"Who knows, he loves him, who does not know, must love." Such a poetic expression is devoted to pasternak. Indeed, how not to love it, because by its useful properties it is comparable to the ginseng root. In addition, parsnips are unpretentious in cultivation and care. Having grown at least once, you will want to settle it on the site for a long time. Eat a salad with the addition of this root - you will feel a significant surge of energy.
Pasternak (lat. Pastinaca) - a two-, perennial herb of the umbrella family, cultivated as a vegetable. In Latin, the name of the plant means “to dig.” Russian names - white root, stem, field soup, pustarnak, nursery field, trestle.
What does parsnip look like?
The appearance of parsnip can be described as follows: white carrots with parsley leaves. The seedlings resemble celery or parsley, but the leaf is immediately much larger and brighter in shade. Plant height depends on a number of conditions: soil type, planting pattern and further care. Also, much depends on the variety selected. Plant height varies from 30 cm to 2 meters.
Of the 15 types of parsnip, only one is cultivated culturally - parsnip sowing or ordinary, it is also meadow parsnip (lat. Pastinaca sativa). Famous parsnip from the time of ancient Rome. The Greeks and Romans did not know about the nutritional value of the vegetable, grew it for animal feed. In the wild, parsnip grows in the Caucasus, Turkey, and Europe. Habitat - in the thickets of shrubs on mountain meadows and valleys.
Edible part of parsnip
Nutritional value is a root vegetable. It is conical in shape (like carrots) or rounded (like radish). In the section has a yellow-gray or brown shade, it is fragrant, sweet to taste. Root crops are formed in the first year of growth (you need to harvest), next season a flowering stem appears. From the second year the root crop grows coarse, almost woody, becomes unsuitable for consumption.
Now parsnip is relegated to the background by more popular garden crops, is in anticipation of past food glory. Take a place on the plot at least for a couple of parsnip beds, you will not regret it. Tasty, fragrant, nutritious and, above all, medicinal white root will not cause much trouble in growing.
Thus, parsnip is a versatile plant (good taste and health benefits). Only ignorance, reluctance, or employment can hinder the provision of proper care.
Features of growing parsnips
Pasternak cultivation and care in the open field photo
Most gardeners have heard of this wonderful root, many have tried it, but not everyone knows how to grow parsnips.
To harvest the fragrant tasty vegetables, parsnips are grown by subwinter sowing or seedling. Everyone chooses for themselves a more convenient option.
Why does not parsnip rise?
There are complaints that not everyone manages to get shoots of parsnip. The reason lies in the seeds. Umbrella crops are essential oil, the shelf life of their seeds is not long. Optimally, sowing freshly harvested seeds, for the second season, germination drops sharply, then it is almost zero. Acquire seeds at reliable points of sale, pay attention to the expiration date. It is better to collect the parsnip seeds yourself.
How to collect seeds
To collect the seeds, leave to spend the winter on the bed of 3-4 root vegetables. In the spring, they will grow in height and turn into a luxurious bush with a height of 2-3 meters (for this reason, in the fall, roots will be better transplanted to a place where they will not interfere with other crops in the future). In early June, umbellate inflorescences will appear, consisting of small yellow flowers. Seeds ripen unevenly, the first can be collected after 3-4 weeks. To collect gently shake umbrellas, hollow seeds reject, leave the largest.
To improve germination, seeds need to be pretreated. Soak them for a day in warm water, then treat with a growth stimulator (zircon, epin, heteroauxin).
Planting dates for parsnips
- It can be sown in open ground as soon as the soil warms and matures (end of March - beginning of April).
- For early shoots, subwinter seeding is preferred (late October - early November).
- A more reliable option is the cultivation of seedlings (sowing is carried out from the end of March to mid-April, the cultivation of high-quality seedlings takes 28-30 days).
Growing parsnips from seed to seedlings at home
Seedlings of parsnip photo
All root crops transplant hard, the slightest injury to the root (especially the central) leads to negative consequences: the root grows crooked, bifurcated. Therefore, it is better to use individual containers for sowing parsnip; peat pots or plastic cups are perfect.
Substrate required loose. You can use a universal soil for growing seedlings or prepare a soil mixture based on garden soil, sand and peat, add a little perlite. To disinfect the mixture calcined in the oven or spill boiling water. Fill the seed tanks with soil and moisten.
- In each container, place 2-3 seeds, deepening into the soil by 0.5-1 cm.
- If all the seeds come up, you need to wait for a pair of true leaves to form, pick the strongest sprout in the tank, and pinch the rest above the ground (they are not pulled out so as not to damage the root of the strong seedling).
- Place the pots (cups) with crops on the pallet and cover with a film on top.
- Parsnip seeds are tight, wait for seedlings for at least two weeks.
- During this time, keep the substrate in a slightly damp state, daily raise the shelter for 7-10 minutes for airing, the air temperature should be between 20-22 ° C, the lighting should be diffused.
- After emergence of shoots remove shelter.
- For normal growth and development of seedlings, it will be necessary to maintain daylight for 14 hours a day - use additional fluorescent lamps for additional lighting.
- Water the seedlings as the topsoil dries out, do not allow overmoistening.
Planting seedlings in open ground
How to grow parsnip seedling pattern photo
Pasternak seedlings of one month of age are transplanted into the open ground. The landing period is marked by the onset of real heat (mid-end of May).
To make the rows even, you can pre-stretch the twine on the hammered pegs.
How to plant seedlings of parsnip photo
Make holes on the size of the earthy coma. If the seedlings were grown in peat pots, you can put them in the hole with them, damaging the bottom of the pot. When growing in a plastic cup, carefully transfer the seedlings together with the earth clod.
Between individual plants keep a distance of 10-12 cm, between rows - 40 cm. After planting, water the beds well.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Pasternak cultivation from seeds in an open ground photo
Podzimny sowing of seeds of parsnip gives amicable shoots in early spring, thin them out just like seedlings. Spring sowing is rarely used.
Make grooves about 4 cm deep, pour, let the water soak in, then sow the seeds. If the soil is heavy, make the grooves deeper, lay rotted manure on the bottom. The optimal distance between plants is 10-12 cm, but when sowing, shorten the distance by half - it is better to thin out than to have half-empty beds. Keep the same distance between rows as when planting seedlings (about 40 cm).
Easy rolling promotes adhesion of seeds to the soil. For this, apply a board in width or length by pressing it down.
Place for growing parsnips
Under the parsnip planting, take the area illuminated by sunlight, perhaps a slight shading. When planting on the south side, the presence of shading is compulsory, since during strong heat the parsnips intensively exude essential oils.
It requires a loose soil neutral reaction, ideal loamy or sandy soil. Sour soil is contraindicated (in this case, it is preliminarily lime). If the soil is depleted, apply rotten manure or complex mineral fertilizer for digging. Prepare the site preparation in advance: when spring sowing or planting seedlings, do it in the fall, when sowing parsnip before the winter - 1 month before the planned sowing.
Pasternak should not be grown in the area after carrots, parsley, celery, and parsnip itself, since they have common diseases and pests. The best predecessors are potatoes, beets, cabbage, onions.
Weeding and loosening
Give more attention to seedlings and root plants: remove weeds in a timely manner, because weeds can quickly “kill” young plants, regularly loosen the soil - the crust on the soil surface prevents the normal development of the root system, keep the soil slightly moist.
Once the plants have risen, hardened, care is greatly simplified. Parsnips have a decent leaf rosette that allows them to silence the growth of weeds on their own, and under the shade of their own leaves the soil moisture lasts longer. Loosen the soil after watering or rain.
How to water
Pasternak moisture-loving, especially in need of watering during the formation of root crops. Due to the lack of moisture, the growth of parsnip slows down, the leaves turn pale, the fruits become dry, rough, fibrous, crack, the plant can shoot an arrow. Waterlogging often leads to fungal diseases. Must adhere to moderation. If the soil is moisture-consuming, it will be necessary to water only in dry weather. With regular precipitation, watering is not needed. On average, spend 4-5 irrigations per season.
When grown in fertile soil, parsnip does not need fertilizers, especially if you have fertilized a plot before planting. Otherwise, during the growing season, the parsnips should be fed 3-4 times. After 1-2 weeks after planting, feed nitrogen fertilizers, after another couple of weeks, repeat the procedure, from the second half of June, switch to potash-phosphorus top dressing. Feed the parsnip with a solution of infusion of mullein (concentration of 1 to 10), infusion of ash or complex mineral fertilizers (proceed according to the instructions).
Consider that during hot weather, parsnips intensively emit caustic essential oil, therefore, you should take care of the procedures in the morning or evening hours. Allergy sufferers are advised to wear gloves.
Diseases of the parsnip and the umbrella family
In general, parsnips are resistant to diseases and pests. Pasternak is susceptible to diseases inherent in representatives of the umbrella family (it is sick as well as carrots): Septoria, cricosporosis, wet bacterial rot, black (alternaria) rot, white and gray rot of root crops.
The formation of numerous spots on the leaves without a clear contour, which gradually darken, acquire a brown-brown tint - a manifestation of septoria. This happens on the background of high humidity combined with coolness. The infection penetrates through the stomata. The plant turn yellow and dry up.
With the defeat of chalcosporosis on the leaf plates, spots of yellowish or dirty-brown shade with a diameter of about 6 mm appear, the central part of the spots seems to fade, and the edges become darker. The edges of the affected leaf plates are slightly wrapped. The stems are covered with elongated spots of a reddish-brown hue. Sick plants lag behind noticeably in development, leaf plates dry out.
Wet Bacterial Rot photo
Wet bacterial rot affects roots and during storage, and during growth in the garden. This happens at high humidity in combination with unstable temperatures. Root-oily dark-colored spots appear on the roots, then they turn into hollows with a foul-smelling rotting mass, which flows out, spreading the infection to other plants.
Black rot umbrella photos
Black rot (Alternaria) mainly affects the fruit during storage. Dark dented spots appear on them that take on an olive shade. The affected tissues in the cut are coal black.
White rot photo
White rot (Botrytis) - white bloom in the form of flakes, gray rot (sclerotinia) - gray fluffy bloom. The development of the fungus provoke a combination of heat and high humidity.
To protect parsnips from fungal diseases, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
- Observe the crop rotation (return the parsnip to the previous site no earlier than in 3-4 years),
- Pre-clean the area of weeds and remnants of the previous culture,
- Do not thicken the planting, provide balanced watering,
- Ensure proper storage of root crops. Storage facilities are pre-disinfected, dried, and maintained at optimum moisture and low air temperature during storage.
Pests of parsnip and Umbrella plants
Pests parsnips are common with other umbrellas. It affects parsnips, mainly if the plantings are imprudently located nearby.
Carrot fly photo
The carrot fly is a red-sized half-centered fly that can cause significant harm. She lays eggs in the root neck of the plant. The larvae feed on the root crop, causing significant harm - they make holes through its passages, the fruit can crack, rot. Consider that the carrot fly likes moisture, so do not thicken the planting, avoid lowlands. Alternate the rows of parsnip with onions or garlic - their flavor will scare away the pest. For the purposes of prophylaxis, mustard powder can also be scattered on the site. If the pest has appeared, spray planting a solution of ammonia or an infusion based on tomato or potato leaves, garlic, wormwood, burdock.
Celery fly photo
Celery fly - small midge brown with a reddish tinge. The pest infects the aerial part by laying eggs under the skin. If the clutches are few, bumps are formed that can be easily crushed. When the larvae appear, they will feed on the tissues of the leaves and stems - the above-ground part will die, then the larva will go into the soil for pupation. Prevention: the right neighborhood of crops, respect for crop rotation and farming. If there are few affected plants, simply remove them from the site. In case of mass lesions, treatment with insecticide will be required.
Field bug photo
The field bug is a gray bug with a greenish tint. Pest green parts of the plant, sucking juice. Its saliva contains caustic toxins, which is why the plant, although it will tie up the seeds, will not be fruitless. To combat the stele use insecticidal drugs.
Caraway Mole photo
Cumin moth - the larvae eat both tops and roots (they destroy even flowers), entwine the plant with cobwebs. To get rid of the pest will help processing infusion of tomato tops.
Shield or striped photo
Striped shchitnik - bright red bugs with black stripes, have an unpleasant smell. It feeds on the sap of the plant, because of which the aboveground part dies off. It is quite simple to assemble them manually, special processing is not required.
Root Aphid Photo
Root aphid (grass louse) - a small insect of a greenish or yellow shade. Most of the aphids are wingless, some of them are winged, resettlement occurs mainly by moving larvae. Vagrants (larvae) come to the surface, quickly find new owners and again go deep into the soil, closer to the roots. They feed on sap of root vegetables. Damaged roots are open gates for fungal diseases, infections and viruses. A refuge for wintering pests are abandoned weeds on the site, the remnants of crops. It will be necessary to carry out treatment with a biological product (boverin, fufaphone), use chemical insecticides as a last resort.
Harvesting and storage
Pasternak is loyal to low temperatures - after light frosts, the root crop becomes even tastier. Start harvesting in the fall when the leaves start to die. To minimize damage to root crops, it is better to use for digging forks. Plant hot, be sure to wear gloves.
Root vegetables are stored in the same way as carrots - put in boxes, pour with sand, maintain the air temperature in the range from 0 to +2 ° C, humidity should be 80-85%. In the southern regions, you can leave the roots in the soil and undermine them as needed.
The best varieties of parsnip with photo names and descriptions
On the basis of parsnip ordinary displayed a variety of varieties, differing in shape, size of the root and ripening.
Pasternak Hormone Photo
The hormone is a variety of early ripening: cone-shaped roots are ready for harvest 2.5 months after germination. So the name is fully consistent (like growth hormone). The length of the fruit is 20 cm, weight - more than 100 g. It is fragrant, good as spice. Не разочарует и как самостоятельно блюдо (жареный, вареный, тушеный).
Пастернак Гернси фото
Гернси – среднеранний сорт (срок от появления всходов до возможности выкопки корнеплодов составляет 4 месяца). По форме корнеплод конический. The variety is resistant to cold.
Delicacy is a variety of medium early ripening. It has a rounded shape, reaches a weight of 300 g. Indeed a delicacy: very fragrant and tasty.
Pasternak Round photo
Round - has a rounded shape only on top, the root crop is elongated, half the weight of the previous one. The taste is slightly inferior, but the fruits are ready for digging after 3 months of growth. Another advantage is the simplicity of the soil, grows well and will ripen even in loamy.
Pasternak Best of all photos
Best of all - one can not disagree with the name. Very tasty, fragrant, sunflower (for use during the summer season sown early, for storage - at the end of May). The ripening period is 3 months, in the south - only 2. The shape of the root is conical, weight - 150 g.
Pasternak White Stork photo
The white stork is identical in shape to carrots, only white. Average weight - 100 g. Matures in 4 months. It has excellent taste. Fruits ripen in harmony, well kept.
Gladiator - mid-season, large roots of conical shape grow in 3 months. Productivity is high.
Pasternak Student photo
Student - large cone-shaped roots reach a length of 30 cm, white flesh. Maturing dates are late, about 150 days. Differs drought tolerance.
Pasternak Petrik photo
Petrik - fruits of conical shape. The ripening period of the root is medium.
The beneficial properties of parsnip
Useful properties of parsnip photo
Pasternak as a spice found many admirers - any dish of fish, meat, vegetables, it will give a pleasant taste, exquisite aroma. Root vegetables are stewed, boiled, baked and served as a side dish, soups are cooked with them, used fresh in salads.
Pasternak canned, harvested in pickled form with other vegetables.
Root crops are endowed with a number of medicinal properties. According to medieval herbalists, parsnip has a diuretic effect, has an analgesic effect on liver, kidney, stomach cramps, and dropsy, and contributes to an increase in potency. The broth is recommended when coughing for expectoration of sputum. Water extract of the roots and sugar is recommended to take to stimulate the appetite, as a tonic after suffering a serious illness.
Due to the high content of vitamins and minerals, it has a positive effect on the work of the gastrointestinal tract, strengthens the walls of capillary vessels (in modern medicine it is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases).
Parsnip seeds are used to make pharmaceutical preparations for treating skin diseases (vitiligo, psoriasis).
Planting parsnips for seedlings
Peculiarities of growing parsnip in the country largely depend on such features of vegetables as a long growing season. If in the middle lane, in which Ukraine is located, it’s too early to sow its seeds in open ground, by the fall you will collect very small roots that simply did not have time to form because of the cold weather that didn’t recede. For this reason, the plant is recommended to sow at first on seedlings, which in the end of spring can be planted on the beds without any problems.Another reason why it is recommended to plant parsnips for seedlings is the long germination of seeds, which also have a very low germination rate. As a result, planting is rare, and the harvest is not happy with plenty.
However, when sowing a plant for seedlings, it should be remembered that it is very sensitive to transplants and may die even with minor damage to the roots. Therefore, before the direct sowing of seeds, it is important to prepare separate pots for each plant.
How to prepare the seeds before planting?
As already noted, parsnip seeds germinate very badly, so they need special preparation before sowing, which can be done in different ways. The easiest way is to soak the seeds in warm water for a day, while regularly changing the water so that it remains constantly warm. After that, slightly swollen seeds should be well process with growth stimulants, which are ideal drugs:You can also soak the seeds in a solution of ash (20 g of ash per 1 l of water). Keep them in it must be within 48 hours, after which you should rinse the seeds with warm water, dry a little and you can proceed to planting. After sowing, seedlings may appear on the 10-12th day, although it is quite normal for a parsnip if they appear on the 18th day.
The agrotechnology of growing parsnip requires the use of peat, loamy or pitfall soil for the plant (or it is better to use a mixture of them). But at home, the easiest way to get a soil mixture prepared on the basis of peat and has good friability. If you are preparing the soil for parsnip yourself, do not forget to sift it before sowing the seeds through a sieve. It is also important to disinfect the “homemade” soil, for which you can hold it over steam or place it in an oven.
Sowing Parsnip Seeds
The first thing you need to figure out is when to sow the parsnip on the seedlings. The best option is considered mid-end of March, however, the sooner you make the crops, the better the seedlings will be formed before they are transplanted into open ground. If you sow the seeds at the end of March, then by mid-May, the seedlings will be suitable for planting.
The prepared soil is poured into pots and compacted a little, leaving about 1 cm to the edge of the pot. After that, it is watered, and 2-3 seeds are placed in each pot, still covered with a layer of soil. To speed up the seedlings, it is recommended to tighten the foil, but then it is necessary to air them daily, removing the shelter for 7-10 minutes. Since the parsnip is cold-tolerant, the seed containers do not have to be kept warm, although sunlight is mandatory for the parsnip, especially when the first shoots start to appear from the pots.
Parsnip— a vegetable characterized by simple planting and care, which is applicable to its seedlings. Care of the seedlings of parsnip includes only three mandatory aspects:
- additional lighting, if the duration of the day does not exceed 14 hours (for highlighting it is necessary to use special lamps for plants),
- moderate watering
- no stagnation of moisture in the pots with seedlings (to prevent this, be sure to make holes in the pots or, before sowing the seeds, put claydite to the bottom).
Time for planting seedlingsThe timing of planting seedlings of parsnip depends largely on the region of your residence and weather conditions. If the soil on the beds does not warm up to + 4˚С, then it’s possible to delay the planting long enough, although it is usually done in the second half of May, when the seedlings are already 28-30 days old. At the same time, the timing of planting of parsnip in the spring is better not to tighten much, because during late planting the plant will not have time to form large roots.
Choosing a place for landing
Pasternak grows well in beds with loose soil, which should contain a lot of peat. If the soil is acidic, you cannot plant parsnips in it, or you will have to have a good lime before planting.
The bed itself should be in a sunny place, although the penumbra also can not deprive you of the harvest. In no case do not choose for the parsnip beds, which grew:
Planting seedlings on the garden
Pasternak does not like excessive thickening of landings, therefore for its landing it is necessary to prepare a series of holes at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other. At the same time, the distance between the rows of plants should be equal to 40 cm (we prepare the holes rather large, since the seedlings will be placed in them together with the peat pots). After transplantation, the soil around the pot is compacted and watered.
If you sowed seedlings in plastic pots, then during planting it is better to cut them and get the parsnip along with a clod of earth (if it’s a bad cut, just pour plenty of the plant so that it drops out of the pot along with the seedling). Try to transplant not damage the seedlings, as it may not settle down in a new place.
Tips to care for parsnips in the open field
Pasternak requires care in the open field, which consists of several simple manipulations. – removal of weeds, regular loosening of the soil (what to do after each moisture hit the garden bed), watering and feeding. However, in these matters the plant also has its own needs.
Pasternak - recipes, how to cook it
Raw parsnip is delicious - it is sweeter than carrots, spicy like parsley. The flesh is white, very dense, with a high content of solids. When you fry, it is beautifully browned, you can not tell from the potatoes to taste, appearance. You can't spoil the soup with parsnips either. In the filling, it is suitable for pies and stuffed peppers. Parsnips make excellent filler for vegetable marinades and white sauce. In the winter it can be dried by mixing with other white roots - parsley and celery.
Here are some recipes I've tried.
- 1 part parsnip,
- 1 part carrot,
- 1 part of onion,
- 1 part red tomato,
- 1 part salt.
All cut, mix well, stand for 1-2 days until complete dissolution of salt and packaged. You can store in the refrigerator without even freezing.
Assorted in banks
Boil the green string beans. Fry the parsnips, carrots, diced in vegetable oil. Small onions, tomatoes cut in half, stew in sour apple juice (instead of vinegar), salt to taste. All of this lay in layers in steamed jars, adding to each spoonful of grated garlic. Sterilize 5 minutes, roll up tin lids. In winter, it goes well with boiled rice.
Adding an article to a new collection
Due to its unique properties, parsnip wins love of summer residents again. But, unfortunately, not everyone can grow large, juicy root vegetables. We know the secret of a good crop of parsnip and are ready to share it with you.
Pasternak - a plant with a long growing season. Therefore, in the middle lane and more northern regions, when sowing seeds into the ground, it is very difficult to obtain large, high-quality root crops. The only way out is the cultivation of parsnip through seedlings.
You can, of course, sow the seeds of parsnip and directly into the ground (this is done in spring or late autumn). However, they grow up a long time and not very amicably. In this case, you should not count on a good harvest.
Seed sowing rules for seedlings
First of all, it should be borne in mind that Pasternak does not tolerate not only transplantation, but even minor damage to the root system. And that is why experienced gardeners strongly recommend growing Parsnip seedlings only in separate containers (plastic cassettes or small pots). In each tank, 2-3 seeds are first sown, then leaving only 1 strongest plant.
Step 1. Seed preparation
For effective and rapid germination, tug-like seeds of parsnips need a preplant preparation. The cheapest and easiest option is to soak the seeds for a day in warm water (water needs to be changed). Immediately after soaking, they can be treated with a growth stimulator (Appin, Heteroauxin, Zircon, etc.) and sown. If everything is done correctly, then you can see the shoots already on the 10-12th day. If you completely abandon the pre-treatment of seeds, sprouts will begin to appear only after 3 weeks.
Step 2. Preparation of soil for seedlings
The easiest option is to buy a special soil mixture based on peat. Land from the garden or front garden is too dense, and therefore not very suitable for growing seedlings. But if you add sand, peat and perlite to it, then a young parsnip will develop and grow well there (after all, the ground will become light and porous). Home-grown soil mixture should be sifted through a sieve (to get a fine uniform substrate), and then disinfected in the oven, steamed or spilled with boiling water.
Step 3. Sowing seeds for seedlings
Prepared soil mixture must be filled in individual containers (remember that parsnips should not be sown in common boxes). Next, you need a good seal soil, leaving free about 1 cm from the edge of the pot. After it is necessary to shed the ground with water, sow the seeds and sprinkle them on top of a layer of soil. It is advisable to cover the crops with film, but to air it daily for 7-10 minutes.
Step 4. Care of germination and planting of young plants
Pasternak - an unpretentious plant, care for seedlings is simple:
- if necessary, additional lighting with fluorescent lamps (ideally, the length of daylight should be 14-16 hours),
- timely moderate watering
- prevent stagnation of water (in the tanks either drainage holes should be provided, or a layer of perlite, expanded clay or any other drainage should be filled before sowing seeds).
In the second half of May, grown-up seedlings at the age of 28-30 days can be planted in open ground. And it should be done very carefully so as not to damage the root system. Plants should be planted at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other.
Subsequent care - as for the usual garden parsnips:
- multiple watering (parsnip does not tolerate drying of the soil),
- fertilizing with mineral fertilizers,
- frequent loosening.
Pasternak is unpretentious, and therefore it is enough to follow simple rules to get an excellent harvest.
Sowing and care for parsnips
Pasternak is grown using seedlings and sowing in the ground (seedless way). You can grow this crop in greenhouses. However, most gardeners prefer to plant parsnips with seeds in open ground.
Sowing. Sow parsnips to a depth of 2 cm. Pre-make planting grooves of the required size on the beds. After this, spill them. Seal the soil on the bottom of the grooves so that the seeds do not fall through. Spread the seeds in a solid stripe. Cover them with soil. Leave the distance between the rows of parsnip - 20-30 cm. Also, this vegetable is planted with ribbons (two rows in one ribbon).
When the plants germinate, thin them out. Focus on the number of appeared real leaves on parsnip. Do the first thinning in the first week of germination, in phase 2 of these leaves. The distance between the remaining specimens is 5 cm. Do the second thinning in phase 4 of these leaflets. The final distance between each plant is 15 cm. Plants that you remove can be transplanted. To do this, prepare the beds in advance and grow parsnips on them. In this case, when thinning, remove the plants from the ground carefully so as not to damage them.
Sowing on seedlings. Growing parsnips in a seedling way if they want to get an early harvest. They also do this if there is a late warming in a particular region. Parsnip is planted in separate containers, as it does not tolerate transplants. As containers choose plastic cups or cassettes (they have separate slots for each plant). They must have drainage holes. If there are none, do them.
Soil for parsnip is prepared as follows. Take the soil of the garden or garden and add sand to it (or other additives to improve the structure). This is done for the reason that the usual outdoor ground for parsnip is dense. Its growth in such a soil slows down.
Pour the soil into prepared containers so that there is 1 cm to the edge of the cups. Spill the soil before sowing seeds. Place seed in each container, cover planting material with soil. Cover the container with film. Put the seeds in a warm place where the temperature is + 20ºС. Every day, open the film for 15 minutes to air the seeds. Check the soil for moisture when it dries, water the crops. When the first green appears, remove the film completely and place the parsnip in a sunny place.
Duration of daylight hours - 14 hours. If you sow parsnips when there is little light, then finish the seedlings. You can use fluorescent lamps for this.
After a month, seedlings can be planted in the beds. Pre-check with the weather forecast. If the weather is inappropriate, then wait for warming. Do not hurry.
Seven days before planting, harden the seedlings outside (in the yard or on the balcony). Take them out on the first day for an hour, put them in a shaded place. Every day, increase the time by another hour.
Landing in open ground. Plant in the soil for planting parsnips. Their depth should correspond to the size of earthen coma seedlings. Repot the parsnip by transferring the roots, so the plant will transfer the transplant easier, it will hurt less, it will take root more quickly.
Before transplanting wet earthy seedlings. Remove the plant from the tank and place it in the planting hole. Cover it with earth. At the same time, periodically shake the plant so that the soil is laid evenly and there are no voids left. After that, apply lightly soil. Spill it. Высадите так всю рассаду.
Уход. Пока растения маленькие и только проклюнулись, тщательно пропалывайте грядки. Если сорняки вовремя не удалять, то они вытеснят неокрепшие посевы пастернака. Since this culture grows long and with difficulty, so as not to lose the place of sowing, it is possible to plant lighthouse cultures, for example, lettuce. Beacon plants will grow quickly and will remind you exactly where you planted parsnips.
Periodically loosen the ground. Do not forget to do this after watering, to break the crust formed on the surface of the soil. Loosen the soil around the immature plant gently so as not to damage the seedling.
On a note!
If you grow parsnip in inappropriate conditions, then it will go to the arrow. This means that the plant does not form a root vegetable. It forms seeds in the first year. The disadvantage of this is that you expect the harvest, and instead you get planting material. Although you do not need it yet.
Water parsnips plentifully, but do not overdo it. Root for development requires a sufficient amount of water. However, its oversupply leads to acidification of the soil and an increased risk of disease. A suitable option - rare, but abundant watering.
Harvest Parsnip roots are harvested in September. But until the moment when strong frosts come. They dig in and pull out. Try not to damage the roots, otherwise their quality will deteriorate. At the same time use a shovel or villas.
If you do not have time to dig up the roots of the onset of frost, then do not worry, they are well wintering in the ground. In this case, the harvest period is postponed in the spring.
Cut the tops to the maximum. Do not hook the pulp of the root.
After digging up the root crop, clean the ground from it. Do this with a brush. Do not wash parsnips in any case - this will reduce its capacity. Before storing the parsnip root crops, cut the tops from them. Do this as much as possible, but so as not to damage the flesh of the vegetable.
For short-term storage, put the parsnip roots in the fridge. So they persist for a month. For long-term storage, parsnips are placed in a room where the temperature ranges from 0 ° C to -1 ° C. However, it must be well ventilated and dry. The presence of high humidity will negatively affect the storage of the crop.
Parsnip roots can be laid out on the floor in one layer. Or put them in layers in a box, sprinkled with sand or sawdust.
Seed collection. If you want to plant a parsnip from seeds collected by yourself, then the following information will be useful to you. Pasternak is a biennial plant. In the first year he has a root crop. However, if several plants are not digged, but left for the next year, the seeds will ripen on them. When they mature and dry, they can be collected. Begin collecting seeds when most of the umbrellas on the parsnip plants turn yellow.
The use of the fruit of parsnip. Growing parsnip in the open field (without using expensive greenhouses) will provide you with tasty root crops. That they are used in food. Since parsnip has a tart taste, it is used mostly as a seasoning to emphasize the taste of the main course.
Also, parsnip can be used in roast, stew and boiled. Use it as a side dish.
Planting and care for parsnips (in brief)
- Landing: Sowing seeds in the ground - from the middle to the end of April or before the winter, at the end of October. Sowing seeds for seedlings - in the middle or at the end of March, planting seedlings on the garden - in the middle of May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: wet, loamy, sandy or peaty, neutral reaction.
- Watering: when grown in wet soil, 4-5 heavy irrigation is sufficient in drought, but in a season with normal rainfall, no watering is needed.
- Top dressing: 3-4 times a season with a solution of mullein, infusion of ash and liquid mineral complexes: a week after planting and again, three weeks later - nitrogen fertilizer, and from the second half of July - potash and phosphorus.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: Caraway moth, striped shield cage, field bug and aphid.
- Diseases: septoriosis, chalcosporosis, wet bacterial decay, black rot (or alternarioz), white and gray rot of root crops.
Vegetable parsnip - description
The stalk of a parsnip is 30 to 200 cm high, upright, rough, grooved, faceted, sharp-ridged, pubescent and branched in the upper part. Leaves - pinnate, consisting of 2-7 pairs of lobed or large-blade oval, more or less pubescent leaflets, short-petiolate in the lower part, sessile in upper part. Parsnip root, ripening in the first year, white, thick, fragrant and sweetish in taste, sometimes rounded, like turnips, sometimes cone-shaped, like carrots, in a dirty-yellow cut. Flowers with a yellow corolla - small, regular, bisexual, collected in a complex umbrella-shaped inflorescence, consisting of 5-15 rays - bloom in the second year. The fruit of a parsnip is rounded oval, oblate visor of dirty yellow color.
Pasternak is a close relative of garden plants such as carrots, parsley, fennel, dill, celery, coriander and lovage. From our article, you will learn how to plant and care for parsnips, what types of parsnip exist for open ground, how to grow seedlings of parsnips, what are the terms of planting parsnips in the ground, when to plant parsnips in the middle lane, and how to plant and care for parsnips in open ground.
Growing seedlings of parsnips.
Waiting for seedlings daily for 7-10 minutes, lift the film that covers the crops for airing. The seeds of parsnip, as already mentioned, due to the presence of essential oils in them are toughly similar, so the first shoots will have to wait at least two weeks. As soon as they appear, the film can be removed, and the pots move closer to the light. How to care for a parsnip in a seedling period? Growing a parsnip requires a long daylight hours - for the normal development of seedlings the day of a parsnip should last at least 14 hours, so if necessary, be prepared to arrange seedlings for additional illumination. Watering of seedlings is carried out as the topsoil is dried in pots. Try not to overmoisten the plants, otherwise they may become sick and even die from stagnant moisture in the roots.
Root plants poorly tolerate picking, which is why they are sown not in common boxes, but in separate containers. When the seedlings form the first pair of true leaves, you need to choose the strongest of them in each pot for further growth, and pinch the rest above the surface of the substrate so as not to injure the root of the strong seedling by pulling out.
10 days before planting the seedlings in the open ground, they begin to be exposed daily for some time to the street for hardening, gradually increasing the duration of the stay of seedlings in the fresh air.
When planting parsnip in open ground.
Parsnip is planted in open ground in mid-May, when the seedlings will be 28-30 days old. At this time, as a rule, return frost is already behind and the soil has already warmed up sufficiently. Parsnips are planted in the Moscow region at approximately the same time, adjusted for spring weather.
How to plant a parsnip in open ground.
On the garden beds are made at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other in a row and not more than 40 cm between rows. The depth of the holes should be such that a seedling can fit into it together with a peat pot. If you sow parsnips in plastic pots, pour the seedlings before transplanting and carefully transfer them from the pots to the holes along with the earthy ball. After planting, water the garden bed.
Planting parsnip before winter.
Podzimniy sowing of parsnip is done until mid-October in advance (preferably, from spring) prepared soil. Since the seeds of parsnip are large, they are sown three pieces to a depth of 3-4 cm in the wells, located at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other with a row spacing of 40-45 cm. The subwinter sowing of parsnip is better because spring shoots appear very amicably . The emerged shoots thin out the same way as the seedlings - leave the strongest sprout in the hole, and the rest are plucked. How to care for parsnips, we will discuss in the next section.
How to grow parsnips.
Growing parsnip in the open field involves the implementation of well-known to every gardener procedures - irrigation, loosening the soil in between rows, weeds and dressings. In general, parsnips are surprisingly unpretentious. The first loosening is carried out when shoots appear or when you are convinced that the seedlings have begun. Then the soil is loosened after each watering or rain.
Watering the parsnips.
Pasternak is moisture-loving and especially in need of water at the stage of the formation of root crops. Due to lack of water, the leaves of the plant become pale, their growth slows down, and the parsnip can even release an arrow, the roots also crack, become rough, dry and fibrous. And from excess moisture, parsnip can get fungal diseases. So how to water parsnips? If it grows in damp ground, 4-5 plentiful watering in dry weather will be quite enough for it, but if it rains regularly in summer, it is quite likely that you will not have to water the parsnips. After watering it is convenient to loosen the soil on the site and remove weeds. But note that in hot dry weather, the leaves of parsnip produce a caustic essential oil that causes burns, so try to work on the site after sunset or in the early morning.
Top dressings of a parsnip.
During the growing season, the parsnips are fed 3-4 times. How to fertilize parsnips? Fertilizers should be applied only in liquid form - a mullein diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10, an infusion of ash or a solution of mineral fertilizers. A week or two after planting, the seedlings are fed with nitrogen fertilizers, another three weeks later the nitrogen supplement is repeated, and in the second half of July they are transferred to parsnip fertilizer with potash and phosphorus feedings. However, if you grow a plant in fertile soil, you can do without feedings, especially if the fertilizer was made in the preparation of the site.
Diseases of parsnips.
Pasternak suffers from the same diseases as the other members of the umbrella family: Septoria, cricosporosis, wet bacterial decay, black rot (or Alternaria), as well as white and gray rot of root vegetables.
Septoria manifested by the formation on the leaves of the plant numerous spots of medium size without clear boundaries, which gradually darken and become brown-brown. Affected plants turn yellow and dry. Septoria progresses in cool weather on the background of high humidity. The infection penetrates through the stomata.
Cercosporosis can be recognized by irregularly shaped yellowish or dirty-brown spots up to 6 mm in diameter, appearing on the leaves and stems of the plant. With the development of the disease, the spots in the middle fade, and the border around them becomes darker. The edges of the affected leaves are raised and slightly wrapped. On stems, elongated reddish-brown spots look like depressed. Sick plants lag behind in development, their leaves turn yellow and dry.
Wet Bacterial Rot - The disease is widespread, especially in conditions of unstable temperature and high humidity. It affects roots and during storage, and in the field. The disease begins with rotting in the tail section - first dark, watery, oily spots appear on the plant, then in their place dimples are formed with a rotting fetid mass, which flows from the fruit in the form of mucus, which is why the infection spreads to other plants very quickly.
Alternaria, or black rot it develops mainly already in storage: slightly indented dark spots appear on the roots, on which dark olive bloom forms in wet weather. In section, the affected tissues are coal black.
White Rot (Botrytis) and gray rot (sclerotinia) differ in the color of the plaque that is formed on the roots. When white rot is infected, white patina is in the form of flakes with black sclerotia of the fungus, and gray rot covers the roots with a gray fluffy patina. The most harmful of these diseases in warm weather with high humidity.
In order for fungal diseases not to affect parsnip, we recommend you a set of measures, including:
- - compliance with crop rotation - re-parsnips can be returned to the site not earlier than in 3-4 years,
- - strict compliance of care measures with the rules of agrotechnical culture,
- - thorough preparation of the site before planting, including removal of residues from the previous crop from it,
- - preplanting half-hour seed treatment in water at a temperature of 50 ºC, followed by rapid cooling and drying,
- - proper storage of root crops.
If, despite the strict fulfillment of all these conditions, a fungus appeared on the site or in the storage, immediately remove the diseased specimens, and treat healthy ones with one-percent Bordeaux liquid, Fundazol or Topsin-M.
Of the insects, the most dangerous for parsnip are the moth, moth, field bug, and aphid.
Caraway Mole destroys the parsnip testes. Its caterpillars penetrate the roots, stalks and leaves and feed on their tissues. When flowering begins, they entwine the parsnip inflorescences with cobwebs, feeding on pedicels, flowers and seeds, after which they crawl away again into the stem. In order to destroy the caterpillars, the plants are sprayed with a decoction of tomato tops: 3.5 kg of the tops are crushed, poured 10 liters of boiling water, infused for two days, filtered and added to the infusion 40 grams of grated soap.
Striped shield lives due to the juice of young ovaries, and buds, from which they die.
Field bug - greenish-gray bug, reaching a length of 4 mm. The females lay eggs in the plant tissue, and the larvae that emerge from them feed on the juice of the leaves and tops of the parsnip shoots. In places punctured tissue dies, turns yellow and dries, and the toxic saliva of these pests leads to infertility of the seeds. In warm areas during the growing season, 3-4 generations of bedbugs can form. You can kill the field bug and striped broom by Karbofos or Aktellik.
Aphid - One of the most dangerous and at the same time the most prolific pests. It, like bugs, feeds on the sap of plants, from which they wither, become deformed and stop developing. In addition, it suffers incurable viral diseases. You can fight it with folk methods, or you can use Antitlin, Biotlin, or the same means as in the fight against the Colorado potato beetle — Konfidor, for example, to destroy it.
As a preventive measure, it is necessary to fight weeds, and after harvesting, remove plant residues from the site and dig the soil deep.
Cleaning and storage of parsnips
To start cleaning in the autumn when the leaves of parsnip begin to die off. How to collect parsnips? Root crops are dug with forks, trying not to damage them, as necessary, leaving them in the soil until the winter - from the low temperature, parsnips are only tastier. Since the tops of parsnip can cause burns on your hands, wear gloves. Root crops are stored in the same way as carrots - in boxes of sand at a temperature of 0-2 ºC and humidity of 80-85%, but they are softened from storage in the cellar, therefore in warm regions where there are no frosty winters, they are better not at all digging - they winter well in the ground.
Types and varieties of parsnip
There are not so many kinds and varieties of parsnip in culture. Types of parsnip in the form of root crops are divided into round and long. Round varieties are unpretentious to care, and for parsnips with long root crops, well-developed soil is needed. In terms of ripening, parsnip varieties are divided into early, ripening 110-120 days from the appearance of seedlings, middle-ripening, which will take from 120 to 140 days, and late ones, drenching for 140 or more days. We offer you the best varieties of parsnip:
- – Round - early-ripening variety with a rounded-oblate cone-shaped root crop of grayish-white color weighing up to 170 g with a white, strongly smelling pulp with a grayish-white core,
- – Cooker - also a ripening variety that reaches ripeness in 95-105 days with a small but sprawling leaf rosette and a cone-jerky creamy root crop weighing up to 140 g, rounded oblate at the base. The flesh is white with a grayish core,
- – White stork - an early variety with a white smooth root crop weighing 90-110 g with a white and juicy flesh of good taste. The variety has good keeping quality,
- – Boris - early ripe highly productive variety with conical root crops of cream color and fragrant white pulp of excellent taste,
- – Hormone - an early ripe grade with white cone-shaped root crops up to 22 long and with a diameter up to 5 cm completely shipped in the soil. The mass of fruits is 100-130 g, they are used as a side dish in fried and boiled form or as seasoning,
- – Delicacy - medium early, well-kept variety with rounded root crops weighing from 200 to 350 g and up to 8 cm long with fragrant white pulp with yellowish spots,
- – Best of all - medium early variety with a conic pointed white root crop weighing up to 200 g with white, delicious fragrant pulp,
- – Petrik – среднеспелый и высокоурожайный диетический сорт универсального назначения, устойчивый к болезням, с белым коническим корнеплодом длиной до 35 и диаметром до 8 см с сочной, плотной и ароматной серо-белой мякотью,
- – Гладиатор - middle ripe fruitful hybrid with smooth conical root crops of white color and white, fragrant, sugary pulp,
- – Guernsey - high-yield late variety with well-stored root crops weighing up to 200 g and up to 25 cm long with a white, fragrant, sweet pulp of excellent taste,
- – Student - Late-ripening drought-resistant variety, characterized by high yield, with white root crops of conical shape up to 30 cm long and weighing up to 160 g with white, very fragrant pulp of excellent taste.
In addition to those described, the Heart variety and varieties of foreign selection, Hollow Crown, Contes, Javelin and Tender and Tru, have proven themselves in culture.
Medicinal properties of parsnip.
The composition of parsnip includes carotene, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, essential oil, mineral salts, vitamins of group B (B1, B2, B3). Carbohydrates contained in root crops are easily digested, they also contain a significant amount of potassium, which promotes blood circulation, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and improves digestion. The complex of vitamins, micro and macronutrients found in parsnip is similar in composition to that contained in spinach.
Parsnip leaves are rich in essential oils, and in its root diabetic-free sucrose and fructose are three times more than in carrots. The uniqueness of parsnips is that it contains substances that relieve cramps. If properly and in time to use grated parsnip root, you can remove the liver and renal colic.
Pasternak has an expectorant, tonic and analgesic effect, in ancient times it was used as a diuretic for edema, and also as a means of strengthening the walls of capillary vessels, increasing appetite, stimulating sexual activity.
Currently, parsnips are used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It has been experimentally proven that furocoumarins contained in parsnips increase the skin's sensitivity to ultraviolet rays, and this property was used to replicate bleached skin patches in patients with vitiligo disease. Preparations Eupiglin and Beroxan are prepared from the fruits of parsnip, used to treat vitiligo and nesting baldness, they are the raw material for the production of furocoumarin pasteinacin, which is a vasodilator, which is used to prevent angina attacks of the heart and coronary insufficiency, as well as other spastic phenomena.
Our ancestors for the stimulation of appetite and improve mood used tincture of parsnip root on moonshine. A water extract of parsnip root was used to recuperate in seriously ill patients. Infusions of parsnip have a sedative effect, so they are used for insomnia and neurosis.
Pasternak - contraindications.
You can not use parsnips and drugs from it with the individual intolerance of the product and photodermatosis - inflammation of the skin due to increased sensitivity to the sun, because the parsnip contains substances that make this sensitivity even stronger.
Parsnips are not recommended for older people and young children.
Although the plant is unpretentious in cultivation, parsnips, like other crops, require some care. It consists in loosening the soil between rows, weeding, weeding, and irrigation during dry periods. If the summer is rainy, you can not water the parsnips. If seeds have been planted, then after the seedlings grow a little and get stronger, it is necessary to thin them so that the distance between the plants is about 10 cm.
During the season, it is necessary to feed about 3-4 times during the growing season - cow dung, ashes, and mineral fertilizers. And they are brought into the soil only in liquid form. The first dressing is carried out with nitrogen fertilizers after thinning seedlings. If the seedling method was used, the plants are fed when the young seedlings are stronger. In general, care for the culture is quite simple, but the health benefits of this root are quite large.
Parsnip health and contraindications
Parsnip roots and botanicals contain many vitamins and microelements. The composition of this plant a lot of carotene, ascorbic acid, essential oils, various vitamins, mineral salts. There is a lot of potassium in it, which has a beneficial effect on the human nervous system, metabolic processes in the body, as well as contributing to the improvement of blood circulation and the digestive tract.
Pasternak has a wide spectrum of action on the human body, namely:
Used as a plant and a diuretic for edema, to improve appetite, strengthen blood vessels, stimulate the activity of the sexual sphere. Root vegetables contain a lot of sucrose and fructose, completely harmless to diabetics. The composition of the plant includes substances that relieve spasms, so it is widely used for liver and kidney colic.
Of course, like any plant, this culture has contraindications for use. But the parsnips have very few of them. You can not use it when:
In addition, caution is to use this root vegetables for children and the elderly.
Pasternak is a tasty and healing vegetable, rich in vitamins and various beneficial substances. In addition, it is completely uncomplicated in the cultivation and care. Even a novice in gardening can grow it without any problems.
How to feed parsnips?
Pasternak at the dacha also needs periodic feeding, which for the entire growing season of the plant should be carried out no more than 4 times.
In the process of fertilizer must take into account such rules:
- Pasternak is fed only with liquid fertilizers, in the role of which you can use mullein, diluted with water 1:10. It can be replaced with a solution of ash or minerals.
- The first feeding is carried out after two weeks from the date of transplanting, the second - after a three-week period. With both feedings, preference should be given to fertilizers with a high nitrogen content.
- The third feeding is carried out in the second half of July, the fourth - in 2-3 weeks. When performing all supplements you should use fertilizers with a high content of potassium and phosphorus.
Parsnip harvest and storage
As soon as you notice that the parsnip leaves start to dry out and turn gray, you can start collecting its root vegetables. But if the parsnip remains in the soil almost until the first frost, it will only benefit him. The roots of the plant can be large, so get them out of the ground better with forks, trying not to damage the vegetable itself. It is better to work with gloves in order not to burn the tops.
Parsnips are stored similarly to carrots - at a temperature of 0 + 2˚С, in a room with a humidity of 80-85%. One should also be prepared for the fact that in the cellar one way or another the parsnip will become soft. Therefore, if you live in the southern areas, the roots of this plant can be dug up immediately for human consumption, as they are quite resistant to cold weather.
How to deal with pests and diseases of parsnip?
Pasternak, in addition to proper sowing and care, requires the control of pests, of which the plant is quite a lot.
Among the most characteristic diseases there are:
- wet bacterial rot,
- black rot
- white and gray rot.
These diseases can manifest themselves through dark spots on the roots or dried leaves. In order to prevent the development of fungi, you should adhere to the following rules in advance:
- Sow the parsnips on the same bed at intervals of at least 3-4 years and do not forget to follow their predecessors.
- Follow the rules of agrotechnics described above, paying particular attention to watering.
- Before planting on the beds of seedlings of parsnip, all weeds should be removed.
- Bordeaux liquid (solution 1%),
- Caraway moth, the main purpose of which are the roots, stalks and leaves. To remove this dangerous goose, the plant should be treated with a special broth prepared from 3.5 kg of tops of tomatoes and 10 liters of boiling water (to insist for two days). In addition to the tops, you should also add about 40 grams of ordinary laundry soap, previously grated, to the solution, which will help it dissolve better.
- Field bug whose larvae feed on plant sap. During the growing season of the plant, up to 4 generations of bugs may appear, which are able to completely dry the plant. To combat it, treat parsnip with Karbofos or Actellic.
- Aphid is the most dangerous for parsnip, as it can almost completely destroy the planting. In addition, it is this pest that acts as a source of various diseases. To destroy it, use "Antitlin", "Biotlin" and the drug against the Colorado potato beetles - "Confidor".