care in the winter, they successfully grow this crop.
Matures plant for as short as possible time from three to three and a half months. The ripening terms may vary in different directions, it all depends on the climatic conditions and the area where this variety grows.
When describing grapes in the first place allocate the size of its berries and clusters. The berries reach a linear size in the longitudinal direction up to 5 cm and have an oblong oval shape. And her weight can be 17‒20 grams. Ripened berries are light ‒ pink and honey sweet. The berry is covered with a thin peel with a whitish coating. Withstand long-distance transport, while not losing the presentation.
Incredible, but by description one grape brush weighs from 1.7 to 3 kilogramsmost often has the shape of a cone. Grapes are characterized by high productivity, so it is used both in fresh form and as a raw material for wine and juice.
Notable technical characteristics of the Transformation variety include:
- Uterine shrub vine is designed to purchase cuttings or stacking layers. On the grape bush grow stepchildren who, if necessary, remove or pinch over 1‒2 leaves. This is done to ensure that the bushes are not thickened processes.
- It is possible to implant cuttings of a hybrid variety to opposite cultures; they have a high percentage of adaptation.
- Nevertheless, the bushes of this variety can reach considerable sizes without grafting.
- Despite the climatic conditions, the yield can reach up to 20 kilograms from one bush.
- Very resistant variety to pest, fungal diseases, viruses.
- The grapes are unpretentious relative to the ground; all that is needed is the good fertility of the soil and plant it in time in the landing pit.
- It often happens that grapes of many varieties give small berries, this phenomenon is called "pea". Only this culture is not located in the "pea", even regardless of the climate of temperate latitudes.
- Can be grown in central Russia, withstands up to 20 degrees of frost.
Pollination occurs without the participation of insects, because the variety has bisexual flowers (which have stamens and pistils). Every light breath of the wind contributes to pollination. This variety of artificial pollination does not require. If gardeners will properly care for this crop, which has many advantages, then they will be rewarded in the form of a rich harvest.
Selection of seedlings and planting
When you buy planting material, be careful, you need to carefully examine it. Saplings of the sort Transformation we check that they are not frozen or over dried, and also there should not be any damage from the disease on them.
It is possible to plant this crop both cuttings and saplings. Have first-grade sapling the root system has a milky color, a perpendicular cut of bright green color and a ground part without damage.
Since the bushes of this plant grow very much, they should be planted according to the scheme 1.5 by 1.5 meters. This takes into account the size of the hole, it should be twice the size of the rhizome. In the recess of the young plant should be placed so that the root, rolling in the trunk (root neck), was on the same level with the ground. To determine correctly where the root neck is, you need to retreat about 3–4 cm above the first root. Before planting seedlings into the ground, the young plant should be dipped into a solution prepared from Humeta fertilizer. The upper part of the roots before planting should be cut.
Transformation grapes planted by grafting, it is possible to apply both young, and already ripened stalks. The most favorable time for vaccination is spring. To graft on it, it must be from 2 to 3 eyes.
Pruning and shaping the bush
Pruning can be done in spring and autumn, but if you prefer spring, then you need to have time before the buds have blossomed. According to the description of this culture is best cut in the fall. Scions that have been cut them easier to cover and they can avoid damage, as well as better endure the winter cold. In spring, the buds on the grapes will open much earlier, this action may contribute to reducing the time to harvest.
Let's analyze how correctly make the formation of a bush of grapes. For this, it is necessary to preserve two processes on the bush in its first year in autumn, which need to be shortened to two buds. The following year, each kidney will give processes, and in the fall they must be shortened. One process will be a shoot of replacement (the stem on which several eyes have been left), and the second will be a vine of fruiting, always 6 to 12 buds are left on it. Systematic pruning must be repeated every year.
In winter, the grape branches bend down to the ground, sprinkle with soil and cover, and what the gardeners themselves decide. In the spring after the shelter is removed, the vine must be tied to the trellis (special design).
Such pruning very effective for grapes Transformation, which is grown not only in central Russia, but also in the southern regions. If you follow all the rules, the result will only please high yield.
Consider in more detail the method of grapes grafting. As already known, you can use a young, as well as a well-matured sprout. In most cases, grafting is done in the spring, but sometimes gardeners graft when the eyes are in a sleeping position (stock).
So that you can get to work without difficulty, you first need to prepare everything you need. For grafting, take a small amount of cuttings ‒ stocks with 23 eyes. Cut the lower part of the process, while under the eye leave a distance of 2 millimeters. After that, the vine should be in aqueous solution for two days. To prepare the solution, we need 1 liter of water and 10 drops of Humate.
If you decide to harvest the cuttings in the autumn, then the preparation procedure itself will be different. It is necessary to lower the process in refluxed paraffin (similar to wax, yellowish fusible substance) and hold no more than 1‒2 seconds, then cooled in cool water. When using this method, moisture and all nutrients are saved, cuttings become more resistant to early autumn frosts.
We take a stock, peel off from all previous branches, after which it is split and placed inside the split cutting. The surface should be extremely smooth. Then, a graft (a plant, a part of which is grafted onto another to impart new qualities to it) is inserted into the stock and is strongly tied; this is necessary in order to compress the denser place where the two parts of the graft and stock are joined.
Proper care of grapes
If you take for comparison other varieties of grapes, then you can see that the variety of this crop is absolutely not fastidious in the care.
What you need to know to ensure the proper care of this variety:
- Once a year the bushes are pruned so that the grape stem has no more than 35 branches.
- The ripe brushes of the plant are quite large, which means that you need to be very careful to ensure that there is no more than one ovary on all processes.
- The plant throughout the season must be sprayed a couple of times with chemicals from the group of pesticides (fungicides), for prophylactic purposes to eliminate fungal diseases.
Observing all the rules of care for this plant, you can get a good and high-quality crop.
Rules that should not be ignored
Neglecting Elementary Rules can greatly reduce yields. Therefore, it is important to know that the variety “Transformation” by its description has its own characteristics. But do not panic, in fact it is an ordinary measure: prevention of diseases, the usual methods of processing different grape varieties.
It is very important that the soil was wet, but you should not overdo it with watering, because the abundance of water can adversely affect the development of this hybrid variety. Watering the plants is necessary conduct at the beginning of flowering and upon its completion.
When drought around the trunk of a bush, it is imperative to dig a notch approximately 5 cm from the place of transition of the roots to the trunk (root collar) to the lower skeletal branch, and periodically fill it with water. To avoid an excess of moisture during groundwater, storm water, you need to make a drainage or drainage channels.
- The rules of mulching varieties.
In the spring and autumn during the transitional periods between summer and winter, the hybrid variety is in great need of mulching, this will help keep moisture and all nutrients in the ground. We spread humus or peat layers in 3 cm. Be sure to pay attention to the size of the diameter of the rhizome of the bush. Mulching is carried out in order to protect against frost before the arrival of winter cold.
Viticulture is difficult: it laborious but very entertaining process. The primary task for the gardener is to obtain a rich grape harvest, but such results can only be achieved if the crop is properly taken care of and the agricultural technology is carried out.
The described Transformation variety is a good choice both for amateur gardeners and for growers with extensive experience who grow raw materials for winemaking. This variety has an excellent taste, and it is quite unassuming when grown. Considered a good competitor for other varieties.
General rules for planting grapes
- The most important for the development of grapes is the correctly chosen soil. Fertile lands: black soil and light soils are exactly what seedlings need.
- In addition, it is necessary to take into account the level of groundwater. If their oscillation reaches the boundaries of 1.5 meters deep, then it is imperative to equip the drainage system.
- An important point is the fertilization of the soil with mineral additives and timely watering.
- Planting grapes involves a scheme of placement of seedlings, in which they receive the maximum amount of lighting and do not violate the mutual growth of the root system.
- When planting grapes at the site, it is necessary to maintain indents from 2 to 2.5 meters.
- When placing seedlings near buildings, the indentation should be at least 0.5 meters.
- The distance from dense and tall trees and shrubs is 0.5-0.7 meters.
How to plant grapes. Common Errors
- Planting seedlings with a weak root system - they can either not take root at all, or be delayed in development. In addition, such shoots are unlikely to give a good harvest.
- The purchase of seedlings of unknown varieties may result in the need to raskorchevki and purchase a new one. In saplings that do not correspond to the climatic zone, the fruits do not have time to ripen during the season, therefore in the future also need to be replaced.
- A common mistake is planting grapes near trees and on the north side of buildings on the site. In this case, the plant will spend all the power to grow, the crop will be low and it will be located on the upper shoots.
- Forming a shallow pit for planting, you need to know that this will limit the seedling in nutrients and affect its development.
- Excessive deepening will slow growth due to the effects of low temperatures in the deep layers of the soil.
- But the shallow deepening will affect the consumption of water by the seedling, and will make it impossible to shelter the vine for the winter.
- The thickening of the grape planting will lead to an increase in the number of fungal diseases, besides the seedlings will fight for water consumption and lighting.
- Planting only female varieties without potential pollinating varieties may result in shredding of the crop. It is recommended to plant one pollinating on six “female” bushes.
Planting young grape saplings is a rather laborious process. Not only is the choice of shoots capable of withstanding climatic conditions and soil properties, but also a high-quality preparation for planting. Observance of all nuances guarantees good indicators of development and fruiting of the future vineyard.
Timing and site selection
Spring - The optimal period for planting hybrid saplings. Training should be planned in September, and landing - with the onset of stable heat. To reduce the risks of nematode and fungal diseases of the plant, the earth should warm up well.
Also at this time it is important to plant grafted material. Until the fall, such a bush will grow and strengthen its roots, which will ensure a comfortable wintering for it.
Preparatory work on the site
Preparations for the spring planting of the vine begin well in advance, even in the fall. Ideally, gardeners should, during this period, decide on the location of the shrub and prepare the soil so that it will sink well over the winter.
It is not recommended to do this in the spring, because the substrate will not have time to cope, it forms many lumps and voids, where the roots will be uncomfortable. A suitable area for the variety "Transformation" will be a place protected from the wind, somewhere near the southern wall of the house or the fence.
When preparing the selected area, you need to make a recess 50 x 50 cm and fill it with the top layer fertile soil.
The lower substrate balls are mixed with equal parts of organic matter (horse manure or chicken droppings can be used) and compost, and also superphosphate granules are added.
In this case, the fertilizer is mixed with organic substances. Then, with a mixture to the top, the dug hole is poured and covered with plastic wrap, securing its edges. Watering the hole is not recommended until the landing.
Stepwise landing process
When planting grape cuttings, the pit prepared from autumn should be re-digged, the rhizome should be lowered into it, straightened, watered and covered with substrate.
At the same time it is necessary to tamp the embankment well in order to fill the voids formed in the roots. Above the ground 2 peepholes should rise, sprinkled with fresh soil on top of them. When rooting grafted seedlings, pay attention to the place of vaccination was not deepened. It should be 3 - 4 cm above the ground.
For mass plantings of vines, observe distance between them in the aisles of 1 - 1.5 meters. In order to facilitate the process, make the markup with a cord and pegs.
After the seedling is in the ground, be sure to water it again and grumble the tree trunk.
This is done in order to ensure the plant effect of the greenhouse and prevent evaporation of moisture. Such a bush will quickly adapt to new conditions and will easily grow.
Treatment and protection from pests and diseases
Among the malicious insects who love to feast on the fruits of the grapes, first of all, it is worth to highlight the wasps. They massively flock to the sweet berries and eat holes in them.
Such clusters lose their appearance and deteriorate. You can save them from the invasion of these sweet teeth by removing the wasp nests in the courtyard and in the nearest territory. Some growers hide brushes in mesh bags or set up special home-made traps from plastic bottles. Be prepared for the fact that the fight with wasps is very time consuming and often inconclusive.
For the purpose of preventive measures against fungal and bacterial diseases of grapes, experts recommend using solutions of fungicides, Bordeaux mixture (1% concentration).
Watering and mulching the soil
When watering plants important sense of proportion. Grapes love moisture, but can not grow in the marshland. Поэтому, увлажняя почву, учитывайте расположение подземных вод. Systematic watering is needed for the bush during the beginning of the growing season and until flowering. Later, when the ovary begins to appear, the procedure should be stopped, resuming watering only during prolonged droughts.
Experienced winegrowers make shovel shallow hole in the circle of the plant to drain excess water.
In order to retain moisture, in the spring and autumn it is necessary to cover the soil around the vine with 3 cm mulch from humus or peat. In summer, the need for such a ball disappears, because it can provoke overheating of the root system.
This factor is key in ensuring abundant fruiting of grapes. In a poor land, a plant will not be able to produce tasty berries in large quantities, and even twice a year. Therefore, the gardener must make some effort, regularly feeding the culture.
Experts do not advise to limit the repetition of mineral complex fertilizing, because the bush has a need for different nutrients that it needs in certain concentrations, depending on the specific stages of development.
In order not to harm the crop, each grower must figure out what, when and why you need to make a vine. For example, nitrogen is responsible for increasing biomass. On this basis, substances containing this element (urea, ammonium nitrate) are introduced in the spring during the initial phases of the growing season, and such supplements are not practiced in the autumn.
When the bushes cover the color, they need podzhivit phosphorus. For this purpose, recommended superphosphate, which contributes to the better development of inflorescences, ovaries and the rapid ripening of berries. Potassium is useful for grapewood and grapes.
Pruning grape stalks should be in the fall or spring before bud break. The cultivation of the vine is practiced on the “Transformation” variety, in which the cut is accounted for after 6-8 eyes. Permissible no more than 28 shoots per plant. Pay attention to the grapes and during flowering. Given the heavy weight of the brushes, do not overload the vine, leave one bunch on each sprout.
Shelter for the winter
After feeding the grapes with copper-containing substances, do not relax. After all, they do not guarantee the bush carefree wintering.
You must do this. Namely: cut 75% of the vine, remove it from the supports and, bending down to the ground, wrap. Some gardeners share the experience of sheltering the grape branches with soil and hay, others cover with sacking.
But taking into account the average frost resistance of the hybrid, it is better to take care of reliable protection and to thoroughly grind the soil in the bore circle.