Currant pruning is an agrotechnical technique that is needed for the proper development of fruit shrubs.
Understanding the goals, rules and subtleties of currant pruning, even novice gardeners will regularly receive good yields.
Starting pruning, should be aware of the purpose of this procedure. Technique pruning, depending on the task will vary.
Pruning currants carried out to:
- to form the correct shape of the bush,
- clean the shrub from damaged and diseased branches,
- to power each branch create the best conditions
- rejuvenate the old bush.
Sanitary pruning - removal of branches damaged by infections and pests will help to improve the currants and increase yields.
Anti-Aging Trimming Procedure allows you to save an adult plant, increase its productivity.
Mistakes made with any type of pruning can lead to diseases of a different nature, one-sided development of the bush and poor fruiting.Currant pruning is carried out to form the correct shape of the bush, clean the damaged and diseased branches, rejuvenate the old bush
During a year allocate several periods for trimming currants. The procedure can be performed in spring, summer, autumn and even in winter.
The timing of trimming should be based. not on the convenience of the gardener, but on the period of vegetative development of the plant.
Is it necessary to trim in the spring?
In early spring, fruit bushes are at rest. Vegetation has not yet begun, there is no active sap flow in the tissues. This is the best time to trim a bush in spring.
The gardener has little time for the procedure in the spring. As soon as the buds begin to bloom en masse - the period of spring pruning is over.
If you do not follow this rule:
- slices will liberally secrete juice, which will not allow wounds to drag on quickly,
- the risk of infection with fungal and bacterial infections increases,
- the bush will be sick for a long time, instead of increasing the leaf mass and forming fruit inflorescences.
In the spring, any type of pruning can be done. Opportunities limit different climatic zones.Spring pruning of currants allows you to increase the yield of the current season and lay the foundation for next year
Sanitary pruning should be carried out in any type of climate. All broken and cracked branches are cut off. Partially removed shoots that are damaged by frost, sun, disease.
Shaping and rejuvenating trim held in this period only in the northern regions. In all others - these procedures are better to postpone to autumn.
Advantages of spring pruning:
- the strength of the plant is directed to more promising branches, the amount of harvest increases, the size of the berries increases,
- lighting is evenly distributed over the vegetative mass, the ripening of the berries in the hands takes place almost simultaneously,
- diseases of the bush are prevented,
- growth of shoots is stimulated, which will bear fruit next year.
Spring pruning allows you to increase the yield of the current season and lay the foundation for the next year.
How to prune berry bushes in spring:
Care after trimming
So that all the circumcision measures bring the expected effect, the bushes should be fertilized, and the ground loosened, though without excessive enthusiasm, in order not to disturb the root system. This will improve the nutritional status of the bush and increase the fruitfulness of the most developed shoots.
Since the removal of branches always means stress for the plant, properly selected dressing allows you to speed up the process of regeneration of the bush (especially for adult black currants). It is recommended to use for this purpose complex mineral additives and organic matter (manure or compost).
Why do we need autumn pruning currants
Unpretentious at first glance, the currant bush begins to develop intensively after the landing of the young shoots, delighting the gardener with its growth and gathering power. After several seasons, a decrease in yield is observed, since The bush of the plant becomes shapeless and bulky. In this regard, the pruning of currants in the fall is a necessity, because the old dried branches become an obstacle to the formation of crown and new fruit-bearing shoots. Planned pruning will extend the life cycle of the bush 4-6 times. It is necessary in order to:
- remove pest or fungus branches,
- increase the number and size of berries,
- optimize the feeding process so that weak or old shoots do not attract valuable substances to themselves,
- form a bush.
Some experienced gardeners use not only autumn, but also summer pruning. They, as a rule, motivate their actions with the following advantages:
- Excess sunlight has a positive effect on the process of photosynthesis of young shoots.
- The risks of plant damage by various fungal infections are reduced almost to zero.
- The intensity of growth of the internal branches of the currant is equal to the indices of the lateral processes, due to which a truly beautiful form is formed.
Which branches should be removed
Pruning in autumn is performed before the onset of the first frost. At this time there is no snow yet. The best time to solve this problem is the end of October and the beginning of November. Plants in this period of the year are the least sick and tolerate all sorts of interventions. In this case, remember that the shoots of zero order are processes that grew out of the ground itself - they are called so during the first year of life. They grow branches of the first, second order, etc. In the autumn, you must delete:
- weak and thin twigs,
- non-bearing branches,
- contaminated and affected by pests,
- shrunken branches
- young shoots, shading the plant.
To get rid of unnecessary processes, especially those that are affected by pests, you will need a set of necessary sharp tools. To give way to healthy branches and form a healthy shrub that will bear fruit well, you will need:
- Secateurs. Used for branches of various ages and sizes. You can use single or double sided pruners.
- Hacksaws Thicker branches perfectly cut, but their teeth should be relatively small.
- Brush cutters. Used for cutting patients and thin twigs. In addition, they are used to give the shrub the desired shape.
- Gardening scissors. With their help, you can cut the branches as smoothly as possible.
- Loppers Equipped with long handles, thanks to which pruning can be done in hard to reach places.
Regardless of the variety, pruning currants for the winter should be done every year. Autumn procedure is good because it has a number of advantages. During this period, the plant does not react so painfully to the pruning procedure, since there is no sap flow, i.e. the plant does not produce juice. Additionally, the procedure acts as a sanitizing treatment for insects and diseases. Scheme of the autumn procedure:
- It is necessary to remove from the base all those branches that are already more than 5 years old.
- Cut off young twigs that are not yet one year old.
- Remove shoots for grafting - they tend to root well before winter.
- Remove all transverse and lateral branches, otherwise sunlight will not reach the main shoots.
- In the main branches of the top cut is not worth it. You can remove them only if they were hit by ticks, aphids, anthracnose.
Armed with sharp shears and other tools, cut the tops of each process before planting. At the same time on each branch, leave about 2-3 buds. After the first season, the currant bush will acquire an average of five new branches. Consider that it is necessary to plant currant approximately in 3 weeks before frost comes. From this point on, pay due attention to the care of the plant, which will have a positive effect on its formation.
Each stage of caring for a currant bush requires a thorough approach. If you are looking for unusual ways to trim it, then pay attention to the Michurin way. It is often recommended for beginners. Thanks to him, you can ensure a good harvest on large plantations. The scheme of this method is relatively simple:
- After the currant seedlings are planted, they should not be pruned for 5 years.
- After 5 years it is necessary to cut about half of the bush under the root - in the future they should be carefully fed.
- After a year from the grown sprouts need to leave about 20, the rest will have to be removed.
- A year later, similar actions should be carried out with the second half of currant bushes.
- After the uprooting of old plants, the land should be planted with new ones.
When pruning bushes, as a rule, cut the damaged and diseased branches, unnecessary shoots. Currant bushes grown without due attention in the new season will produce very small berries. It also happens that a still not very old plant suddenly begins to bear fruit an order of magnitude smaller than normal. In such a situation, it is advisable to use the radical method of pruning. Its essence lies in the fact that the owner of the site needs to remove all pagons from the plant, not reaching the base of 3 cm. Then the root system should be richly enriched with fertilizers, and the stump should be covered with soil.
Pruning in the fall
Due to the correct and competent removal of the branches, the crown of the bush is formed healthy and well fruiting. To get the job done right, you need to follow a certain sequence. To begin, you will need sanitary pruning, then rejuvenation of the bush and its further maintenance. General scheme:
- During landing, remove all the tops, leaving about 3-4 buds. At the end of the year in their place will be more than 5 shoots.
- In the second year of the plant’s life, all young plants should be removed, leaving no more than 6 strong branches. Do not leave eating or affected processes of various diseases.
- In the third and fourth years of life, remove the young shoots again and those that were affected by insects and infections. Leave no more than 5-6 strong shoots, the main thing is the presence of 3-4 buds on the shoots.
- In the fifth and sixth years of life, cut off all the old shoots. Such a rejuvenating procedure will help increase the fertility of the currant bush.
Such a process is relatively simple. First you need to clean the currant bush from dry leaves and branches, and then remove all those shoots that did not have time to ripen - if this is not done, they will still freeze in the winter. Be sure to get rid of the intertwining branches that grow from the center and lie on the surface of the earth. Do not forget to remove the deformed and affected processes.
To rejuvenate the currant bush in order to increase its fruiting, first cut off all branches older than 5 years, if it is black and over 8 years old - if it is red and white. Find annual shoots and be sure to shorten them by about a third. In addition, on an already well-formed currant bush can cut off three-year shoots (pagon). This process of rejuvenation of the plant is completed.
This stage is no less important than the previous two. It is performed in most cases with excessive plant density. To do this, remove the central branches to lighten the bush. If the number of fruit-bearing pagons is sufficient, then you can remove all those processes that have grown this season. A heavily started bush that has not previously undergone treatment should not be heavily thinned. Otherwise, he may not cope with the loss of a large number of shoots.
How to cut currants in autumn: red and white
Black, red and white currants, though they are close relatives, but the bush with red and white berries requires a somewhat different journey. Pruning red currants in autumn requires less strength, but at the same time it has a less restrained growth. In this regard, excessive pruning in this case is not worth it. Otherwise, the yield of the plant will decrease significantly or the fruits will be absent for some time. In addition, keep in mind that fruit buds are laid on the tops of growths. The technology of cutting red and white currant:
- Before planting, prune the shrub like blackcurrant pruning.
- In autumn, leave the plant with the 3-4 strongest sprout of the zero order. If the bush grows poorly (weak branching is observed), then shorten the root part (growth) by a third of the length.
- Each branch of red currant is able to bear fruit up to 8-10 years, so the twigs of the plant must have a different age. The optimal number of shoots - about 15-20 pieces.
In addition, it should not be cut in red and white currant strong shoots. If the branches grow much, then shorten them by about half. When pruning red and white currants, which can bear fruit for about 15-20 years, do not neglect the following recommendations:
- when planting, cut off the first time shoots
- young branches pruning is not recommended,
- cut off twigs that have a dark color, because they will not bear fruit as before
- branches older than 7 years must be removed
- remove all transverse processes,
- use a garden pitch to lubricate the cuts,
- make sure that the plant is not too thick.
Adding an article to a new collection
Without regular and competent pruning, black, red and white currant bushes will not be able to bear fruit well. If you do not know how to properly conduct this procedure - we will tell.
Black, red and white currants are cut in different ways. From our article you will learn that you must take into account to do everything correctly.
Pruning red and white currants
Since the growth of zero shoots of red and white currants is more restrained (compared to black), mainly bouquet branches and shortened annual growths bear fruit. Therefore, the principle of pruning these bushes will be somewhat different.
Fruiting red and white currant branches can remain "workable" up to 8 years. Thus, you can leave them on the bush for quite a long time. And yet, both old and young shoots should be on the plant at the same time, otherwise there is no good harvest from it.
If you cut the red currants wrong, you can be left without berries
So that the bushes of red or white currant are not thickened, every year you need to leave no more branches on them than you need to replace aging ones. On such shoots should be cut only the upper part, which is not ripe. Removing some of the tops and cutting out the oldest branches will help to stimulate their growth (even if they are still capable of fruiting).
Try not to touch the ramifications of higher (first and second) orders: this may cause a decrease in yield. If it is undesirable to cut the black currant branches with the transfer to a strong side branch, then it is even recommended to do this in the red and white currants.
During the first 5 years it is very important to properly form currant bushes so that in subsequent years you can only refinish the plant with regular pruning. Remember that only well-groomed bushes per year can collect up to several buckets of berries.
Is it right to cut currants in autumn
Currant autumn pruning is the most effective way to get rid of most fungal diseases and insects that live on plants.
Fruit buds currant lays on the growth of the current year. That is why the more young shoots, the higher the yield of ripe and fragrant berries. Performing annual pruning to remove old and sick branches, gardeners achieve good yields of currants from year to year.
Pruning is recommended in early spring, before budding, or in the fall. In the spring it is more difficult to choose an opportune moment for the procedure: it is impossible to cut a plant that began to open buds, and currants begin to wake up early. At the wrong time, the trimmed bush weakens greatly, because strength is required both for the healing of the received wounds and for the spring awakening. As a result, it affects diseases and pests.
Autumn pruning of black, white and red currants is carried out when the bush has completely dropped the foliage, but the frosts have not yet come.
Advantages of autumn pruning:
- In the autumn it is easier to choose the right moment, to organize pruning without haste.
- Removal of old branches contributes to enhanced nutrition, rapid growth of young shoots that will bear fruit.
- Currants are getting stronger.
Proper pruning ultimately produces a healthy plant with a bountiful harvest of berries.
In the autumn pruning, the main thing is not to be late: if the bush is cut in frosts, it is possible to provoke freezing of the branches.
The optimal time is after the foliage is reset, but 15–20 days before the onset of the first frost.
In the spring, it will be necessary to cut the branches dried over the winter.
What currant needs autumn pruning
Ветви в центре удаляют, чтобы растение получало больше воздуха и солнца
Осеннюю и весеннюю обрезку проводят для всех кустов смородины, начиная с момента посадки молодого кустика:
- Юный куст (до 1 года) срезают сильно, оставляя на побеге 3–5 почек.
- In 2-3-year-olds leave from 3 to 5 of the strongest branches (their tops are cut from above for a couple of buds).
- Starting at 4 years of life, old branches are removed from an adult plant each year.
The simplest rule for novice gardeners: any branch that did not grow 15 cm in a year, is removed when pruning.
Rules for the autumn pruning: a guide for beginners
For work using pruners and garden shears with short and long handles. Only sharpened tools are suitable.
Dull blades will damage the plant: at the cut-off point, the crust stratifies, which leads to diseases and pests multiplication.
For trimming black currants, it is better to use two secateurs: regular and with long retractable handles.
The branches of the currant bush are removed:
- dry, broken, deformed,
- growing not from the center, but inside the bush,
- lying on the ground
- growing far from the center.
It is advisable to leave the branches without hemp - in the photo the wrongly cut currant branch, you need to cut along the red line
Pruning old branches for rejuvenation:
- In small bushes, one-third of the length is cut; in adults, branches over 5 years old are removed.
- In abundant dense bushes also remove excess branches from the center.
Cutting off old branches, giving a low yield of berries, gives strength to the development of fruit-bearing young shoots.
An example of trimming an adult currant bush in autumn before (on the left) and after (right)
If after cutting the branch gives juice, pruning is transferred for a term later.
Wounds from cuts that are more than 0.5 cm are treated with antimicrobials, covered with garden pitch.
Errors in pruning currant bush
Pruning currants in the fall can significantly increase its frost resistance.
- Pruning is required from the moment of landing. Without it, a young bush at first gives good yields. But later, due to the strong growth and density of the branches, the berries appear only at the ends of the branches. Their number will decrease every year.
- It is a mistake to spare the plant, leaving many old branches. The shrub will spend energy on their maintenance and treatment, and not on the formation of new productive shoots.
- If the bush is weak and stunted, no more than 5 branches are left on it. Otherwise, it will not gain strength for the formation of new, stronger and healthier processes.
- Autumn pruning is important to hold at the right time! After the “operation”, the weakened plant is vulnerable and may suffer from frost.
Mistakes committed during pruning, lead to poor development of the bush, low yield of berries in the summer.
Even an inexperienced gardener will master a simple pruning of a bush. It is important to observe the terms and rules of the procedure, do not forget about its necessity. And then the result will be actively fruiting currants from year to year.
How to understand that your bush is not well-groomed and requires pruning?
Among the large abundance of branches sometimes you get lost, which ones to delete and which ones to leave. There is a general rule: branches older than five years should be removed. Because up to 4 years, they "increase" the harvest, and after five years, there is a decline in fruiting. Nothing can be done, every living organism has its own age. And if you are a careful gardener, then without any calculations you can see the carelessness of the bush, its unformed and lax appearance, requiring urgent measures
Branches older than five years are subject to removal.
The branches will hang in different directions, have a different age and location. Young growths will be crowded with last year's and dried branches, which entails a thickening in which pests will gladly settle.
currant bush before and after cutting
The best time for pruning is considered to be late autumn, when the shrub enters a sleeping state, this time falls around mid-November. Some consider it appropriate time for pruning spring, but there is a risk of not having time before the start of sap flow. Currant wakes up very early, as soon as the snow melts and the sun is warm. And another plus of the autumn pruning is that your garden work schedule is not as loaded as in the spring, when you have so much time to do, that you can forget about currant pruning.
Blackcurrant bush trimming rules
What are “zero order” shoots? These are the shoots that grow from the root of the bush in the current year. All summer, the shoot grows and develops, and the next year, after wintering, it will go to the rank of a branch of the first order. Here is the arithmetic. Now we will learn how to count the age of the branches, because without an understanding of the age it is difficult to start pruning, since you will not know which branch is old and which is in the very heyday of fruiting.
Determine the age of currant branches
The age is always calculated from the top of the branch. We have already described the zero order branch above. That is, it is a long shoot of light brown color, on which there are fruit buds. We consider further. The upper growth ends with one ringlet, as if a link with the continuation of the branch. This is a branch of the first order. On the first branch, respectively, the branches of the second year develop, and so on. The growth of the branches of the first and third year of life is very unruly, the growth of impressive size, from 25 to 50 cm. But after three, by the age of five, there is a damping. After five years, there is a final decline, and we can observe an increase of no more than 5 cm per year. The future harvest of branches of this age, unlike the young branch, is located at the ends, very small, with several fruit buds.
age of currant branches
The most valuable for a productive harvest are considered branches of zero and first order. Moreover, ideally, their length should be 30-40 cm. A bountiful harvest can be on the branches of the second and third order of branching, but the quality of the berries will significantly suffer. Shoots and branches of any order should ideally be 15 -20 pieces.
The most valuable for a productive harvest are considered branches of zero and first order.
Still, it happens that currant so-called branches are found on “bushes”. The reason for this may be a strong neglect and thickening of the bush, as well as a strong pruning. This shoots sharply upward. They thicken the crown, and, although these shoots also have fruit formations, they, as a rule, must be removed. Since they live a couple of years and less productive.
clean the bush from fallen leaves
branch covered with lichen
45 degree cut angle
- Rake leaves under a bush, clear the area around. Because often in these places a hotbed of pathogenic zone is formed for all sorts of pests and fungal diseases.
- First, remove the lower low-inclined branches that are parallel to the ground. We make sanitary cleaning of a bush. We remove all dry and broken branches, which are also directed downwards. They are of no value to us. If a small fresh shoot grows on a dry branch, then do not indulge yourself with the empty hope that it will give you a good harvest. It must be removed along with the old branch, since the escape on such a branch is initially weak and unviable.
- Remove old branches - they are unproductive and not winter-hardy. A distinctive feature of such branches is the presence of moss and lichen on them. At the base, cut these branches with shears and remove. If the manual pruner fails, use a more powerful garden pruner. When a branch is removed from below, do not leave a stub! Its core is rotting, and a pest is introduced there by a glass bowl, after which it sneaks into a bush. In mid-July, we can notice on this branch wilting of foliage and drying out.
- Removing the old branch, look carefully, if there is no escape substitution? Replacement escape is a branch connected to the main one and having an advantage, which is expressed at a younger age or in the number of fruit buds. It is necessary to choose the strongest and most productive, with a large number of fruit buds. So that they do not compete with each other and fruit normally, without sharing their living space and juices.
- The tops of some seemingly healthy branches may have dry ends, which must also be removed.
- If the branch gave a strong increase, it is necessary to shorten it so that there is no bare branch. The quantity and quality of the crop depends not on the number of branches of the formation, but on the number of awakened buds. In order to trigger this process, it is necessary to shorten one third of the shoot.
option number 1 - the right cut "on the kidney"
rejuvenates by 1/3 of the shoot
How to trim growth?
It is very important to trim the sprout correctly so as not to disturb the fruit bud and not cause the entire branch to dry out.
- The branch is always cut in a certain place "on the kidney." What does it mean? This is when an escaping 5 millimeters from the kidney makes an oblique cut at an angle of 45-50 degrees. If the bud is cut much higher, the shoot will dry out and will stick like a match on the branch. There is also a risk that the kidney may not bloom, and the cut on the cut will heal poorly. If cut very low, the kidney may not receive nutrients and there will be a bad harvest.
- Another important point! Which strontium to cut, ie, where to leave the kidney - on the outside or inside of the bush? Correctly make a cut from the kidney to the outside. Why? So, we will, first of all, avoid crown thickening, and secondly, let our kidney get more sunlight and give a good harvest of berries after.
It is much easier to care for red currant bushes than for black ones. Red currants are much less prone to diseases and attacks of pests. It is also more drought resistant. Red currant bushes have much less zero-order shoots than black currant, they are less thickened and bear fruit much longer - 15-20 years. The branches on which the flower buds are laid live 2-3 times longer than those of the black currant. The distribution of berries in the bush more uniform. Therefore, red currants need less pruning.
The branches on which the flower buds are laid live 2-3 times longer than those of the black currant.
red currant does not require frequent pruning unlike black currant
Features pruning red currants.
- A distinctive feature of pruning red currants is that fruit buds are laid on the tops of the gains, and the entire crop goes on annual gains. Therefore, when pruning red currants, in no case do not shorten annual shoots. You can remove the shoots of zero order and 6-7 year old branches.
- Redcurrant has the most fruitful ones - these are 3-5 year old branches. When the plant reaches 6-8 years of age, spend rejuvenating pruning.
- In the bush should be 25-27 branches. Of these, young zero shoots - 3-4 branches, then 2-3 year old wood, 4-5, and so on until 9 years.
- Any pruning must begin with the account of annual rings. Red currant branches retain the ability of active fruiting until the age of 9 years. Therefore, young branches are regulated directly in the bush itself so that thickening does not occur.
- Pruning can and should be damaged branches (dry, frozen, affected by pests). When we remove the old branches, we must bear in mind that it is undesirable to remove more than 5-6 branches at a time. Open wounds, and decreases resistance in the winter.
Of course, to enhance the yield of currants, it is difficult to manage one of its sanitary pruning. There is a set of measures for the care of currants, ranging from watering and ending with preventive measures, providing it with comfortable growing conditions. Remember that currant, in spite of its status as a “local resident”, deserves close attention and needs the care of not less exotic pets in your garden.