General information

Corn: growing from seed, planting in open ground and care

Hello! Corn is an annual plant with yellow, white and two-colored seeds, located on the rods forming the ear. At the beginning of the summer season, the cultivation of corn in the country by seedlings, will allow to get a harvest even in the suburbs. And you can grow from seed, in the spring.

The length of the frost-free growing season required after planting the seedlings, before harvest, ranges from 84 to 112 warm frost-free days, when the temperature is above +21 C.

How to grow corn in the country

There are three types of sweet corn: normal, high sugar and super sweet. Each of them contains a different level of sucrose, changing the taste and texture of corn.

And the early varieties, even without seedlings, will be able to bestow any summer cottage of the Non-Black Earth Region with tasty cobs.
The best varieties and hybrids and varieties for the Non-Black Earth Region and the Moscow Region

  1. Constantly great harvest, in every region of the Black Earth region, will give a hybrid "Spirit"! Very early, "super sweet" cob with large grains. Grains ripen on the 60th day from the appearance of the third leaf. It is advised to grow it through the seedling method. Sow it to seedlings well from April 15 to 30. Planting, seedlings in the ground, at the end of May.
  2. “Triple sweetness” is a super sweet type of corn, a variety that will allow you to enjoy the amazingly tasty boiled ears on the hundredth day from shoots. He is good in conservation and in freezing.
  3. Hybrid "Anava" will give a rich collection in three months, from planting seedlings. The cobs are smooth and beautiful, the grains are tasty, the wrappers are stored for almost 12 days, in a cool place.
  4. "Gourmand Belogorye" - the most disease-resistant, unpretentious and at the same time delicious corn variety. This is sweet corn, in which, on the 80th day from sowing, it is possible to collect the ears of milky ripeness. The bad thing is that it does not tolerate the seedling method, but this is not a problem if it is possible to make an agrofiber shelter.

Growing seeds in the ground

Corn demanding to the ground. It requires a lot of compost in the soil before planting, or before winter it is necessary to bring manure into the soil.

Water, during the entire period of maize growth, is also required.

Plant seeds in the open air, that is, in the open field sown two weeks after the last spring matinee.

The soil temperature, for the successful germination of corn seeds, should be above + 12 ° C, and +15 C for super sweet varieties. In colder areas, the earth can be warmed with black plastic film, if necessary. Plant seeds are sown under the holes in it, and plants appear through holes.

Plant seeds are sown in grooves with a depth of 4 cm and 22-28 cm groove from the groove. Rows of 3 pcs. grooves a meter apart. You can sow groups of seeds of 3-5 pieces. at one point, and a point from a point, 35-45 cm.

Sweetcorn forms grain only with the help of pollination by the wind, so it should be planted in blocks, not in separate lines.

Growing seedlings

  • Best for growing seedlings will be to put corn seeds in small containers, or in cups from children's yogurt or in small pots.
  • Standard “seedling” soils, or peat in half with humus, work normally as substrates.

  • If initially they are going to produce seedlings from seed indoors, then they sow 4 weeks before planting in the ridge. Seedlings should be planted in the dacha soil only when the danger of frost is a thing of the past.
  • Corn seeds are sown to a depth of 3 cm in groups, from three to four seeds, at a distance of 3 cm from each other. Next, the corn kernels are covered with soil and they need to be slightly smoothed over the ground with a hand, not tight, compacting the backfill.
  • Then water the soil until the soil is completely wet.
  • And corn shoots appear in the interval from 7 to 14 days.
  • Water will be needed corn sprouts daily, in hot weather, or when the soil begins to feel dry to the touch.
  • All frail, except for one of the strongest plants in each group of seedlings, are removed by cutting with scissors, at ground level.
  • That window sill is used to transform from seedling into seedling, which receives from 6 hours of direct sunlight per day, during the whole growing time.
  • When the bushes will have a third leaf, they must be transplanted.
  • In order for the plants to develop perfectly, for every 10 liters you need 6-7 grams of “Kemira-Lux”. After dissolution, this solution is used instead of irrigation water. So the roots do not "burn" and the plants from hunger will not stretch.
  • Be careful not to damage the roots when transplanting!
  • Corn plants, in the open air, are planted in spring when the soil temperature is at least + 12C.

Growing conditions

What to do with corn in the garden before it fructifies?

Cultivation of corn in the country is that the corn must be provided with water, food and space, as well as provide protection from parasites and diseases. Then the harvest will be big and tasty.

The soil should be well drained and not acidic!

To get enough pollination, you need to plan a landing. Do not plant all the seedlings in two long rows, and preferably four rows, but twice as short.

Rows should be located at a distance of 70-90 cm from each other, and the sprout from the sprout 20-33 cm. Otherwise, flower seeds will remain sterile, and the cobs will not become a reality.

In hot and dry summers, corn must be well watered, due to the abundance of small roots. Water - 5 liters per square meter.

Mulch helps reduce evaporation. It should be applied a layer of mulch, up to 7 cm thick, around the plants, after the first month of growth in the garden.

Use compost, sawdust or cutting straw. Mulch will suppress most weeds, but those that grow will have to be pulled out manually during the whole growing season.

Weeding, which appear around the corn plants in the first month, is imperative.

Feeding good on the sheet. And the most complete blend fit for apple or berry. Feed them at least three times. Three weeks from planting seedlings, at the beginning of flowering and immediately after it. It is possible and when planting plants in a hole to pour a teaspoon of nitroamofoski.

How to grow watermelons in the country, read here.

Pests and diseases

Here are the most significant pests and diseases in corn plantings:

  1. Smut
  2. Meadow and American moth
  3. Moth
  4. Rust
  5. Root rot

Triticonazole or Thiram + Tebuconazole should be used against diseases. They are the least dangerous for nature and humans, especially if there is a lot of corn sowing.

But against the pests insects apply Deltamethrin ("Decis").

Harvesting and storage

The crop is ripe when the corn-hair tassels start to grow brown and the ears begin to swell. Grains must be full and contain a lot of milky liquid.

Take off their sharp jerk down.

Store on the cob from +10 C to +15 C from 2 to 13 days, without removing the foliage. Or cooked canned beans for the winter.

Subtleties and tricks:

  1. Sweet corn varieties lose their sweetness soon after harvest, super sweet.
  2. Preservation long after collecting, perhaps on the cob and in the cool.
  3. Sweetcorn freezes well, especially if you remove its kernels from the cobs before freezing.
  4. Corn silk can also be collected - for the purposes of traditional medicine.

Corn cobs left on the seeds are harvested as late as possible, but they do not subject them to freezing. The seeds are peeled from them only when they finally, on the very ear of corn, dry out!

Here is the cultivation of corn in the country can work. Have you tried to grow corn on your plot? Share your experience. I wish you good harvests and great mood.

Content

  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Growing from seed
    • 3.1. Sowing
    • 3.2. Growing seedlings
    • 3.3. Picks
  • 4. Landing
    • 4.1. When to plant
    • 4.2. Priming
    • 4.3. How to plant
    • 4.4. What to plant after
  • 5. Care
    • 5.1. How to grow
    • 5.2. Watering
    • 5.3. Top dressing
  • 6. Pests and diseases
    • 6.1. Diseases
    • 6.2. Pests
  • 7. Cleaning and storage
  • 8. Types and varieties
  • 9. Properties: benefit and harm
    • 9.1. Beneficial features
    • 9.2. Contraindications

Planting and caring for corn (in short)

  • Landing: sowing on seedlings - in early May, planting seedlings in the ground - in mid-June. Sowing seeds in the soil is carried out when the soil warms up to 10-12 C.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: sandy, loamy, peat, neutral or slightly acid reaction.
  • Watering: soil moisture at the site is maintained at 70-80%, spending 1-2 liters of water for drip irrigation of each plant. After planting, watering should be moderate, but at the developmental stage of 7 leaves both the water flow and the frequency of irrigation increase, and when the threads on the cob begin to darken, watering is gradually reduced to moderate.
  • Top dressing: The plant needs nitrogen throughout the growing season, right up to seed ripening, but most of it needs to be added during the formation of inflorescences. Potash fertilizers are required for corn in the first half of the growing season, and in the second half of them, when feeding, they are gradually reduced. Phosphorus is needed all the time, but in small quantities. The plant also needs manganese, zinc, boron and copper, the solutions of which process corn over the leaves.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: wireworms, lashfinders, moths, meadow and maize moths and oat Swedish flies.
  • Diseases: affected by fusarium of cobs and seedlings, helminthosporia, stem and pithy root rot, red cob rot, rust, dusty and bubbly smut.

Corn plant - description

Sweet corn is a tall herb, reaching a height of 3 meters or more. Corn has a well-developed, fibrous root system, extending 1-1.5 meters in depth. At the lower nodes of the stem, supporting air roots can form that prevent the stem from falling and supply the plant with nutrition and water. The corn stalk is erect, not hollow, up to 7 cm in diameter. Large linear-lanceolate leaves can reach 10 cm wide and 1 m long. On one plant they can be from 8 to 42. The flowers of the corn are same-sex: male collected the tops of the shoots are in panicles, and the females in cobs tightly surrounded by leaf-like wrappers, hiding in the leaf axils and reaching a mass of 30 to 500 g, 4 to 50 cm in length, and 2 to 10 cm in diameter. more than two cobs, on the tops of which a bundle of pistillate columns comes out of the wrappers s like a tuft of hair. The wind carries pollen from male flowers to these posts, and fertilization occurs, resulting in the formation of large grains - the fruits of corn. The kernels located on the cob in vertical rows and closely pressed to each other have round or cubic shapes. One ear of corn can hold up to a thousand grains, their color may be yellow, reddish, blue, purple and almost black.

Sowing corn seeds.

Corn is grown seed-seedling and seedless. Sowing of maize for seedlings is carried out in cassettes with cells of 45 cm² or in peat-shaped pots with a diameter of 12 cm. Fill the cassettes and pots with a mixture of well-structured sod land mixed in equal proportions with rotted humus. To increase the moisture capacity of the substrate, you can add a hydrogel to it, but when filling cells and pots with soil mixture, keep in mind that the gel is capable of absorbing up to 500 volumes of water. Hydrogel will allow you to reduce the amount of watering by 3-5 times, since the crystals that have absorbed water will gradually release moisture and give it to the soil.

Corn seeds are sown in early May, having previously germinated for 5-7 days in a damp cloth or filter paper at room temperature. 3-4 grains of corn are put in pots, in cells of two. The seeds are sunk by 3-4 cm, after which the soil is moistened with a warm solution of 4 g of Fundazol in 10 l of water and transferred to the sunny sill of the eastern or southeastern exposure.

When to plant corn in the ground.

Corn is planted in open ground when it can no longer be harmed by frost in early or mid-June. Note that lowering the air temperature to 3 ºC can slow the growth of seedlings until it stops completely. If the temperature drops even lower, the seedlings will die. Corn is a heat-loving plant, so the area for it must be sunny and protected from the wind.

Soil for corn.

The best soil for corn is considered to be well-drained fertile and breathable black soil, in which cabbage, potatoes, beets, zucchini, tomatoes, cucumbers and squash grow before corn. It is necessary to prepare a plot for corn in the fall: it is necessary to remove weeds and bring rotted manure under a deep digging. In the spring, if the soil on the site is heavy, it is loosened by adding chopped straw or sawdust, after which the surface is leveled.

How to plant corn in open ground.

In the prepared area, holes are made at a distance of 50 cm from each other and plentifully watered seedlings are planted in them by the method of transshipment. Try not to destroy the earthen room, because because of this, the seedling can take root poorly. The scheme of planting corn should include the features of its development. It is desirable to plant seedlings not in one row, but at least in five, because otherwise there may be problems with pollination of corn. It is better to leave the distance between rows one and a half meters - later you will be able to plant melon crops in them. Plants in adjacent rows to improve the photosynthesis of maize are staggered. In addition, with such a planting scheme it is convenient to use a drip irrigation system.

How to grow corn.

Beginning gardeners consider corn as an unpretentious crop and are limited to weeding and infrequent watering, but inadequate care can lead to poor harvest and depletion of the soil on the site. Growing corn requires regular care of the seedlings while they are not yet strong - they are watered, weeded and spud necessarily, so that plants can acquire strong adventitious roots in the lower part of the stem that will give them stability and help them grow and develop properly. In addition, it is necessary several times to loosen the soil between the plants, to feed and to protect the corn from pests and diseases, which she has a lot.

Watering the corn.

Corn is moisture-loving: for a day it can absorb 2-4 liters of water, however, over-wetting is difficult for it - in roots flooded with water due to lack of air, its roots die off, it stops growing, leaves turn purple, and the corn harvest is threatened. Therefore, soil moisture at the site is maintained at 70-80%, that is, 1-2 liters of water are spent on each plant. If there are no conditions for regular watering, you will often have to loosen the soil around the plants in order to preserve moisture in it as long as possible - not for nothing is loosening called dry irrigation.

After planting the seedlings, watering should be moderate, but since the appearance of 7 leaves on the plants, the water consumption and frequency of irrigation gradually increase up to the stage of the mass appearance of panicles. When the threads on the cob begin to darken, watering is gradually reduced to moderate.

The best way to maintain soil moisture in the corn plot is to use a drip irrigation system, since water and nutrients dissolved in it go directly to the roots of plants, which saves both water and fertilizer.

Top dressing of corn.

A good owner always fills the soil before planting corn with organic and mineral fertilizers. However, this does not mean that during the growing season it is not necessary to add fertilizer to the soil. The fact is that, unlike other crops, corn increases the green mass throughout the growing season, so it will need fertilizing from spring to autumn. In addition, in each developmental period, plants need certain nutrients, and if you fill the soil with all the fertilizers needed for the season before planting, their too high concentration can be a greater problem than lack of fertilizer.

Nitrogen must be applied to the soil before the seeds ripen. But the plant should receive the main quantity of an element in the period before the formation of inflorescences. The most intensive absorption of potash fertilizers occurs in the first half of the season, in the second half there is a reverse outflow of the element from the plant into the ground. Phosphorus is needed by corn in much smaller quantities, but throughout the season. Phosphate dressings are started even during site preparation, and they stop making phosphorus after the grains ripen.

In addition to the three main elements, corn requires trace elements - primarily manganese and zinc, to a lesser extent boron and copper. Keep in mind that alkaline soils lack manganese and boron, and acidic, as a rule, calcium. The shortage of trace elements is compensated by foliar maize treatments.

The first top dressing is usually made in the period of the appearance of the third and fourth leaf, and it consists of slurry or a solution of bird droppings. Вторая подкормка должна состоять из аммиачной селитры (15-20 г на м²), калийной соли (15-20 г на м²) и суперфосфата (30-50 г на м²).If you find a lack of specific elements, process the corn with their solutions on the leaves. For example, if white stripes appear on the leaves, it is necessary to spray the corn with a solution of zinc, and if fertilization is delayed, a solution of boron will be needed to treat the plants.

Diseases of corn.

Unfortunately, there are quite a lot of pests and diseases affecting corn. Most often, corn suffers from fusarium of cobs and seedlings, gelmintosporiozom, stem and pythiosus root rot, red cob rot, rust, dusty and bubbly smut.

Fusarium cob widespread in agriculture, and in a period of high humidity and prolonged rains there are epidemics of the disease. There are signs of Fusarium in the stage of milky ripeness of the cobs - a pinkish bloom forms on them, severely affected grains darken, lose their luster, loosen and break, and those that remain intact cannot be used as a seed, as they may be infected. In order to avoid disease, it is necessary to seed the seeds before sowing.

Fusarium shoots It is also a fairly common disease, in which the affected seeds are covered with a bloom of white or pink color, and the sprout that emerges from the grain turns brown and dies. But even if it continues to develop, it lags behind other plants, it has weakened roots, a fragile stem, drying leaves. At best, such a plant simply will not yield. The disease cannot be cured, but disease can be prevented: grains should be treated with fungicides before sowing, sowing of seeds should be done on time and on a well-warmed area.

Gelmintosporiosis affects the leaf plates and corn cobs, forming on them brown and gray spindle-shaped spots, surrounded by a dark border. In the center of the spots you can sometimes see a soot coating. The spots grow, merge into a shapeless hearth, causing the leaves to die, a gray patina forms on the affected cobs, the seeds frown, become covered with a dark mycelium and rot over time. The causative agents of the disease can persist on the seeds and plant residues of corn. To protect the crop from disease, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, grow hybrids resistant to infection, process seeds before planting and the soil at the site with fungicides, and after harvesting, weeds and plant residues of corn must be removed from the site.

Stem rot able to spread very quickly during prolonged precipitation, but in regions with a dry climate it almost does not occur. The onset of the disease is characterized by the appearance of dark spots on the lower part of the stem or on the internodes, and with the development of the disease, the stem softens, decays and dies, while its core becomes pink in color, and the affected tissues become covered with many small peritheses with a diameter of not more than one millimeter. Prevent the appearance of stem rot can all the same preventive measures that have already been described.

Corn Rust caused by the pathogen, which is especially active in the second half of summer and continues its destructive activity until the end of the growing season: light yellow spots appear on the underside of the leaves, which gradually darken, then pustules with maturing spores of no more than a millimeter are formed on them. The leaf tissue under the pustules dries out, breaks, and the spores spread and infect healthy tissues and plants. Rust must be fought with preventive measures and the treatment of crops with solutions of fungicides.

Dust smut - an infectious disease of all grain crops, most often affecting maize in the southern regions. The damage covers the inflorescences and cobs of plants, and the causative agent of the disease can accumulate in the soil for years without any manifestation, but as soon as favorable conditions arise, it can cause a widespread epidemic that can destroy up to 40% of the crop. Sick inflorescences become loose mass, the cobs turn into a black lump. If the plant was affected at an early stage of development, it lags behind in growth, becomes too bushy and ugly compared with healthy specimens. Sometimes the disease is not so obvious, but it negatively affects the growing season. To avoid infection, grow hybrids that are resistant to head smut and strictly observe crop rotation - compliance with these preventive measures makes it possible not to accumulate pathogenic microorganisms in the soil.

Bubble smut caused by the basidal fungus and manifests itself by numerous bubbly formations on the cobs and leaves of corn. With the defeat of panicles on the flowers there are rough swellings in the form of sacks, but the largest galls are formed on the stems and cobs. During the harvest, large galls fall off and remain in the soil, and the next year they again hit the plants. The disease progresses during dry weather and when the planting is too thick. During a massive epidemic, the disease can destroy up to 50% of the crop. This can be prevented by growing disease-resistant hybrids and planting maize according to a scheme developed by professionals. Do not forget to pickle the seeds before sowing with a solution of the fungicide and remove the weeds and plant residues of corn from the plot after the end of the season.

Pitious root maize rot most often manifested in places with heavy soils and high humidity. The causative agent of the disease is activated during germination of the seedlings, affecting their root system - constrictions appear on the roots, root hairs are not formed, as a result of which the roots rot and dry out, starting from the tips, and then the whole plant dies. If the disease is mild, then you can see a change in the color of the leaves and the lag of plants in growth. For intensive treatment and as a prophylaxis of the disease, corn treatments with fungicides or phosphonates are used.

Red cob rot dangerous because it not only reduces the yield of corn, but also infects people and animals, causing them to damage the nerve cells. A disease is found during the period of milky-waxy maturity: a white-red bloom appears on the upper cobs, spreading rapidly and affecting both the core and the grains. As a result of the lesion, the kernels are destroyed, and the wrapper turns brown, dries out and tightly covers the sore ear. Prolonged rain and low temperatures during the ripening period contribute to the spread of the disease. It is possible to prevent damage by maintaining crop rotation, growing disease-resistant hybrids, dressing seeds before sowing, controlling the amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied, digging deep and cleaning the site after harvesting from plant debris and weeds. Fight against the disease should fungicidal drugs.

Pests of corn.

Of the pests, the most dangerous for corn are wireworms, false harvesters, moths, a meadow and corn moths, and a Swedish oat fly.

For wireworms (larvae of the click beetle) and lzheprovodnikov (larvae darkling beetles) Corn is the main victim, although they are also happy to devour potatoes, sunflower, beets and other vegetable crops, gnawing holes in their underground organs. If the density of insects per m ² of the kitchen garden is 90 or more, sowing at best thins down by a quarter, but there have been cases of the complete destruction of crops. The most active pests when the air temperature is low during the rainy season or on irrigated fields. To prevent reproduction and development of wireworms, it is necessary to plow the field every autumn, observe crop rotation, seed weeds before seeding with insecticides, and use pheromone traps against pests during the growing season.

Sheet-eating scoops can also cause serious harm to corn. They are widespread and affect all terrestrial organs of the plant. Winter, meadow and cotton shovels reproduce from two to four generations of pests during a season. The first and second generation mainly destroys the leaves of corn, and the third and fourth gnaws the cobs, seriously affecting the generative organs, which leads to a decrease in the yield and quality of the kernels. Fighting shovels and their larvae should be primarily agro-technical methods - respecting crop rotation, plowing the soil after harvest, timely destruction of weeds. To combat the larvae, you can use pheromone traps.

Swedish Oat Fly lives in a moderately humid climate - closer to the forest-steppe zone and in the area of ​​irrigated fields. During the season, it reproduces 2-3 generations, which are equally dangerous for corn. Protecting the plant from the fly can be preventive measures: deep plowing or digging the area in the fall, followed by compaction of the soil, timely sowing of seeds and planting of seedlings, as well as regular weed control. If the fly still appeared on your corn, you will have to resort to the treatment of plants with insecticides.

Meadow moth more common in the steppe, forest-steppe and taiga zone. Of the four generations of moths, the first is the most dangerous - the fast-breeding caterpillars. Interestingly, the number of moths manifests itself in cycles - once in 10-12 years, an invasion of pests occurs in an amount that can destroy up to 60%, and sometimes the entire crop. Caterpillars are damaged by leaves and stalks of corn, sunflower, legumes and some cereals, potatoes, beets and hemp. To prevent the emergence of pests can be already described agrotechnical techniques, and destroy the caterpillars and moths biopreparations.

Stalk moth. The main victim of the stem moth is corn, although it also affects hops, soybeans, pepper, sorghum and millet. This pest develops in three generations, laying eggs on leaves and stems, which do not die even in severe frosts. Symptoms of the presence of the moth is yellowing of the leaves and their central veins. Veins break, the sheet bends and dies. The threshold of this insect is 6 pieces per square meter. At strict observance of agrotechnics, corn is more or less protected from the stem moth, but if it does appear, it is necessary to treat the plants with insecticides.

Corn harvesting and storage

Begin harvesting sweet corn selectively upon reaching the ears of milk maturity. How to know that the cob is time to shoot? Focus on the following signs:

  • - the outer layer of the wrapper shrinks, and its color has become light green,
  • - the threads hanging from the cob, turned brown and dried,
  • - when pressed, white juice is released from the grains,
  • - grains on the cob smooth, yellow, closed in dense rows, without wrinkles and dents.

If you are late with the corn harvest, it will over-ripen and lose its taste and nutritional qualities, the grains will shrivel and will not boil well.

Preparation of corn for laying for long-term storage includes the primary cleaning of the cobs, then drying and cleaning from grain and weed impurities. On drying send intact cobs. They are released from the leaves, but the wrapper is not cut, the corn stigmas (thin threads enveloping the cob) are removed, the ears are woven into a pigtail and hung from the ceiling to full drying in a well-ventilated dry room. Drying of corn is considered complete if grains spill out of the cob with a slight shaking.

If you are going to store corn for a long time, the grain needs to be husked, poured into plastic or glass jars, cardboard boxes or fabric bags. Corn for popcorn is stored in plastic bags in the freezer, and, if necessary, put directly in the frozen state in a frying pan.

Dairy corn intended for cooking, keep in the refrigerator at 0 ºC no more than three weeks. When stored at a higher temperature, corn loses one and a half percent more sugar per day - the higher the temperature, the greater the loss. It is best to keep dairy corn frozen or canned, since such storage preserves the nutritional value of the product. Moreover, if the freezer allows, to lay corn in it should be right on the cob. For the preparation of corn on the tab prepare two large containers - one with boiling water and the other with cold water and chunks of ice. First, peeled from the wrapper and stigmas, the ear is dipped in boiling water for a couple of minutes, and then in the same time in cold water, after which the corn is dried on fabric, each ear is wrapped in plastic wrap and placed in the freezer, where it is stored for up to 1.5 years loss of quality.

Dental maize (Zea mays indentata).

In dentary corn, the grains are large, elongated, and when matured, a recess forms on their upper plane, which makes them look like teeth. These plants do not bush, they have powerful stems, most of the varieties, though fruitful, but late-ripening. This fodder corn is grown mainly in the USA and is used for raising livestock and for processing into flour, alcohol and cereals.

Starchy corn (Zea mays amylacea)

- One of the oldest varieties of culture, widespread in the countries of America. It is also represented mainly by late varieties of medium-sized, medium and strongly bushy plants. The grains have a convex top, a matte smooth surface, a friable, powdery inside. Produce from these varieties mainly alcohol and starch.

Flour corn (Zea mays indurata)

has the widest distribution area. Her grain is smooth, brilliant, with a convex top, white or yellow. Use it for the production of cornflakes, chopsticks and cereals. But the most in demand are early-ripening high-yielding varieties, which were obtained when crossing maize siliceous with dent-like maize.

Corn bursting (Zea mays everta)

- also the oldest of the varieties. A characteristic feature of the grains of this group of varieties is the ability to burst when heated. It is from corn that pops into popcorn. The grain surface of the varieties of this group is shiny and smooth. Varieties are divided into two subgroups - rice and barley, which differ in the shape and taste of the grains. The bushes of bursting corn are well leafy and form many small, densely filled grains of cobs. Growing popcorn throughout the world.

How to cook corn for planting: seed treatment

Green corn stalks in the photo

Seeds for planting must be selected in the fall. Before mass harvesting, it is necessary to make a selection of full and fully ripe cobs. At the same time, it is only necessary to select cobs from healthy, well-developed, resistant to lodging and the most productive plants. The cobs selected for sowing are dried in the sun and placed in a dry, well-ventilated room until spring.

Three to four days before sowing, the seeds are subjected to air-heat heating in the sun — this helps to accelerate their germination. It is enough to put the seeds in a gauze bag, put it in the sun for 4 days, then put in the solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, rinse, place in a container and put in heat. After 3-4 days, small roots will appear, then you can plant grains.

As you can see, preparing corn seed for planting is a snap.

Cultivation of corn in the open field: planting seeds and caring for plants

When growing corn it is important to choose the right variety, in a certain way to plant the seeds. Top dressing, caring for plants is also of great importance.

When to plant corn seeds for growing early harvest? In this case, planting material is sown in the middle of April for seedlings, necessarily in different containers, to a depth of 2 cm. In the middle of May they are planted in the garden.

A place to plant corn seeds is necessary to be sunny, it does not tolerate even a small shade. Plant where there are no drafts and cold winds.

The ground should be well drained, water should not be stagnated. The soil should get wet to a depth of 10-15 cm. Corn loves fertile soil with a high content of humus. If the land is not fertile enough, add manure from the fall. In the spring, you can only lay a well-matured organic matter - compost or humus. Dig up the soil for 2 weeks before planting corn seeds, making a complex mineral fertilizer.

After the appearance of the 8th true leaf, the culture begins to grow rapidly. The daily increase can reach 5-6 cm. Then the side shoots - stepchildren - begin to form. To speed up the ripening of the cobs, the stepsons are removed, as they pull away moisture and nutrients from the main stem. Pasynki should be cut with a sharp knife, without damaging the main stem.

When growing and caring for corn in the open field significantly improves the quality of future seeds and gives a large increase in yield artificial additional pollination. During mass flowering, ripened pollen from panicles is shaken into a bucket or paper bag, and then with a twig or brush, the pollen is applied to the emerging threads of the cobs. Сбор пыльцы с растений и опыление проводят в утренние часы, после схода росы, но до наступления дневной жары. Сбор пыльцы с султанов следует производить с растений через ряд, а в ряду — через 3—5 растений. В течение массового цветения дополнительное опыление проводят не менее 3 раз через каждые 2—3 дня.Artificial pollination of corn is especially necessary in hot, dry years, when pollen ripens and crumbles at high temperatures of air before the stigmas of the ovaries appear. For timely additional pollination of plants, it is recommended to sow corn at different times at the site in order to create a supply of pollen.

Corn is harvested during full ripening of the grain in the upper cobs of the main stems, when the wrappers turn white and the grains become firm and shine.

Useful properties of corn.

Corn has healing properties that humanity has used since ancient times. In addition to starch, it contains phosphorus, nickel, potassium, copper and magnesium, vitamins D, C, K, PP and group B. Fat oil, essential oil, saponins, gum-like and bitter glycoside-like substances, steroids stigmasterol and sitosterol are found in the corn silk. . Corn leaves contain esters of phenol carboxylic acids (for example, caffeic and ferulic acids), quercetin, flavonoids, rutin and some glycosides.

Doctors believe that regular consumption of corn kernels by improving the metabolic processes in the body reduces the likelihood of stroke, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. And nutritionists say that corn, which is a part of the diet of older people, helps to preserve and even improve vision, because yellow grains contain carotenoids. You only need to choose the cobs with delicate milk grains, because overripe corn is poorly absorbed by the body.

Eating at breakfast and dinner a tablespoon of corn oil will protect you from skin diseases, asthma and migraines, increase the tone of the gall bladder and strengthen the contraction of its walls. The value of corn oil is also in the fact that it contains unsaturated fatty acids - linolenic, linoleic, arachidonic, which are involved in metabolic processes and regulate cholesterol metabolism. Eating corn oil can reduce the tendency to thrombosis in patients with coronary sclerosis. Corn oil is rich in biologically active phosphatides that positively affect the functions of brain tissue, regulate cholesterol in the body and promote the accumulation of proteins in it - with a lack of phosphatides, fats accumulate in the body, and cholesterol is deposited in tissues. Eat corn oil is also recommended for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.

Corn - contraindications.

Pollen resistant to pests of genetically modified corn contains a dangerous poison that kills any insects, so you should refrain from eating grains of these varieties until scientists finally find out whether this poison is dangerous to humans. Today it is not a secret that the consumption of food mutants increases the risk of allergic reactions, the development of obesity and other effects of metabolic disorders.

Any corn is contraindicated in acute exacerbations of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as it causes bloating of the intestine. It is undesirable to eat corn for thrombophlebitis and increased blood clotting, as well as for people with low body mass, because it helps reduce appetite. But corn oil, on the contrary, is contraindicated for people suffering from obesity, as well as those who have an individual intolerance to the product.